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Harvard School of Business Sex Offensive in Orange County California Paper

Harvard School of Business Sex Offensive in Orange County California Paper.

I’m working on a sociology question and need an explanation to help me learn.

This shall consist of 1) conducting a query of the Megan’s Law website to identify three registered sex offenders living nearest the student, ps: Ilive on Anaheim California so write about orange county. 2) explaining the sex offense statutes these individuals violated, and 3) citing sources from the course to explain the benefits and the consequences of posting such information on the internet. The written report shall be 2 pages in length and in MLA format.
Harvard School of Business Sex Offensive in Orange County California Paper

Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Discussion 2.1 Data Warehousing and Differences between Operational and Strategic Data Sets 2.2 Data Mining and Comparison of OLAP with OLTP 2.3 Rise of ‘Big Data’ Technologies and Applications 2.4 ‘NoSQL’ Databases in Comparison with ‘ACID-Compliant’ Databases 2.5 Impact of ‘Open Data’ Movement References 1. Introduction There is a growing need for organizations to integrate different kinds of changes within the database into the process of development. This report helps in discussing different types of topics such as Data Warehousing, Data Mining and many others. With the deployment of database applications, there are different forms of security and legal concerns that would need to be considered. 2. Discussion 2.1 Data Warehousing and Differences between Operational and Strategic Data Sets Data Warehousing – This is defined as a process based on construction and using the data warehouse. This form of warehouse is mainly constructed based on the integration of data based on multiple heterogeneous sources, which supports ad hoc queries, analytical reporting and making of decisions (Cuzzocrea, Bellatreche and Song 2013). The process of data warehousing would involve the cleaning of data, integration of data and consolidations of data. A data warehouse could be considered as a federated repository of data that would be collected within the various operational systems of the enterprise. These type of data might be logical or physical. The data warehousing would majorly emphasize on the capturing of data based on diverse sources based on access and analysis rather than transaction processing (Cuzzocrea 2013). The platforms based on data warehouses would be different from operational databases because they would be able to store historical information and thus make the processes easier for business leaders for analysing data within a specific period. (Fig 1: Benefits of a Data Warehouse) (Source: Cuzzocrea 2013, pp. 482) Differences between Operational and Strategic Data Sets Remote data is considered as strategic data that would include information based on economy, political data, social statistics, ecology and technological advances. The strategic manager would make use of strategic data by collecting information related to industry in order to create different kinds of standards (Chen et al. 2015). Other kinds of data based on economics should be able to include the data based on the state of economy that includes recession, boom, depression and different trends based on economy. Political data would include different kinds of legal and regulatory information that includes employment and taxation laws. (Fig 2: Design of a Data Warehouse or Architectural Design) (Source: Bellatreche, Khouri and Berkani 2013, pp. 79) On the other hand, information based on different competitors such as statistics related to the labour of a company, information regarding suppliers, projection based on needed sources and accounting data could be included under operational data (Cuzzocrea, Bellatreche and Song 2013). The data collected from different kinds of sources would be able to help marketers to create products that would seem to be superior based on competing with other kinds of products (Bellatreche, Khouri and Berkani 2013). The data based on different customers would be helpful for marketers based on the creation of consumer profiles that would be helpful for the creation of products, distribution and advertising them. 2.2 Data Mining and Comparison of OLAP with OLTP Data Mining – This could be defined as a process based on discovering different forms of patterns based within larger sets of data that would involve different kinds of methods based on the intersection of machine learning, database systems and statistics. With the help of this process, the sorting of data sets based on the identification of patterns and establishing of relationships would be helpful (Wu et al. 2014). This would majorly help for the solving of problems with a high level of data analytics trends and techniques. Different kinds of tools based on data mining would be helpful for predicting the trends in the future. (Fig 3: The Processes of Data Mining) (Source: D’Oca and Hong 2015, pp. 398) Aside from the steps based on raw analysis, the process of data mining would be helpful for the involvement of databases and aspects based on data management. This would also include data processing, inference and model considerations, complexity considerations and post-processing based on discovered structures. The techniques based on data mining would mainly been use in different kinds of areas of research that would include cybernetics, genetics, mathematics and marketing (D’Oca and Hong 2015). With the proper form of use of data mining techniques, it would be used for the prediction of customer behaviour and driving of efficiencies. (Fig 4: Steps of Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery) (Source: D’Oca and Hong 2015, pp. 400) Comparison of OLAP and OLTP Basis of Comparison OLAP OLTP Basics It could be defined as a data analysis system and online data retrieving system. It is defined as an online transactional system that would be able to manage the modification of different databases (Psaroudakis et al. 2014). Data The different OLTP databases would become the primary source of data based on OLAP. OLTP and the different transactions would become the original sources of data (Wu et al. 2014). Transaction OLAP has long forms of transactions. OLTP has short kind of transactions. Time The time taken for processing of different kinds of transactions would be comparatively more within OLAP (Dehne et al. 2013). The processing time of different kinds of transactions within OLTP would be less as compared to OLAP. Queries OLAP has complex kind of queries. OLTP has simple kind of queries. Integrity The database based on OLAP does not gets modified on a frequent basis. Hence, the integrity of data is not affected. The database based on OLTP should be able to maintain the constraint based on data integrity (Difallah et al. 2013). Normalization The tables within OLAP would not be normalized. The tables within the databases of OLTP would be normalized based on 3NF. 2.3 Rise of ‘Big Data’ Technologies and Applications The primary concept of Big Data was mainly created for the purpose of facing the constant increase in the amount of data that is created. In the recent times, there has been a huge proliferation in the volumetrics of data. This huge form of data would be necessary for finding the solutions based on storage and analysis. The use of Big Data technologies help in addressing the issues of 3V: data variety, velocity and data volumetry (Hashem et al. 2015). These 3V’s would be helpful would help in concerning collection of data, analysis and storage. The impact of Big Data would be helpful for enabling the responding to several issues such as predictive analysis, better stock management and predictive sales. (Fig 5: Rate of Big Data rise from 2017-2022) (Source: Hashem et al. 2015, pp. 101) Some of the latest forms of Big Data technologies and applications are: Apache Hadoop – This is one of the most important form of technology and a popular framework that is being widely used for dealing with big volumes of data (O’Driscoll, Daugelaite and Sleator 2013). One of the most widely used case of Hadoop is Data Lake. Batch Processing – This kind of technology would help in the processing of data till the time there would not be any more systems of data entering. The incremental and continuous treatments would be helpful for the architecture to take note of new entry of data without the processing of the previous entry of data. In this method, the desired results appear after the end of the entire processing of data. Some examples of batch processing are Apache Spark and MapReduce. Streaming Processing – This form of treatment is opposite than batch processing. With the help of this method, the desired results would be accessible before the end of processing would be done (Hu et al. 2014). The technology of stream processing is considered as an easy solution that would be able to improve the time of processing. NoSQL Database – As compared to the relational databases, the NoSQL databases would be able to provide a new approach to storage of data, flexible and adapt to different evolutions and also would be less sensitive to failures. Cloud Computing – This technology is described as an innovative way of deployment of Big Data technologies that would be demanding huge processing capacities and huge storage systems (Pokorny 2013). Cloud computing technologies are a powerful and less expensive approach. 2.4 ‘NoSQL’ Databases in Comparison with ‘ACID-Compliant’ Databases The NoSQL databases would be able to encircle a wider range of databse technologies that would be designed for catering to the demand of modern form of applications. The NoSQL systems are easy for the process of deployment and thus be able to store a wider range of data types (Nayak, Poriya and Poojary 2013). The NoSQL systems mostly excel in performance until there would be a need of consistency within the data. The NoSQL databases would primarily emphasize on the performance of work as compared to data integrity. Most of the NoSQL databases would compromise on the ACID compliance based on performance (Kaur and Rani 2013). Hence, most of the organizations would make use of NoSQL for different data types that would not be impacted based on consistency. The SQL databases would be default to ACID compliance though most of them would be able to offer options based on favouring performance over the integrity of data based on some kind of options. 2.5 Impact of ‘Open Data’ Movement ‘Open Data’ movement could be defined as the kind of idea that different forms of data would be freely available for everyone to make use of and again republish them as per their needs. The republishing of data would be without any form of patents, copyright or any other mechanisms based on control. Different kinds of tools for accessing and interpreting them would be able to lead them towards innovations (Attard et al. 2015). Open Data is made free and available publicly that would be accessible by everyone and would be easy to use. (Fig 6: User Views on Open Data Movement) (Source: Attard et al. 2015, pp. 412) The importance of data could be viewed as a public utility. This form of open data would be leveraged by several enterprises, individuals that would also include commercial enterprises. The subsequent aim of Open Data movement would be make data that is made using public resources to be accessible for the use of public and made free of cost. Open Data is considered as a global movement. There are different countries that have adopted the International Open Data Charter, which intends to make the data of the government to be presented in an open digital format (Hashem et al. 2015). Open Data is considered to be a major form of global resource that would be helpful for spurring the economic growth based on launching new businesses, optimizing the operations of existing companies. Creation of jobs and thus be able to improve the climate based on foreign investment. Free form of available data from the U.S Government could be considered as an important national resource. This would serve as a fuel based on innovation, entrepreneurship, different forms of public benefits and scientific discovery. Based on a recent report, the use of Open Data would be able to generate more than $3 trillion a year based on different forms of additional value in various key sector of global economy such as transportation, electricity, education and healthcare. The launch of different sets of Open Data Round Table meeting with various government agencies and entrepreneurs have been proved to be helpful based on connecting with business leaders and thus also make use of open data (Jetzek, Avital and Bjørn-Andersen 2014). They would also be able to make use of different ways in which the data would be openly available with different government officials who are in the process of work in order to make the data easy to find and thus maximize their value for public use. The new kind of initiative taken by the Open Data institute of United States would be able to create and thus be able to implement the open source software and standards based on open government data. This form of data would be in relation with fishing and hunting that would be aimed at streamlining modernizing the industry. References Attard, J., Orlandi, F., Scerri, S. and Auer, S., 2015. A systematic review of open government data initiatives. Government Information Quarterly, 32(4), pp.399-418. Bellatreche, L., Khouri, S. and Berkani, N., 2013, April. Semantic data warehouse design: From ETL to deployment à la carte. In International Conference on Database Systems for Advanced Applications (pp. 64-83). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. Chen, J., Chen, J., Liao, A., Cao, X., Chen, L., Chen, X., He, C., Han, G., Peng, S., Lu, M. and Zhang, W., 2015. Global land cover mapping at 30 m resolution: A POK-based operational approach. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 103, pp.7-27. Cuzzocrea, A., 2018. Effectively and Efficiently Supporting Encrypted OLAP Queries over Big Data: Models, Issues, Challenges. In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Emerging Databases (pp. 329-336). Springer, Singapore. Cuzzocrea, A., Bellatreche, L. and Song, I.Y., 2013, October. Data warehousing and OLAP over big data: current challenges and future research directions. In Proceedings of the sixteenth international workshop on Data warehousing and OLAP (pp. 67-70). ACM. D’Oca, S. and Hong, T., 2015. Occupancy schedules learning process through a data mining framework. Energy and Buildings, 88, pp.395-408. Dehne, F.K.H.A., Kong, Q., Rau-Chaplin, A., Zaboli, H. and Zhou, R., 2013, October. A distributed tree data structure for real-time OLAP on cloud architectures. In Big Data, 2013 IEEE International Conference on (pp. 499-505). IEEE. Difallah, D.E., Pavlo, A., Curino, C. and Cudre-Mauroux, P., 2013. Oltp-bench: An extensible testbed for benchmarking relational databases. Proceedings of the VLDB Endowment, 7(4), pp.277-288. Hashem, I.A.T., Yaqoob, I., Anuar, N.B., Mokhtar, S., Gani, A. and Khan, S.U., 2015. The rise of “big data” on cloud computing: Review and open research issues. Information systems, 47, pp.98-115. Hu, H., Wen, Y., Chua, T.S. and Li, X., 2014. Toward scalable systems for big data analytics: A technology tutorial. IEEE access, 2, pp.652-687. Jetzek, T., Avital, M. and Bjørn-Andersen, N., 2014, June. Generating sustainable value from open data in a sharing society. In International Working Conference on Transfer and Diffusion of IT (pp. 62-82). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. Kaur, K. and Rani, R., 2013, October. Modeling and querying data in NoSQL databases. In 2013 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (pp. 1-7). IEEE. Nayak, A., Poriya, A. and Poojary, D., 2013. Type of NOSQL databases and its comparison with relational databases. International Journal of Applied Information Systems, 5(4), pp.16-19. O’Driscoll, A., Daugelaite, J. and Sleator, R.D., 2013. ‘Big data’, Hadoop and cloud computing in genomics. Journal of biomedical informatics, 46(5), pp.774-781. Pokorny, J., 2013. NoSQL databases: a step to database scalability in web environment. International Journal of Web Information Systems, 9(1), pp.69-82. Psaroudakis, I., Wolf, F., May, N., Neumann, T., Böhm, A., Ailamaki, A. and Sattler, K.U., 2014, September. Scaling up mixed workloads: a battle of data freshness, flexibility, and scheduling. In Technology Conference on Performance Evaluation and Benchmarking (pp. 97-112). Springer, Cham.
C 981 WGU Patient Acquisition and Retention in a Healthcare Organization Prospectus.

I’m working on a health & medical report and need guidance to help me understand better.

Create a prospectus (suggested length of 7–15 pages) for a proposed solution to a real-world healthcare challenge or area of need by doing the following:A. Write an executive summary of your prospectus, including the following elements:• the healthcare challenge or area of need• your proposed solution• the feasibility of your solution B. Analyze the healthcare challenge or area of need by doing the following:1. Discuss why the healthcare challenge or area of need exists.2. Discuss factors that may contribute to the existence of the healthcare challenge or area of need.3. Discuss the potential risks in not addressing this healthcare challenge or area of need.4. Discuss how the healthcare challenge or area of need impacts health outcomes.5. Discuss how the healthcare challenge or area of need impacts healthcare costs.6. Discuss how the healthcare challenge or area of need may impact the delivery of healthcare.7. Identify three internal and three external stakeholders who are most impacted by this challenge or need. C. Propose an innovative solution that addresses the identified healthcare challenge or area of need by doing the following:1. Explain the type of solution (e.g., technology, process, policy, system).2. Evaluate how your innovative solution addresses one of the following domains:• adoption of innovative technology• care delivery system integration• operational process efficiency• quality and performance improvement• risk prevention and reduction• a strategic business model3. Discuss why your solution is either a disruptive or sustaining innovation.4. Describe how your solution addresses the healthcare challenge or area of need.5. Describe how your solution optimizes patient-centered care, including the following points:• measurable improvement in patient health and well-being• perceptions of care• operational efficiency• patient engagement6. Describe how your solution optimizes value-based care. D. Provide an initial feasibility assessment by doing the following:1. Complete a strategic feasibility assessment of the proposed solution, using either a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis or an Impact Assessment Framework (IAF) that addresses the following points:• stakeholders directly impacted• anticipated health outcomes• regulatory landscape (e.g., key influencing agencies, regulatory bodies)• resource needs (e.g., human, operations)2. Provide an initial financial review for implementing the proposed solution that addresses the following points:• resource needs (e.g., human, operations)• technology and equipment needs• possible sources of financial support3. Summarize three key challenges and three opportunities of the proposed solution. E. Create an initial project plan for your proposed solution by doing the following:1. Provide three key deliverables anticipated to result from your proposed solution.2. Describe your plan for achieving your goal, including a timeline for achieving the goal.3. Identify three benchmarks or milestones in the development of your proposed solution.
C 981 WGU Patient Acquisition and Retention in a Healthcare Organization Prospectus

ITS 455 CSU Global Campus Data Protection and Security Presentation.

Choose one of the following two assignments to complete this week. Do not do both assignments. Identify your assignment choice in the title of your submission.Option #1: Consolidated Electronics Group Incident Response PlanScenarioConsolidated Electronics Group, Inc. is a manufacturer and supplier of avionics equipment to various airlines across the continental United States. Recently, the company laid off several employees, resulting in many disgruntled workers.Now, the information technology (IT) staff has reported a spike in network attacks numbering in the thousands. Reports from the intrusion detection system (IDS) indicate that two of these potential attacks may have compromised highly classified plans for a new prototype avionics switchboard, which is expected to revolutionize the market. The IT staff suspects that the attacks and potential security breach may have something to do with the recently laid-off staff.Assignment InstructionsThe U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is a recognized authority for providing security standards, guidelines and procedures. NIST provides a large array of other security-related documents, which are of great value to information security professionals.To complete this assignment, use NIST’s Computer Security Incident Handling Guide (Links to an external site.), Section 3 starting on page 21. Once on the site, click the link on the right side of the screen to download the PDF.Using the guidance from guide, craft an incident response plan that includes:A description of the specific measures that will be taken to investigate a security breachAn explanation of steps taken to prevent future attacks and to secure the company’s information systemsA communication plan to disseminate the results and findings of this event to the organizationYour plan must meet the following requirements:4-5 pages in length, not including the cover page and reference page.Formatted according to the CSU Global Writing Center (Links to an external site.). Include an introduction, a body with fully developed paragraphs, and a conclusion.Be clearly and well written using excellent grammar and style techniques. Be concise. Be logical. You are being graded in part on the quality of your writing. If you need assistance with your writing style, visit the Writing Center (Links to an external site.), which is also accessible from the Library’s homepage.Refer to the Critical Thinking Rubric below for more information on expectations for this assignment.Option #2: Public School DistrictScenarioA public school district has been facing a district-wide situation. Someone accessed LMS systems and the registrar’s portal, changing grades for many students. They have not been able to identify the suspect yet and the case is under investigation but in the meantime, the superintendent has ordered all users of those resources (teachers and employees) to undergo training on data protection and security. You have been called to run the training sessions.Assignment InstructionsCreate a PowerPoint presentation identifying possible breaches or negligent steps that will lead to intruders having access to school data. List recommendations to improve security and data protection. Address physical security as well.Your presentation must meet the following requirements:Include an introduction slide with the title of the presentation, your name, the submission date, and a reference slide.10 or more slides of easy-to-understand content (text and visuals). Remember, your audience is teachers and employees of the school district who know nothing about data protection and security.Speaker’s notes containing 50-100 words per slide to elaborate on the slide. In your notes, support slide content with at least two peer-reviewed, scholarly references. The CSU Global Library is a great place to find these resources.Avoid distracting transition elements and animations.Formatted according to the CSU Global Writing Center (Links to an external site.).Refer to the Critical Thinking Rubric below for more information on expectations for this assignment.
ITS 455 CSU Global Campus Data Protection and Security Presentation


PHYS LAB. Paper details Here is the Lab Manual. (Links to an external site.) Here is the “paper” version of the Lab Worksheet. (Links to an external site.) Note: This online lab worksheet will not require you to enter in every single value that went into the table (which is most of the “work” and a lot of the points for the lab). Instead, it will have you enter in key values for the objects. If on submitting attempts you notice these values counted wrong, it is very possible that is because an earlier calculation (and table entry) they are based on may be in error – so be sure to go back and check to be sure! The challenge of this lab is that measurement or calculation errors in early steps can easily carry over to later steps and mess up all of your values. For this reason, you’ve been given six attempts – so you have plenty of chances to catch errors and correct them. Your grade will be based on whichever attempt gave you the highest score without the points for the graph: I will only grade the uploaded graph for that particular attempt. So do make sure you upload your graph for any attempt you think is going to “count!” You will take it online as you did previouslyPHYS LAB

FIL 3854 University of Central Florida Bedtime Stories Comedy Movie Analysis

essay order FIL 3854 University of Central Florida Bedtime Stories Comedy Movie Analysis.

Choose a comedy film to watch this week, then post a brief analysis of the film identifying each of the FOUR meanings discussed in your textbook in the section Form and Meaning. The four meanings that you must identify and discuss are:1.) Referential meaning2.) Explicit meaning3.) Implicit meaning4.) Symptomatic meaningPlease review the Week Three, where the film Austin Powers is analyzed by identifying these four meanings, and read the chapter before attempting this post. This may seem like an obvious request, but please choose a film other than Austin Powers for your comedy film, considering that it was used as the example. : )The posting must be at least 200 words WITH WORD COUNT INCLUDED. Remember that spelling, grammar (including italicizing film titles), and quality of content are important with determining your grade for this assignment. Note: You are not required to respond to another student for this particular forum.
FIL 3854 University of Central Florida Bedtime Stories Comedy Movie Analysis

Talent-Oriented Therapy: Patients with Learning Disabilities Research Paper

Introduction: Catering to the Needs of Patients with Learning Disabilities (PLDs) Problem Background and Significance: The Inconsistencies in the Current Approach to PLDs Nursing The necessity to cater to the needs of people with learning disabilities (PLDs) has been the focus of nursing for quite a while (Sheehan et al., 2016). A range of frameworks has been suggested, including the use of the liaison nurse’s services. However, most of the tools used currently to manage the issue imply that the patients are incapable of having any significant abilities or, furthermore, talents. As a result, the opportunities for PLDs to receive the required knowledge and skills, therefore, improving their literacy rates, are limited. Herein lies the significance of the paper. By considering the tools that will allow for the exploration of PLDs’ abilities and even talents (i.e., the talent-oriented therapy and the use of crossed networks as the communication platform), one is likely to enable the target audience to discover new opportunities and gain the required literacy-related skills actively. Statement of the Problem and Purpose: Determining the Tools for Improving the Strategy of PLD Needs Management Therefore, the lack of prospects for PLDs to discover their talents and develop the corresponding literacy skills can be viewed as the primary problem that the paper is going to address. The purpose of the research is to identify the effects of applying talent-oriented therapy and the crossed networks therapy on PLDs’ ability to acquire the necessary skills and process the relevant information. Although the tool to be designed in the course of the research will have to experience a range of tests, it will serve as the impetus for the further development of the framework. Literature Review: The Current Strategies and Latest Suggestions Summary: Considering the Content Learning disability (LD) is a notoriously common issue that implies the inability of the patient to acquire certain literacy skills. Although there might be some variations, the phenomenon of LD typically involves the cases such as dyspraxia (facial muscle control issues causing difficulties with speech), dyslexia (problems with reading, writing, spelling, and sometimes speaking), dysgraphia (the impairment of one’s handwriting abilities), and dyscalculia (an impossibility for the patient to acquire and use the basic mathematical skills). Although the traditional methods of addressing the problems mentioned above in adults provide a variety of opportunities in sustaining the patients, they lack the positive reinforcement that will become an incentive for the patients to engage in the learning process more actively. Furthermore, the significance of communication, as well as the use of the IT tools as the assistance in the process of meeting the needs of PLDs is rarely viewed as an option, which calls for a reconsideration of the current approaches. The phenomenon of LD is traditionally referred to as the discrepancy in intelligence progress and associated achievements. However, a more comprehensive definition of the subject matter has been provided lately, shedding light on the nature of the problem and pointing to the possible ways of managing it. Revathi and Arthi (2014) define the disorder in the following manner: “Learning Disability is a heterogeneous group of disorders which affect listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, Math and social skills of an individual” (Revathi

Role of the Hadith in Shaping Muslim Identity

Role of the Hadith in Shaping Muslim Identity. Islam is a religion both of the book and of tradition. Both of these avenues are, to some extent, sacred for the Muslim. In this way it is akin to other major religions of the world. For example, in Catholicism, there is a veneration of both their Sacred Scriptures and their Sacred Tradition (though this veneration is equal in Catholicism). For most Muslim traditions, however, the veneration of the Qur’an and the Hadith (the traditions) is not equal, though perhaps it could be justly said that for all Muslims the Hadith is venerated second only to the sacred Scriptures of Islam (i.e., the Qur’an). This is true for all the major branches of Islam: Sunni, Shiite, and Sufi. However, it is not true that the Sunni Muslims have the exact same Hadith as either of the other branches (and vice-versa). The traditions contained within the Hadith are not uniform among the various major branches of Islam. But, owing to this high veneration of the Hadith among all Muslims, the Hadith has been instrumental and important in shaping Muslim identity. The Nature of the Hadith But, what is the Hadith, exactly? According to Norman Geisler and Abdul Saleeb, in their recent work on Muslim and Christian agreements and differences, they give the following definition: Hadith: Literally, a story; an oral tradition later written down of what the prophet supposedly said (sunna), did, or approved ofsomething said or done in his presence, (Answering Islam, 338). This seems to be attested-to by other scholars. The Sunnis themselves get their name from its relation to sunna and their being followers of the sunna, (R.C. Zaehner, Encyclopedia of the World’s Religions, 170). It is interesting to note that the Hadith, although it has a pragmatic end in that it further clarifies vast aspects of Islamic life, shows a particularly strong devotion to the Prophet Muhammed. Akbar S. Ahmed notes this too when he writes, So great is the respect and affection the Prophet commands that his very sayings, hadith, are the source of wisdom and social practice in the Muslim world, (Islam Today, 18). In many ways, this links Islam with other major religions of the world wherein the sayings and doings of the founder of a religion are often the most revered content of the religion. The Hadith as a Source of Great Reverence for the Prophet The second part of the five-part creed of Islam indicated the orthodox view of Muhammed. That is, he was merely the Prophet of God. He was, to be sure, the greatest prophet who superseded all prior prophets, but he was still a mere man. It used to be common practice even up to the mid-twentieth century for Westerners who were not themselves Muslims to refer to Muslims as Mohammedans. This came to be seen as a very offensive reference, according to Muslims because it tended to draw too strong a parallel to Christians being the followers of Christ, as Mohammedans were the followers of Muhammad. For the Christian, Christ is the God-Man. That is, the early Church long ago defined that the one person of Jesus Christ has two natures: one human and one divine. He is both God and man in one hypostasis (i.e., one person). This is, however, not at all the view held toward Muhammad, who is a mere, though extremely blessed, mortal man. The Metaphysical Distinction Between God’s Word and the Hadith However, one must remain clear that the reverence given to the Scriptures (i.e., the Qur’an) must be distinguished from that given to the Hadith. The difference lies in a distinction between the very words of God (which is what sacred scriptures would be, according to all theistic religions) and those writings or oral traditions that, while perhaps protected from error, are nevertheless not the very words of God breathed-out, as it were, upon the pages of the scriptures. For Reform Jews, the Talmud (a collection of writings dealing with moral and legal matters) is to be revered in much the same way as the Hadith is for Muslims (R.C. Zaehner, Encyclopedia, 37). Likewise, the Catholic Church has a Magisterium, which produces official writings from its Church councils and, at times, from its popes. These writings of the Magisterium are to be faithfully held by all Catholics everywhere (R.C. Zaehner, 140-1). They are not tantamount to the divine revelation of Scripture and Tradition together, but they are given a reverence not unlike the Islamic reverence given to the Hadith. As the Muslim scholar Badru D. Kateregga explains the distinction, The Hadith is not a Holy Book (revelation) as the Qur’an and the previous Scriptures. However, to the Muslims the importance of Hadith ranks only second to the Holy Qur’an. The Hadith is complementary to the Qur’an. It helps to explain and clarify the Holy Qur’an and to present the Qur’an in a more practical form. As Muslims, our knowledge of Islam would be incomplete and shaky if we did not study and follow the Hadith. Similarly an outsider cannot understand Islam if he ignores the Hadith. This last statement by Kateregga particularly notes the strong similarity to the other major theistic religions of the world. It could equally be said that with having only the Jewish scriptures and without the Talmud one could not properly understand Reform (and perhaps Conservative) Judaism. So too, having only the Bible, without learning any of the teachings that have come out of the major councils of the Catholic Church, one could hardly arrive at, or understand, Catholicism. Early History of the Hadith: Relation to Shariah Law Early on in Islamic history, there was a desire to have the law of the lands of Muslims be a law based explicitly on the writings of the Qur’an. However, there were soon found to be many instances wherein the laws contained in the Qur’an did not forthrightly apply to all relevant instances. So, the various Islamic societies had to extend the sources past the Qur’an alone. One of the sources to which Shariah Law extended for a source of itself was to the Hadith. It is difficult to describe exactly what comprises the foundation of the Shariah Law. Geisler and Saleeb delineate four bases of it: the Qur’an, the hadith, ijma’ (consensus of the community), and qiyas, the application of analogical reasoning to the other three sources for the deduction of new rules, (Answering Islam, 84). What this seems to amount to in practice, according to the entry on Law and Society in the Oxford History of Islam is that it is only when the ijma’ supports the independent thinking or juridical opinions of a particular instance does this instance obtain the luxury of being a binding force of a ruling (hukm) of Shariah, (110). This is a clear instance of the importance of the Hadith in shaping Muslim identity, as all Muslim societies, to some extent or another, adopt Shariah Law as either a guiding or binding force upon all those within a given Islamic nation. The Early Search for Authentic Hadith Additionally, by the second century after the founding of Islam, there were found in the various Islamic legal schools so much variation between them, as to the Islamic law itself and/or its application, that a search for the authentic Traditions became necessary (Zaehner, Encyclopedia, 171). Soon they were divided into three categories (definitely reliable, questionable, and likely unreliable) and eventually collected into six great collections, which are still in use today. Therefore, a search soon began for all the authentic Traditions of the prophet recorded by his contemporaries, also known as the Companions of the Prophet. These Companions were thought to be eye-witnesses and recorded that which they knew the Prophet Muhammed to have done or said on legal or moral issues not definitively laid out by the Qur’an. Where such Traditions were found to exist, it was held, the rulings they contained, explicitly or implicitly, were decisive and mandatory for all Muslims. The sunna (practice) of the Prophet obviously superseded all other sunnas, and still more any speculative reasoning, (Zaehner, 171). Some (Perhaps) Uncomfortable Applications of the Hadith in the Modern World With the rise of the Taliban regime in modern Afghanistan, there was an attempt at a strict application of various passages of the Qur’an and the Hadith. There were many indirect applications based loosely upon the Hadith (e.g., no television-watching, the closing of girl’s schools), but there were also a number of applications based directly on the hudud criminal punishments derived from the Qur’an and Hadith (e.g., amputation for theft, death for murder, stoning for adultery, Oxford History, 660). Another application of clearly affirmed traditions within the Hadith is that of martyrdom – especially within a context of jihad (Esposito, What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam, 133-4). In the Hadith, there are many descriptions of rewards given to those who die for the struggle of Islam. Reforming the Hadith? Upon some of these considerations of the application of the Hadith, some have called for a large-scale reform of the Hadith to suit modern ways and understandings. One of the first of these was Sayyid Ahmad Khan (1817-98). He even questioned the historicity and authenticity of many portions of the Hadith. Some more current legal reformers have called for various subtle distinctions as means of arriving at a middle-ground, which would preserve much ancient understanding of Islam, but would also simultaneously make certain applications of the Hadith (and even the Qur’an) as necessarily time-bound and culture-derived. For example, some who have been called revivalists and neomodernists have made a distinction between what might be called the eternal portions of the Qur’an and the Hadith and those that are the result of fallible human understanding of the eternal laws and their subsequent application, known as fiqh (Oxford History, 685). A further distinction along these lines could be broken down according to one’s vertical responsibilities (i.e., with respect to God) being unchanging, yet one’s horizontal responsibilities (i.e., socially with respect to one’s fellow man) being open to change and further refinement. There are even those who call for more extreme reforms in the Muslim faith. A recent example would be found in the journalist Irshad Manji in her recent book The Trouble with Islam: A Muslim’s Call for Reform in Her Faith. In the book, Manji seems to advocate that it is possible for portions of the Qur’an and Hadith to even be in error, particularly those portions that are often used to advocate violence against non-Muslims (or non-perfect Muslims). Concluding Thoughts Of course, this type of recent line of thinking along reforms (however large or small) has led some traditionalist Muslims into an even more entrenched position in their, what we might call, fundamentalism their strict adherence to all things ancient in Islam, even the application of the Qur’an and Hadith in Shariah law (a la the Taliban). However, such a reaction from traditionalist is not at all unexpected by anyone, least of all the reformers themselves. However it might end up being resolved and the conflict towards reform, which seems to some extent inevitable, are brought to a close, it is likely that the role of the Hadith in this and future generations will be a moderated one. Of course, just what exactly will moderate it remains to be seen. Will it be reason alone that triumphs? Will it be a rush toward even more modernity in Islam? The world eagerly waits to see. Role of the Hadith in Shaping Muslim Identity

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