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Gym Cultures Prominence In Society Cultural Studies Essay

Gym culture holds a prominent place in contemporary society. Studies1 focused on the physical dimensions of self-concept document the significance placed on physical appearance in evaluations of self-worth. The inconsistency between the real and ideal self is an important trigger within gym culture and this relationship is comprehensively and covertly exploited through media narratives and advertising images. Roland Barthes asserts that an “imitated object makes something appear which remained invisible, or if one prefers, unintelligible in the natural object. Structural man takes the real, decomposes it, then recomposes it.”2 Unravelling the means by which texts and images recomposed the original is at the centre of structuralist analysis. Concepts of semiology developed by Ferdinand de Saussure form the basis for structuralist methodology. Saussure rejected the conventional view of the linguistic sign as a name attached to an object in favour of the notion of the linguistic sign as a “two-sided psychological entity.”3 The word “sign” is used to describe the whole created through the combination of the signified (signifie) and the signifier (signifiant). The signifier is the materially perceptible component such as a sound, picture or written mark whilst the signified is the conceptual meaning. The relationship between the two, according to Saussure is arbitrary, founded entirely on social convention. Signs employed in the discourse of gym culture habitually focus on bodies. Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 all contain images of young, slim, and attractive 1 Maguire, J. and L. Mansfield, “No-body’s perfect: women, aerobics, and the body beautiful” Sociology of Sport Journal 5, 2 (1998): 109-137. 2 Critical Terms for Literary Study. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1995. 3 The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms. Chris Baldick. Oxford University Press, 2008. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press bodies. The relationship between the photographic images, the signifier, and the concept of youth, health and attractiveness, the signified, combine to create the sign. Roland Barthes however noted that this model focuses extensively on denotation to the detriment of connotation. In his initial investigations Barthes distinguishes between two forms of reference: denotation and connotation. Conventionally denotation is referred to as the literal, primary sense or straightforward dictionary meaning, whilst connotation refers to the range of further associations that a word evokes in addition to its denotation. The connotations of a particular word are a formulated sequence of qualities, contexts, and emotional responses commonly associated with that to which it refers. The context in which the word or phrase is used and the individual inclinations of the audience determine which connotations will be initiated. Initially Barthes suggested that analytically connotation can be distinguished from denotation4 in the same way that a photographic image represents the denotation of what is photographed, the connotation is exposed through “how it is photographed”. Barthes however later concluded that: ‘denotation is not the first meaning, but pretends to be so; under this illusion, it is ultimately no more than the last of the connotations (the one which seems both to establish and close the reading), the superior myth by which the text pretends to return to the nature of language, to language as nature’. The two women in Figure 1 and the woman in Figure 3 are all pictured wearing long pants. The same particular item of clothing is denoted in both advertisements, namely pants. However in Figure 1 the 4 Chandler, Daniel: Semiotics for Beginners (1994) pants are “cargo” pants whilst in Figure 3 the model wears jeans. “Cargo” pants connote youth, hip-hop and dance culture whilst jeans are associated with the everyday down-to-earth, girl-next-door. The style of pants selected reflect a range of connotations, the denoted image is inherently connotative. Barthes perspective exposes denotation as being no more ‘natural’ than connotation but rather as stemming from a process of naturalization. Denotation is thus proved to be a product of ideology. Images prevalent in gym culture discourse documents this well. Note the similarity between the models selected in Figures 4, 5 and 6. They are all slim, tanned and tall with long blond hair and have been selected to portray a specific image of femininity influenced by historical attitudes and social convention, which conforms to contemporary westernized ideology. Similar images are presented to both male and female consumers. Fitness magazine (Figure 5) features an image of American television host Kelly Ripa, with a byline suggesting that the magazine contains the secrets to “how she got this buff”, whilst the cover of Men’s Fitness (Figure 6) has a byline suggesting that the magazine contains the secrets of how to gain “hard abs, strong enough for a night with” the featured Carmen Electra, glamour model and actress. Connotatively men should be fit and muscular to attract their ideal woman, and women should strive to be that ideal- attractive, slim, tanned and blond. The selection of celebrities this physical represented ideal suggests that fame, success and wealth accompany the ideal. These associations formed by groups of signs create a cultural paradigm. In the same way the Zumba advertisement in figure 1 is designed to immediately invoke connotations of a gym culture paradigm. The images are of one male and two female bodies. Little of their faces, apart from smiles suggesting fun and happiness, can be seen reinforcing a focus on moving bodies and physicality. Naked midriffs whilst emphasize muscled, slim bodies also invokes sexual connotations. Through metonymy the graphic representation of a speaker emphasizes the role of music and its associations with parties, social interaction. Strong colours are used and orange, the adverts predominant colour believed to be invigorating as it increases oxygen supply to the brain is used to reflect joy, enthusiasm, creativity, attraction, success and stimulation. It is also used to attract attention as it is high visibility. The line “Ditch the workout, join the party!” aligns working out with having a party. The word “join” is repeated four times reinforcing the idea of belonging, identifying with and being part of a particular group. The language choice is deliberately relaxed and informal, to emphasize fun. The paradigm created is one of youth, music, party, fun, sexual attraction, dancing and fitness, with a focus on belonging. Figure 2 is an advertisement for a Sony water resistant walk-man. Sony employ an approach common to brand-name product advertising, one whereby their product is aligned with culturally desirable paradigms, in this case fitness and health, thus advancing a connotative association between their product and other values their audience might hold. A young man is pictured, dressed in a vest he appears to have been running. The aim is to establish paradigmatic relationships between exercise and fitness and Sony’s brand. In so doing Sony hope to include their product in a fitness paradigm and through this inclusion their brand comes to connote all that characterizes gym culture. Whilst Paradigmatic relations rely on familiar cultural associations to create meaning, syntagmatic relations create meaning through the sequence in which the signs are displayed. In Figure 1 the line “Ditch the workout, join the party!” aligns working out with having a party. In figures 3 and 4 both advertisements rely on an alternative semiotic structure in addition to paradigmatic relations to communicate their message. Both advertisements offer promises of transformation, figure one blatantly telling us “before and after”. A syntagmatic relation can be represented by the connotative narrative, a sequence of associated events: “She joined the gym, exercised regularly, ate the right food, lost weight, and was thereby transformed”. Because this is such a familiar narrative to us, the advertisement can invoke it and all its associations by just showing us a single image, the mirrored but subtly altered image of the women that represents the start and finish of the narrative. Our understanding of figure 4 relies on previously learnt and accepted conventions. Barthes identified these previously learnt and recognised conventions as “cultural codes” which could be utilized in structural analysis of texts. 5 In contrast to the conventional definition of myth as a traditional or customary story Claude Levi-Strauss and Roland Barthes shifted the emphasis of myth as a plot to myth as a way of thinking akin to a kind of ideology. Roland Barthes’ 1957 Mythologies brought to light how myths are part of everyday modern life. Barthes demonstrates an idea of myth as a further sign, it’s foundations in language, but to which further implication is added. To make a myth, the sign itself is used as a signifier, and a new meaning is added, which is the signified. This additional meaning is not arbitrarily, even if the reader is not aware of it. Historically determined circumstances are presented as “natural”. Predominantly media driven modern myths are created to disseminate an impression of society that is 5 Leak, Andrew N. Barthes, Mythologies. London: Grant
Social Work homework help. This is a paper that is focusing on the Develop a 20 minute presentation for nursing colleagues. The paper also provides additional guidelines to use in writing the assignment paper.,Develop a 20 minute presentation for nursing colleagues,Develop a 20-minute presentation for nursing colleagues highlighting the fundamental principles of care coordination. Create a detailed narrative script for your presentation, approximately 4–5 pages in length, and record a video of your presentation.,Nurses have a powerful role in the coordination and continuum of care. All nurses must be cognizant of the care coordination process and how safety, ethics, policy, physiological, and cultural needs affect care and patient outcomes. As a nurse, care coordination is something that should always be considered. Nurses must be aware of factors that impact care coordination and of a continuum of care that utilizes community resources effectively and is part of an ethical framework that represents the professionalism of nurses. Understanding policy elements helps nurses coordinate care effectively.,This assessment provides an opportunity for you to educate your peers on the care coordination process. The assessment also requires you to address change management issues. You are encouraged to complete the Managing Change activity.,Completing course activities before submitting your first attempt has been shown to make the difference between basic and proficient assessment.,Demonstration of Proficiency,By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the course competencies through the following assessment scoring guide criteria:,·       Competency 2: Collaborate with patients and family to achieve desired outcomes.,o   Firstly, outline effective strategies for collaborating with patients and their families to achieve desired health outcomes.,·       Competency 3: Create a satisfying patient experience.,o   Secondly, identify the aspects of change management that directly affect elements of the patient experience essential to the provision of high-quality, patient-centered care.,·       Competency 4: Defend decisions based on the code of ethics for nursing.,o   Thirdly, explain the rationale for coordinated care plans based on ,ethical decision making,.,·       Competency 5: Explain how health care policies affect patient-centered care.,o   Fourthly, identify the potential impact of specific health care policy provisions on outcomes and patient experiences.,·       Competency 6: Apply professional, scholarly communication strategies to lead patient-centered care.,o   Lastly, raise awareness of the nurse’s vital role in the coordination and continuum of care in a video-recorded presentation.,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Social Work homework help

Saudi Electronic University Quality Services of Ritz Carlton Hotel Company Discussion

Saudi Electronic University Quality Services of Ritz Carlton Hotel Company Discussion.

Please read the case study “TQM at the Ritz-Carlton” in Chapter 13, p.391 available in your textbook “Organization Development & Change” (10th ed.) by Cummings, T and Worley, C and answer the following questions:

Q.1 Based on your understanding of the case, discuss and evaluate employee involvement as practiced by the Ritz-Carlton in terms of the following key elements: ( Minimum 250 words)

A. -Power 
B. -Information 
C. -Knowledge and skills
D. -Rewards

Q.2 Do you think the Ritz-Carlton’s experience with TQM could be provided as a benchmark to other organizations? Explain your answer in light of the stages for TQM application. 
Q.3 Discuss which features are evident in the practices of the Ritz-Carlton that would enable the Hotel Company to meet the criteria of high involvement organizations. 

Saudi Electronic University Quality Services of Ritz Carlton Hotel Company Discussion

Innovation in The Artificial Intelligence Field of Technology Research Paper

essay helper free Innovation in The Artificial Intelligence Field of Technology Research Paper.

Topical analysesTopical paper #1: Innovation.Answer three questions. What is innovation?intro Givesome examples. Discuss an example of what a firm does to foster innovation.. 4 pages Double space. APA Style Have at least three citations for each of your topical papers.Topical paper #2. Artificial intelligence.Answer these questions. What is it?How is it currently used (an example or two)? How do you see it affectingstrategy? 4 pages Double space. APA Style Have at least three citations for each of your topical papers.each topic I need 4 pages, so the total 8 pages – clear ideas – use simple words – No plagiarismDO not forget the references YOU need to answer all questions
Innovation in The Artificial Intelligence Field of Technology Research Paper

RC Constructing Professional Documents for Nursing Career Discussion

RC Constructing Professional Documents for Nursing Career Discussion.

Construct professional documents.InstructionsThroughout your career you will be asked to create several professional documents. Each time you must create a document written at the highest level of knowledge, grammar, spelling and capability.For this assignment you are going to pick two of the three following documents and create them. Please follow the specific instructions for each type of document that you choose.Action Plan – your employer has asked you to create an action plan for your professional development for the next year. You need to include some of the following information; conferences you will attend, what you will do to educate yourself in your field and any trainings you need to attend.GoalAction StepsResources/SupportDeadline/TimingStatusResume/Cover Letter – obtain a job description that you will turn in with your resume and cover letter. Write the cover letter and resume, tailoring it to the job description you selected.PowerPoint Problem Solution Plan – Pick a problem that is currently happening in your community, a school referendum, a city ordinance, a recent rise in crime, use your imagination in picking a topic. Create a PowerPoint Presentation that covers each of the following elements:Introduction to the problemEffect on the communityPossible Solution(s)Conclusion/Action Steps
RC Constructing Professional Documents for Nursing Career Discussion

Computer Science homework help

Computer Science homework help. This is a paper that is focusing on the student to Identify and describe the target market for organization’s products. The paper also provides additional information to use in the writing of the assignment paper. Below is the assessment description to follow:,Identify and describe the target market for organization’s products,Choose an organization that you believe is great at marketing.  Choose an organization that you can observe the marketing efforts of and are familiar with. If you choose a very large organization that markets many different products, focus your assignment and research on one product or product line. We will use Adidas for an example. Adidas has multiple brands including Originals, ,Stella McCartney, and Ivy Park, the brands offer shoes, clothing and accessories. You may decide to choose Adidas and focus your assignment on the Yeezy product line.,After choosing an organization,,Next step is to identify and describe the target market for the products(s) about which you are presenting. Try to pinpoint the thing(s) that makes the target market respond to the firm’s marketing mix in ways that are different from people who are not members of it.,It is very difficult to do a good job on this assignment if you do a poor job of defining the target market.,After identifying the target market,,then analyze the marketing mix (the four Ps) the firm is using to attract the chosen target market. You should describe each of the four Ps. Also, analyze how each one is being used to attract members of the target market.,After analyzing the firm’s marketing mix,,Lastly, assume the role of a marketing consultant and make specific suggestions for improving the firm’s effectiveness. These suggestions can be in the form of changes to any part of the current marketing mix to fix the problems you identified. If you did not identify any problems, you should make suggestions for additional marketing activities.,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Computer Science homework help

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