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H.A.R.M Analysis London has Fallen

H.A.R.M Analysis London has Fallen. I need help with a Sociology question. All explanations and answers will be used to help me learn.

How are the lasting effects of the Utopic Reversal and the Background Figures archetypes similar ?
The Utopic Reversal roles themselves are not necessarily negative, but it’s the characters interaction with other characters that shapes the true “worth” of their positions. Often these characters either have power in name only or they are largely unable to get others to respect the privileges associated with the position. The lasting effect of the Utopic Reversal is similar to that of the background Figure. These two archetypes have visual effects on viewers, but the characters themselves are very different (i.e., Utopic Reversals have “power” while Background Figures are frequently just “there”). Both types are designed to give the viewer the impression that diversity and power are spread evenly amongst the movie’s characters, but the authority of these characters is frequently thwarted, undermined or used for comedic effect as a matter of due course in fulfilling their objective during the movie, or little to no dialogue provided in the scene. Vice President Alan Trumbull and Secret Service Director Lynne Jacobs played by Angela Bassett appear in “Olympus Has Fallen” (2013) too.
Complete a HARM analysis sheet for “London Has Fallen” . In the comments identify the prototypes, then determine if Vice President Alan Trumbull or Secret Service Director Lynne Jacobs have”power” or are just “there” being thwarted, undermined or killed as a matter of course in fulfilling a prototype character’s visible continuum.
H.A.R.M Analysis London has Fallen

Charter of rights and freedoms an important piece about Canadas history. That created Canadian society into an incredible state of providing equality. Charter has brought a society of equality, unity and justice as well as, diversity in Canada. Charter of Rights and freedoms has given new independence to Canadian society. In order to make a nation strong, a nation needs great leadership and laws that make people equal in a society, with different background, regardless of race, color, mental disability, gender or nationality. History has it, a country that has not provided equality towards minority or considers differences of race and color. That nation has not survived a first round of independence. Definition of independence doesn’t mean freedom from external hindrances but also freedom within a nation. The main purpose to convey to audiences, that Charter of Rights and Freedom has provided equality to majority and minority, unity between citizen, permanent residents and newcomers, as well as, created equal opportunity on seeking justice from offenders’ side and victims. The history of Charter of Rights and freedom goes back in time and responsibility of main personalities of Canadian leadership, who have made charter a reality, its effects on diversity in Canada and most importantly benefits on the society we live in today. “An overview, Charter has provided those sets of rights and freedom that are necessary in a free and democratic country. For example: 1) Freedom of religion, expression, conscience, beliefs, opinion. 2) Democratic rights, 3) Rights to live and employment in Canada 4) Equality rights (Native Rights, Mobile Rights, Gender Rights) etc. 5) Multiculturalism, Practice of Tradition Rights and many more” (An Overview of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, 2009, Para. 2) Charter of Rights and Freedoms Introduction The charter of rights and freedoms is a historic piece of written law in the Canadian constitution, where, every person in Canadian society became free in choosing the life, people desired (freedom) under the law. It has provided an entire new identity to the nation and became the symbol of freedom and equality under the law, as well as, among other countries around the world. Along with the charter, came freedom and improved laws about multiculturalism and religious expressions. Cultures and religious group were given permission to practice their traditions and values in the society without fear of hindrance. History of the charter of rights and freedom goes back to, independent bill of rights, an older version of Charter of rights and freedom; it was not constituted but labeled as, an independent bill in 1958 by Sir, John A Diefenbaker and was first document of rights that provided rights of life, religious freedom, equality between different racial groups, press, media, speech and other sections. Bill of rights was first regarded as, charter of rights and freedom in 1958 but did not have any power in government. Thereafter, the bill of rights superseded into a charter of rights and freedoms. Afterwards, charter came into the Canadian constitution in 1982 from liberal government of Pierre Trudeau. The main purpose, of the charter, is to give equality, Unity and Justice in every possible way, because an person living in the society would not feel unequally oppressed between majorities in the state For example; Aboriginal groups were oppressed by most of white population in society before 1982. Charter has created unity and trust between Canadian individuals with different racial backgrounds, political views, democratic and other categories that took part in creating defects in dividing a nation and made it into a stronger nation today. Charter of Rights and Freedoms: Charter has 12 divisions and has 34 sections about political rights, fundamental rights, and Democratic rights, Guarantee of rights and freedom, official languages of Canada, legal rights, Mobility rights, Equality rights, Minority language Educational Rights, Enforcement, General and Application of Charter. Each sub-section has been divided into defining the law in the most convenient way of understanding aims. Guarantee of rights and Freedoms: “Every citizen or resident living in the Canada has these rights and freedom in the charter. Government of Canada has guaranteed to provide these laws to citizens but also, the government or juridical system has the right to take away rights and freedoms from people, if violated”. (Department of Justice, 2012, n.p) Fundamental Rights: Fundamental rights has four sections. These include: A) “Citizens living in Canada can enjoy freedom of practicing religion without fear of hindrance or reprisal in Canadian society and having no fear of conscience. B) People can have inner freedoms of, thoughts and beliefs. C) Freedom of expressing opinion and expression of religious and beliefs. Individuals can express their opinions freely in a group without any fear from majority or government. This also includes freedom for press and media communications for expressing awareness and importing and exporting news. D) Mostly importantly, people living in Canadian society have freedom of forming assembly, different groups and associations. These rights can be used as, creating strikes, long March, groups of peace, as well as anti-groups”. (Department of Justice, 2012, n.p) Democratic Rights: “Citizens living in Canada have the right to vote, stand against or stand in election. However, as indicated, these rights are not absolute. They can only be interrupted under the first section one of charter. Furthermore, charter indicates; in a democratic state, elections should be fair. An elected government can only stay in power for five years. Thereafter, a new government should be appointed. As well as, in a state of war, invasion or insurrection; with this, as an exception a parliament and legislative assembly can continue beyond five years. Also, it can only be interrupted, if members of House of Commons and legislative assembly can vote more than one-third to change the government in this situation”. (Department of Justice, 2012, n.p) Mobility Rights: “These rights explain every person has the right to live in, enter, stay in, and leave Canada, as well as, move to and take up residence in any provinces and have a right to pursue towards gaining of a livelihood. Even as, there is a limitation towards, mobility rights; subsection two, individuals must offer to prove of residency from other provinces they have resided in before”. (Department of Justice, 2012, n.p) Legal Rights: “Legal Rights, includes people have the right to live in security in the society with rights to life and freedom. They have the right to demand for a warrant for a search or the property they own by police officers. In addition, a person charged with an offence must be notified and have the right to have fair trial in juridical system. Offenders are proven innocent until proven of offence under the Canadian law. They should be treated properly in humane manner in police custody as well as; an offender has the right to be represented by lawyers and If found been responsible of crime before or after, also crown can release an offender on reasonable bail”. (Department of Justice, 2012, n.p) Equality Rights: “Every person in Canadian society is equal in the eyes of law and has right to be treated equally regardless of gender, colour, race, ethical origins, nationality, religion, age and mental disability and every person has the same rights in the juridical system and the criminal-justice system”. (Department of Justice, 2012, n.p) Official languages in Canada: “Canada has two authorized languages English and French. Both have equal status in the provinces. Individual can use either language in courts, federal government, parliament or being provided regular services as well as; English and French are official languages of New Brunswick and have equality of status and equal rights and privileges as to their use in all institutions of the legislature and government of New Brunswick, Manitoba and Quebec. Minority Language Educational Rights: Citizens living in Canada have the rights to educate their children in English or French in the any province. They can choose to accept French or English educational standard in Primary or secondary institutions. This provides the rights to people, living in Quebec can come to different province can still choose French to be taught in”. (Department of Justice, 2012, n.p) Enforcement: “If enforcement, rights are not being met for an individuals. An Individual has the right to take this matter into justice system and he will be defended under the section one of charter”.(Department of Justice, 2012, n.p) Application of Charter: “Charter’s the main focus of implanting these sections against government and its authorities only. This shall not be implanted against private individuals”. (Department of Justice, 2012, n.p) Case Law: Relating these, charter of rights and freedoms’ government has faced many difficult cases in providing equal justice. Any case that passes from courts of Canada, it should be compared by the violation of law from charters perspective, as well as, criminal code, most of the cases which have passed the Supreme Court of Canada. Most of them have been in favor of Charter of rights and Freedoms. So far, charter has survived every imposed action that has been put in the court against it, but the question raises can charter be an ultimate justice to the problems of society. Even as, it has proven itself, people can have justice and freedom at the same time in democratic society like Canada. There have been many famous cases like R. V. Andrews case of violation of Freedom of expression, R. v Latimer case of mercy killing as well as, cases of honor killing, that have tested the flexibility of charter. Sometimes justice cannot be provided too all in equal from but outcome can become neutral point, whereas, both sides of parties are in favour in some cases. R. v Andrews: This case law was related towards fundamental freedom. A hate group of a nationalism party of Canada discriminated and made wrongful claims against Jew and black minority in Canada. A battle between freedom of expression and charter was condemned by section one in the charter (Guarantee of Rights and Freedoms), which indicted charter can only be used towards limited extend if government permits. The case actually resulted into “hate propaganda” (Supreme court of Canada R. v. Andrews, 1990) and wrong use of power of freedom of expression against minority. Case result came out neutral about violation of charter but also saved by charter’s section one. R. v Latimer: Latimer case produced huge buzz in Canada, due to mercy killing his own disable child. This case was a challenge against the charter. Robert Latimer was accused of first-degree murder, than outcry from public switched around towards second-degree murder and other unacceptable steps were from juridical system. Few questions were raised from the justice system. 1) If justice system, were to declare Latimer innocent. It would be the violation of the charter. 2) If Latimer is declared innocent, the rights of disable minority will be at risk. 3) Human beings are adaptable creatures, if Latimer is free, other father might adapt mercy killing. Justice system keeping an eye of a majority of things, made answer towards sentencing. The outcome of the case resulted in violation of the charter. Since, there was no support came for the disabled minority. Afterwards, Latimer was sentenced for a little while. Some individual had considered; Latimer was innocent of a father’s perspective. However, minority of disable were left without an answer. R. v. Nurses: A recent case, of nurses has made the center point of gender biased. “Nurses complained that, they were listed as administrative and clerical staff while working for the federal public service, instead of being classified as health professionals” (Gender equality case nets nurses $150M, 2012, n.p). Women in the hospital were not being treated equally under the Canadian law. They had made an appeal from the help of human rights, and case was taken against government. The compliant was written in 2004 and recently, it was solved. Won by group of nurses and received 150-million dollars after the human’s right settlement, and this was the case of gender biased. This case shows, the effectiveness of the charter on the gender biased produced from government. Charter and Benefits: After thirty years of the written charter, some sections of Charter have generated beneficial outcomes of being one of democratic state in the world. Charter has, limited police powers, as well as focused on providing gender equality and strengthens aboriginal rights. The major concept of the charter has influenced Multiculturalism and took involvement of diversity in Canada. Limited Police Power: The facts have shown that, if legal sections within charter have not been written, Police forces might have used its power for wrong proposes, for disturbing the peace and freedom of individuals in the society. Sections limited police powers into handling people in humane manner as well as, offender with careful treatment. “In Oakes case 1986, David E, Oakes was accused possession of drugs for pain relief but under the Narcotic Control Act, drug possession equals to the punishment trafficking drugs but judge overruled the (section 8) of Narcotic control Act and defended the victim under the (section 1) of the charter of Rights and Freedom. Therefore, Charter had defended the individual’s rights and freedoms”. (Beaudoin, G. (2012) Gender Equality: Gender equality existed in Canada before; women weren’t meant to own personal property. They didn’t have the equal hand to hand opportunities with men for being labours. Males were dominant from in consideration of physical attributes towards high-level jobs. Until Bill of rights started making amendments in society, later Charter of rights and freedoms came into power and granted, equality rights between males and females under the Canadian Law. Thereafter, males and females were provided equal status in the society for freedom of equality, right to own property and have same work as male. Aboriginal Rights: Aboriginal Rights are one of major factors of equality from charter. Native people have received majority of rights from this constitution. Charter had imposed restrictions on the government and gave few rights of land towards native people. Charter has also imposed restrictions towards discrimination against aboriginal people. Recently, idle no more movement is being made, according to charter of rights and freedoms. Signs are being shown, aboriginal minority might gain another set of rights under the charter. Value of Diversity: The greatest value of diversity comes, from charter of rights and freedom, the attraction between different individuals’ background. The basics of attaining diversity in a country, is simply providing equality and generated output could be unity, productivity and stronger economy. Different background groups of people attracting with each other, freely without any fear of minority or tyranny of majority alterations. The unique identity of the charter has made Canada, diverse society along with United Kingdom and United States of America. Diversity has also provided benefits to Canada, such as; different mind sets and educated individuals have immigrated, and each person has unusual ideas and knowledge to express. On the other hand, different cultural and religious values, each of these must have different ways in shaping the society in good and convenient manner and morally excellent information could be extracted from these cultures or religions and should be implanted in society. For example: Diversity has many beneficial factors. “Increased Productivity: Diversity brings in diverse talents/gifts together working towards a basic idea using various sets of skills and techniques that ignite their loyalty and increase’s productivity in group or workplace” (Andrade, S, 2010, Para. 2). “Increased creativity and Problem solving: Since diversity has unusual minds and brings together, this increases the chances of creating solutions to problems in a society, as well as, making powerful decisions towards positivity. Therefore, if the charter of rights and freedom was no longer permitted, the average of different talents and problem solving would be different in some way” (Andrade, S, 2010, Para. 2). Decrease crime rate: Diversity is an significant tool, in decresing the crime rate. The facts have shown, different ethical cultures immigrate in western countries, these groups will have disverse ideas and values they follow. Cultures and religions have values in controlling crime by, having too implant peaceful direction in inner minds and hearts. These values only impact inner views of a human being into doing a good deed.and dismentals negative desire of doing wrong. Religious attributes: similar religions and cultures have different laws in controlling human behavior. A religion controls human beings inner behavior of desires and wants; mostly, it controls human’s negative desires of wanting, something that is unacceptable in society. For example: In islamic religion, a person is not allowed to drink alcohol, because dose of alcohol effects human’s brain of thinking properly and starts harming himself or others in process. Similarly in south asian cultures, a person must not do drugs or alcohol, this represents; how weak a human being innerself is. Therefore, different individuals with different backgrouds have uniqe directions that provide them with guidences. Therefore, ideas from the religious perspective could be implanted in a society into preventing crime. Economic growth: Diversity has played an important part in creating Canadian economic since, each industry in Canada has special talent to depend on different groups and ethical people in Canada. For example: The convenient stores are mostly owned by middle eastern and these small businesses; one of major sources in generating tax system and make customers spends money on little products. (Andrade, S, 2010, Para. 2) Conclusion Charter provides many great and beneficial features towards Canadian society. Some do not understand the basic concept of the charter. If an individual were to translate the charter meaning, it would come as Unity, Justice, and equality. These three concepts are similar with everyday human being’s life. Major distinction of the charter could be described by, following up on any religious values and views in the world. Charter provides basics principles among living with different mentality, ethical, gender and many other aspects of living life in the society as compared to most of religions in the world. For example: In today’s society, if an individual compares charter with the basic aspects of religious beliefs and values. Almost every religion in the world supports the fact; every human being is equal under god/creator. As well as, Charter indicates that, every citizen living in Canada is equal under the law. We can go even further; religion and charter share similar boundaries, following any religion does not make catagories of colour and race. It does not matter to a god/creator, colour or race prayers better because, he created him without any difference of praying better or not. Unity is a significant aspect and base of any religions in the world, if every human being in that particular religion is unified, knowledge increases, values become influential and beliefs become strongest. On the other hand, Justice religions have different values in the providing justice in their laws towards people. Some religion fail in providing justices; unity becomes weak. Therefore, charter is providing values as most of religions would do in a world. However, a different translation of particular religions has created a black hole in some societies around the world. These words are very powerful in the society but invisible to majority. They can only be seen by personalities who are in light of injustice. Similarly, if an individual is in pain, he will turn to god, for justice. He does not have value of god, when he is happy. However, some audiences must not agree with religious justification. In order to make them understand, another justification would be necessary. Charter is a gift towards the Canadian society. Many countries around the world have adopted Canadian charter’s importance and implanted into their societies. “Canada has influenced other former British colonies as they create or revise their own constitutions, the study finds. Israel, Hong Kong and Eastern European countries have also drawn from the Canadian example” ( Ibbitson, J. 2012, Para.3). This proves that, eastern countries are leaving behind American amendments has their role model, and adapting Canadian constitution as universal model. Therefore, charter is very successful in providing maximum justice and equality in the country. The Canadian nation would not survive without charter, if it were to be dismantled from the constitution. Society would collapse and tryanny of majority would be in power, unfair justice would be provided toward minority, gender equality would be brought into consideration. The main down fall would be, even majority in power would not provide justice towards its people on the bottom level. Therefore, keeping these things in mind, audiences who are unaware of charter’s benefits would come to consideration that charter not only provides equality to minority but also, to every single individual living in the society, Including to those, who condemn it, to express their opinion bad or good.
After reading the Kenan Systems case, respond to the following issues in written form. 1. Based on your readings about teams, is the team approach and the use of self-managed teams appropriate for this type of organization? If so, what are the key attributes that make this approach successful? 2. Kenan Sahin described the organization as an upside-down mound with team as the organic building block of the company. What are the pros and cons of this type of structure? 3. What OB predictions might you make as the company faces the risks identified by Sahin in looking toward the future? 4. What are your views about the AAWE hiring model? About Sahin’s views concerning company ownership and compensation? With a workforce of high achievers, what motivation approach would you use to keep employees from leaving? [MO3.2] FYI: Update on Kenan Systems: • Kenan Systems was acquired by Lucent in March of 1999 in a stock deal worth $1.48 billion. • Lucent unloaded Kenan to CSG Systems in late 2001 for $260 million. • Kenan Smith has a new venture: TIAX

Objective Structured Clinical Examination Nursing Essay

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp “The control of the licensing power is the most important function of the medical boards. Acting on behalf of the state, it is their duty to see that all candidates for license are properly qualified. They stand as guardians of the public and the profession, and here their responsibilities are indeed great.” Osler’s statement at the Canadian Medical Association annual meeting in 1885 is still valid. Assessment is an integral part of medical education. The primary aim of assessment is to evaluate an individual’s competence in a particular area of practise. Is this the only aim of assessment? Mackintosh and Hale (1976) suggest six possible purposes of assessment, which are: diagnosis, evaluation, grading, guidance, selection and prediction. Assessment in medical education can be formative or summative. Formative assessment helps students to develop skills and encourages learning. It is supportive and provides feedback which in turn facilitates deeper learning. The disadvantage of formative assessment is that not all students take it seriously. The summative assessment is used to judge whether an individual is competent enough to progress to the next level. It can be threatening and usually there is no feedback, however, students tend to take this form of assessment more seriously. It stimulates last minute superficial learning as opposed to the deeper learning that occurs with formative assessment. There is no single assessment tool that can reliably assess medical students. Different methods are available to assess their knowledge, skills, attitudes and professionalism. As part of this assignment I have designed two OSCE questions, which I have attached as an appendix. I will reflect on assessment methods with particular reference to the OSCE questions that I have designed. Miller (1990) proposes a pyramidal framework for clinical assessment. The base of this pyramid represents a knowledge component (knows) followed by application of knowledge (knows how). This is in turn followed by performance (shows how) and the apex of the pyramid represents actions (does). Medical students are tested on their knowledge, application of knowledge and in vitro performance whereas work based assessment, which assesses in vivo performance, occurs after graduation and forms the final step. As a medical student my knowledge and application of knowledge was tested by written essays. Unfortunately assessment using this method is subjective. Objective approaches to test knowledge and its application include multiple-choice questions (MCQs) and extended matching questions (EMQs). Oral examinations (also known as viva voce) and long case clinical examinations were used to assess my clinical skills. Assessments of this nature are often criticised because they are unstructured and subjective. At present objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) form the backbone of performance assessment in medical schools throughout the United Kingdom and many other countries throughout the world. Harden et al (1979) describe the use of Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). OSCE has changed the assessment of clinical competence because it uses actors and scenarios. In OSCE the clinical competence is assessed in a planned and structured way with attention given to the objectivity of the examination. It is a ‘focused’ examination with each station focusing on one or two areas of competence. This is a performance assessment in that it assesses student’s performance rather than their knowledge. Unlike the traditional clinical examination the objectivity of OSCE is ensured by candidates being examined by more than eight examiners, agreeing assessment criteria in advance, confronting all students with the same task, standardising patients and training examiners. The emphasis is in testing what they can do rather than what they know. In my opinion, communication skills are essential for all doctors. History taking is a basic form of communication skill, whereas breaking bad news is a more challenging communication skill. Based on the above statement, I have designed my two OSCE questions for a history taking station and an explanation station for breaking bad news. The General Medical Council stresses the importance of good communication in its document ‘Good Medical Practice’. I firmly believe that a good clinical history and examination are crucial in establishing diagnoses and planning appropriate management. By eliciting an appropriate history, the clinician can gain insight about the illness and concerns of the patient. The art of obtaining a good history is often forgotten. Methods suitable for assessing history-taking skills are traditional long case examinations and OSCEs. Unlike OSCE, the process of obtaining the history is never observed in long case examinations. The presentation skills of the student take centre stage in the long case method. The examination format that would assess advanced communication skills, such as breaking bad news, are live observations as in OSCE or video assessment of the consultation for practising doctors. Van der Vleuten (1996) described five criteria to assess the utility of assessment methods. Those criteria were reliability, validity, educational impact, acceptability and cost (feasibility). He defined the utility of an assessment as a multiplicative of these five factors. If any one of these values is zero, then the assessment becomes useless. For example, a test which is reliable and valid with high educational impact is unlikely to be used unless it is acceptable and feasible. There is no assessment method which scores highly in all of these components. Reliability is the ability of a test to produce a consistent and reproducible result. Van der Vleuten (1996) suggests that tests containing a small sample of items, such as essays, stations, patient problems or tasks, produces unstable or unreliable scores, and sample size requirements vary with the efficiency of testing methods. Traditional long case and viva voce examinations are unreliable due to limited sampling. Although OSCE is an efficient assessment method the reliability is questionable for a two-station communication skills examination. As part of multi-station examination it has been shown that OSCE stations can assess history taking and communication skills with acceptable reliability (Hodges et al 1996). Obstacles to reliability could be related to the examiner, the standardised patient, or the student. Possible solutions could include training examiners, structured guidance to the examiners and proper guidance and explanation of the clinical scenario to the standardised patient. Validity refers to the ability of an assessment tool to accurately measure the desired endpoint. In other words, to which extent the findings of the assessment are closer to the real world. Validity is a conceptual term. There are four types of validity: face validity, content validity, construct validity and predictive validity. History taking skills and communication skills are components of the medical undergraduate curriculum that ensure content validity. In communication skills testing, history taking OSCE questions could be used primarily for third and fourth year medical students, reserving breaking bad news OSCE questions for final year medical students. Construct validity refers to the ability of an assessment to differentiate between novice and expert. There are no studies that analyse the construct validity of communication skills OSCEs. There are certain factors that could adversely affect the validity of these stations. This could be related to time constraints, because in real clinical situations breaking bad news will often require more than the allotted eight minutes in the OSCE station. Hodges (2003) argues that total lack of other health care professionals in OSCE scenarios questions validity, especially because of current emphasis on multi-disciplinary health care delivery. I do not think it will be possible to generalise a good or a bad performance in particular communication skills OSCEs to predict similar behaviour in other communication settings. Colliver et al (1998) have shown that to assess empathy in a standardised patient reliably, as many as thirty-seven different scenarios could be required. Harden (1992) has described the educational impact of assessment on learning. He used a bicycle as a model when considering the relationship between learning and assessment with the front wheel representing learning whilst the rear wheel represents assessment. Van der Vleuten (1996) has documented that assessment could drive learning through its content, format and through the feedback that follows assessment. Feedback is a feature of formative assessment. Hodges (2003) questions the validity of OSCE on the grounds that the examination itself could contribute to changes in a student’s behaviour. For example, if students knew that communication skills are tested, would their performance reflect the real life outside the examination? The educational impact of assessment is an important consideration and I personally feel that history taking skill and communication skill OSCE stations in the examination will encourages students to practice them and this will have beneficial effect in the long run. Acceptability is an important consideration in designing an assessment method. In traditional examination methods, the process of assessment is lead by the examiner. The examiners are allowed to use their expertise. Unfortunately this makes the assessment subjective. In OSCEs the examiner marks the candidate using a structured marking sheet, which makes the assessment more objective. In history taking and communication skills OSCE stations the role of the examiner is mainly as an observer. This has led to the use of the standardised patient as assessor in the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE). I was an OSCE examiner for a communication skills station few months ago and I have noticed that the standardised patient’s opinion about the performance of each candidate concurred with my own assessment. There are many studies on this topic but none of them are conclusive. The Postgraduate Medical Education Training Board (PMETB) in its consultation document stressed the importance of using lay people in the assessment process for areas of competence that they are capable of assessing. If the same principle applies to undergraduate medical education, OSCE stations like history taking and communication skills, standardised patients can be used as assessors. Further studies are needed to implement such a strategy in “high-stakes” summative assessments such as final year undergraduate medical examinations. However, in formative assessment, with feedback from students and standardised patients, this could be implemented. This will reduce the manpower required to organise the assessment and reduce the cost of running some OSCE stations. Feasibility of an assessment method is determined by the time, cost and other resources that are required. Although it may be possible to complete a history taking or a communication skills OSCE station for undergraduate final year medical students in the prescribed 8 minutes, the same may not be possible in postgraduate settings such as psychiatric examinations. The recruitment of many highly trained standardised patients and examiners for OSCE stations involve considerable cost. The cost could be reduced by running examinations throughout the day. However this may cause fatigue and could adversely affect the reliability and validity. Other resources that may be required include a large examination hall that could accommodate ten OSCE stations and ancillary aids like an X-ray viewer. Of the two scenarios, the history taking skill could be examined with a traditional long case method involving a lower cost to the organisers, but the explanation OSCE station for breaking bad news will certainly involve a standardised patient as the sensitive nature of the scenario will preclude using real patients. Conclusion Good communication skills are essential pre-requisite for all doctors. Both the OSCE questions I have designed assess medical student’s communication skills. The history taking OSCE station is designed to assess basic communication skills whereas the explanation OSCE involving breaking bad news tests more advanced communication skills. They can both be used in formative and summative assessment. They can be used to assess medical students with varying levels of experience. The reliability of two-station OSCEs is debatable. However, when used in combination with other OSCE stations in a multi-station examination format they become more reliable. They are valid when assessing communication skill for undergraduate medical students. The educational impact of communication skills OSCE stations will be positive, and I believe that this will encourages students to improve their communication skills. They are an acceptable and feasible assessment method. Two important questions that remain unanswered are: “does performance in an OSCE station predicts performance in the real world?” and: “does performance in one scenario in a communication setting generalise similar performance in other scenarios?” I would like to conclude with the words of sociologist Erving Goffman (1959) ”Life itself is a dramatically enacted thing the world is not, of course a stage, but the crucial ways in which it isn’t are not easy to specify.” Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp

pm Assignment 8 Essay

essay writing service free Develop a risk management plan for your project. Use the Risk Management Plan Template, and Business Case attached to complete this assignment: Analyze the project introduction and project risk principles. Identify project risks (both positive and negative). Create a Risk Matrix Legend. Probability Level / Criteria / Color Code. Impact Level / Criteria / Color Code. Create your Project Risk Matrix. Identify a minimum of 10 potential risks (positive or negative). Consider cost, schedule, performance, legal and regulatory, governance, strategic, market, and operational. For each risk: ​​Describe the risk. Identify the probability rating. Identify the impact of the risk to the project. Identify response or solution for the risk. Explain the action plan for the response or solution to the risk. Identify the responsible person for each action. Identify the status of each action. Create your Risk Monitoring and Control Strategy: Define the Review and Action Plan for identified and unidentified risks. Establish a Review process. Establish a Reporting process.

Green Consumers Are Defined As Consumers Marketing Essay

Nowadays, the spa industries are becoming more aware of environmental issues and because consumers are focusing more on environmental traits of goods and services, the industry are therefore willing to change their services by moving towards a more sustainable approach. The industry has evolved and is now moving towards a new direction. Their main concern is to be able to satisfy the green consumers’ demands since people are becoming more eco-conscious and they do not opt for “pampering” treatments now but rather expect services like wellness education and lifestyle programs in an “eco-friendly” environment. Spas industries who carry out green practices are now trying to look for ways to reduce the impacts on the environment as well as to create awareness among their customers. Consumers who value “green” are now only willing to purchase organic spa meals and will only purchase the products and services only if they are practicing recycling,waste minimization and other eco-friendly activities. In addition to monitoring traditional variables such as price, quality and convenience, spa goers are now searching for more affordability but also for spas that are environmentally conscious. As per the article Spas see greener days ahead, one main disadvantage is as follows: Lack of promotion strategies and therefore the spa industry needs to promote more their green activities in regards to green consumers’ demands. : A definition of consumer behaviour, used by Arnould et al. (2004: 9), defines consumer behaviour as “individuals or groups acquiring, using, and disposing of products, services, ideas, or experiences.” Green consumer behaviour can also include purchase and consumption avoidance.” (Peattie 1995: 84) Hence, green consumer behaviour can be defined as ‘the purchasing and non-purchasing decisions made by consumers, based at least partly on environmental or social criteria’. (Peattie 1995: 84) To further specify who and what a green consumer is, a definition of green consumption is appropriate. “In response to the environmental concern of the early 1970s, concepts such as Fisk’s (1973) theory of ‘responsible consumption’ and Mead’s (1970) concept of ‘responsible simplification’ reflected the concern about limits to growth with calls for a decrease in consumption. At the same time, the social pressure on business was reflected in studies of the ‘socially conscious consumer’ (Anderson and Cunningham 1972). Environmental marketing involves providing consumers with more sustainable and socially acceptable products; therefore green consumption must involve consuming in a more sustainable and socially responsible way.” (Peattie 1995: 83) Elkington and Hailes (1989: 5) define green consumers as people who in general avoid products which are likely to: endanger the health of the consumer or of others cause significant damage to the environment during manufacture, use or disposal consume a disproportionate amount of energy during manufacture, use or disposal cause unnecessary waste, either because of over packaging or because of an unduly short useful life use materials derived from threatened species or from threatened environments involve the unnecessary use – or cruelty to – animals, whether this be for toxicity testing or for other purposes adversely affect other countries, particularly in the Third World As per the article many disadvantages have been found and which are as follows: There is a gap between home and hotel behavior According to Baker and Davis, consumers are compelled to act as being more eco conscious in their local community than at a tourist destination There is a strong trade off between contribution and the sacrifice of comfort and luxury as some consumers believe that engaging in green practices may affect their experience and stay at hotels. Lack of educational programmes on environmental issues for consumers by the hotel industry A key element of green consumption is the desire for more information about the relationship between products and the environment. (Peattie 1995: 87) As per Swarbrooke and Horner (2007), green tourists are considered as those who refuse or prohibit tourism services which are not eco-friendly and those who make sacrifices because of views and benefits in environmental matters. As per the article, on the other hand, green tourists, can be defined as those who hold a particular interest about the environmental traits of the tourist destinations they visit. Eco-tourists will choose a destination based on its environmental condition and the type of experiences which they may expect there It is foreseen that green consumers who are aware of environmental issues would not visit a destination if it is experiencing environmental problems. As such Swarbrooke and Horner put emphasis that tourists’ behavior should be established not only by examining their attitude towards environmental problems in everyday life but as well as by getting information about the environmental situations at different tourist destinations. Thirdly, motivations that influence green tourists include not only self-interest but also self-sacrifice. Cornes and Sandler (1994), Andreoni (1989), and Kotcen (2005, 2007) It is difficult to tell whether a visitor is an eco-tourist as visiting a destination involves spending on tourism services, including attractions, accommodation and hotels. Eco-tourists as green consumers versus non eco-tourists or dirty tourists Tourists may show a mix of behaviors the green consumer To further specify who and what a green consumer is, a definition of green consumption isappropriate. “In response to the environmental concern of the early 1970s, concepts such as Fisk’s(1973) theory of ‘responsible consumption’ and Mead’s (1970) concept of ‘responsiblesimplification’ reflected the concern about limits to growth with calls for a decrease inconsumption. At the same time, the social pressure on business was reflected in studies of the’socially conscious consumer’ (Anderson and Cunningham 1972). Environmental marketinginvolves providing consumers with more sustainable and socially acceptable products; thereforegreen consumption must involve consuming in a more sustainable and socially responsible way.”(Peattie 1995: 83)Even though green consumption, as described by Peattie above, seems only to incorporate positivevalues from an environmental point of view, there was and is still much debate about the role andimportance of green consumption and green consumerism. Critics argue that green consumption isonly a way of slowing world degradation, and not a tool to end it. Durning (1992) argued that: “Atits best green consumerism is a potent new tactic for environmental advocates, allowing them tobypass the halls of parliaments and send their message directly to boardrooms. At its worst, greenconsumerism is a palliative for the conscience of the consumer class, allowing us to continuebusiness as usual while feeling like we are doing our part.” (Peattie 1995: 83)However, even though the critic appear sound it is important to realise that green consumption isonly one part of a greater effort needed to steer industrialised countries towards sustainability.Peattie (1995) argues that green consumption will have an effect only as part of a wider process of change, but that wider change process will not be able to happen without the focus on greenconsumption.

Review a case study on Business Intelligence platform and write a report of 300-400 words answering following questions.

Review a case study on Business Intelligence platform and write a report of 300-400 words answering following questions.. I don’t know how to handle this Computer Science question and need guidance.

The case study: Chapter 4: OPENING VIGNETTE: Self-Service Reporting Environment Saves Millions for Corporate Customers. [Page 136]
Please refer to attached textbook for case study.
The questions to be answered in your report:
1. What does Travel and Transport, Inc., do?
2. Describe the complexity and the competitive nature of the business environment. What were the main business challenges faced in that business environment?
3. List and comment on at least three main benefits of the implemented system. Can you think of other potential benefits that are not mentioned in the case?

Report should follow APA writing guideline. Please cite any external or internal [textbook] references as per APA guideline.

Review a case study on Business Intelligence platform and write a report of 300-400 words answering following questions.