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Groups and teams Report

In business world interaction of individuals has been a key factor at their success in terms of achieving their goals and also in the assurance of smooth running of their departments. Group dynamics has increased the effectiveness of those organizations through proper understanding of each individual through communication of the members. The leadership in the group dynamics is also a core value at the business performance depending on the perceptions of fellow members towards that leadership. This article analyses the group dynamics in terms of its importance, leadership, the leadership source and also interdependence in terms of making decisions for each and every member. In group dynamics, people interact at a given environment which can either be in social environment business environment or in a social environment. Our main concern is in the business environment where group dynamics has been an important tool in organizations in enabling them to perform their duties and also achieve their goals effectively. The performances of businesses at the current situation are determined by the degree of the effectiveness of group interactions. These interactions are between individuals who working at the same level and those who are working at different levels of work in organization they are working for. For instance individuals who are working at the same department are likely to do a better job if they have good relations to each other which can only be brought through group dynamics (Levi, 2001, p. 67). Group dynamics importance includes, first it enables employees to have a common goal as stipulated by the organization they are working for. Through group dynamic they will understand each other better like a friend and not a stranger. Secondly it will enable all the individuals at the organization to view each other as a colleague since through group dynamics people will eliminate dominance of some members. Therefore all members will have a will an obligation to facilitate at the achieving companies objects. Companies/ organizations performances are highly depended on personalities of individuals who are working for that organization. Therefore for a good organization of a business we need to organize employees and all the stakeholders from the individual level through group dynamics (McNamara, 2010, p. 1). Finally it is advisable to use group dynamics since individuals tend to perform their duties better, especially if they are working with individuals whom they know and understand than people they don’t know Every business has its objectives as stipulated by the organizations charters and other legal documents of that organization. Therefore it is the main agenda of each and every business to achieve to those goals. Group dynamics has been great self drive for individuals in achieving the mutual goals of organizations. Positive interdependence enables individuals to put their individual efforts at their work which in turn facilitates the achievement of the organizations goals. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore interdependence gives people power to make decisions, monitor their performance therefore enable them dedicate their efforts so as to carry out their dedicated roles by the business. Interdependence makes each individual feel guilty if he/she has not done his/ her part therefore this serves as a drive for each member to deliver the part he/ she is allocated to do. Although research on groups has always been helpful to the businesses sometimes it has proved unworthy especially if it does not touch key issues. In some business group dynamics does not perform a major role in achieving the goals and also in the smooth run of the organization. For instance in organizations where individual efforts are highly regarded than collective bargain, then involving group dynamics will destabilize the business as a whole since individuals who have a bigger role will tend to relax with a claim of equality or fair distribution of roles while those with relatively small role will tent to complain for additional roles added to them. In some cases if groups are taken on the negative side them the relevancy of the research will be questionable. If researches about groups are under influence of any parameter for instance culture, gender or even race in a diversity world there is likelihood of that research being irrelevant in the sense that it will try to avoid some key factors about that research of groups. In organizations where individuals have different interests then, with introduction of group dynamics may cause problems because each member has a different goal to work for. Both groups and individuals play important roles at the working environments at influencing the performance of businesses. Although both are useful, each will be suitable at a given environment. For instance in a big company where group dynamics is more effective than using individual effort will destabilize the operations of a business while in organizations where individual efforts are highly effectively then incorporating group effort will also affect the smooth run of the organization. In most cases groups tend to be more effective than individual since most companies and other organization success is based on networking, therefore group dynamics is very important. In groups effectiveness is easily achieved due to the diversity of ideas from the members, collectiveness in solving the problems and also moral boost from each member for greater productivity and meeting set targets. Finally collective efforts of a group proves to be more effective since one will do his /her part in anticipation of other will do their part which leads to achieving the mutual objective of the business (Ambrus, 2009, p. 8-12). We will write a custom Report on Groups and teams specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Group cohesiveness is the state of a group being able to stick together based on goals that organization intends to achieve. Cohesiveness of groups is brought about by either rules or sometimes the intensity of the matter or goal concerning that group. Cohesiveness is key tool in ensuring that groups achieve designated targets. Group cohesiveness enables groups to run smoothly, improve productivity, ensure full participation of all the members, and makes member accountable for anything that they does. It also improves morality of performance of each member. In my group cohesiveness can be improved though several ways, which includes first though explaining to the members importance of their group that is why they are needed at the group, their groups objectives, and their roles at the group. Secondly, the group should have roles that govern it so that any member who goes against the group is either punished in a particular manner or thrown out of the group depending on the intensity of the matter. Thirdly, the group set clearly the goals and the role of each member at achieving that goal for instance in cleaning environment should specify which members should sensitize the dwellers in the areas they wish to clean (Seashore, 2003, p. 91). Social influence has always been a factor in decision making in both business world and other social organizations. Firstly, decisions can be made through consensus building between the members. Therefore any decision made through consensus is a mutual decision in which all some members either did not agree with their full decision or part of it. In consensus each of the opposing teams will sacrifice part of their demands in order to get another favor from the other. Secondly, social interaction can also influence decision making via voting from which part of the members are objecting while others are supporting therefore any winning team with majority is assumed to be the decision of all the members. Members can be encouraged to accept proposals at their working places through giving workers better deals that is giving out proposals that have a touch at the lives or that have a benefit to them. Therefore each proposal should at least have a benefit to them. Secondly, team leader should include members in availing those proposals so that they can be part of those proposals and also ensure that their interests are catered for. In discouraging the acceptance of proposals at work place one can either present proposals that have adverse effect to the members for instance in a company a proposal to decrease a pay of the workers will automatically be rejected by them since their welfare is worsened off. Secondly, if decisions made concerning the groups, members are not involved then there is likelihood that members will not accept those proposals because of feeling that they are down looked upon by leadership. For the smooth run of a group a leader is highly required to manage that group. Leaders act as overseers. That is, they ensure that every activity of the organization is carried out well as prescribed by the group for instance leaders are the one to prepare the calendar of activities at a given time. Not sure if you can write a paper on Groups and teams by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Leaders organize their members by assigning then duties and roles that they will perform. Leaders also coordinate the activities of each member for a mutual aim of achieving organizations goal. Generally leaders are the main decision makers in the in any group since not all the decisions can be made by all the members. Yes, leaders can emerge from groups through experience that is long serving members who have acquired a lot of knowledge concerning that group can be chosen as a leader. That is why most leaders in business world are chosen from those with experience. Also leaders can emerge from groups especially those with special talents, interests, and dedication. Talented people have proved to deliver in their groups due to the personal “sacrifice” to the roles they have acquired. Perception of group members to the leadership is of great importance because it is through leadership that members will either accept or reject that leadership. For instance if perception of members to the leadership is positive then members will cooperate with that leadership in its duties and these will ensure that the group achieves its objects but if the perception of members to the leaders is negative then this will disrupt all the communication between the leaders and other members (Higby, 2002, p. 1). Therefore negative perception will deteriorate all the activities of that group. Teams comprises of small groups of individuals with a common goal or objective while working groups is a temporary set of entire no individuals with a mutual goal. Teams are more effective in some situations compared to work groups because teams tend to have a longer time than work groups in carrying out their responsibilities. Besides team shave leaders who gives guidelines on the activities to be carried out by the team members while work groups only arises when there is an activity to carry out therefore there are either temporary or no leaders. There are several situations that teams do better work groups, first work group works are temporal therefore they will only perform a specified task and seize to exist. If time for instance has elapsed there is likely of poor performance of their activities while teams are not temporal therefore they are likely to perform their activities effectively since there is no time limit. Work groups have temporal or no leaders hence any activities to be carried by the leaders are likely to cause problems on the side of work groups (Lesmeister, 2004, p. 1). For instance in organizations that are fighting for workers rights cannot be temporal because it is a continuous process. Finally it clear that individual group dynamics are important in ensuring smooth running of businesses. Through leadership of groups which are accepted by the members, there is likelihood of a good performance of those groups. Collectively, individuals will bring in new ideas, experience, and morality in productivity and performance therefore it is advisable to adopt group dynamics than adopting individual approach. In addition groups should have clearly defined goals to minimize the conflicts of interest between the members. Though groups have importance in the business world sometimes they are not effective therefore it is advisable to use them where they are reliable. Here we have talked about group dynamics and group cohesiveness. Also we have seen how group interaction affects the decision making. Reference List Ambrus, A. (2009). Group vs Individual decision-making. Web. Higby, M. (2002). Teaching more than you know. Web. Lesmeister, M. (2004). Leadership for effective groups. Web. Levi, D. (2001). Group Dynamics for Teams. California. Barnes
Schizoid Personality Disorder. Paper details Prepare a 1,050- word paper that discusses research-based interventions to treat your selected disorder. Review and differentiate the characteristics of the selected disorder and discuss the research about intervention strategies for the disorder by completing the following: • Evaluate three peer-reviewed research studies for your selected disorder. • Conceptualize the disorder using the using either the biopsychosocial or diathesis-stress model. • Discuss the treatments or interventions that have been shown to be the most effective for your selected disorder. Why? PROVIDE 5 SOURCES APASchizoid Personality Disorder
The purpose of this paper is to carry out an analysis of the competitiveness of a chosen industry using the PESTLE framework and Porter’s 5 Forces (Porter, 1979). The industry this paper will analyse is the mobile telecommunications industry in Nigeria with specific focus on the years between 2001 and 2009. To carry out the analysis of the competiveness of the mobile telecommunications industry in Nigeria, the paper begins with an introduction to the telecommunications industry in Nigeria to set the foundation on which the discussion and arguments within the paper will be built. The PESTLE framework and Porter’s 5 Forces (Porter, 1979) will be used for analysis after which the paper will conclude with advice for a new firm considering entering this industry. Industry Background Nigeria is considered the biggest telecommunications market in Africa with 65 million mobile phone users (Corporate Nigeria, 2010). As of June 2009, mobile phone penetration in Nigeria stood at 45% and in a country of over 150 million people (NDIC, 2009), the potential for the mobile telecommunications market is huge. The fact that the country went from having a mobile phone penetration of about zero to 45% in just 9 years (NDIC, 2009) and the potential the industry has, prompted the author to focus on this industry. Although Nigeria had fixed telephone lines supplied and maintained by NITEL, the country’s public telecommunications company since 1985 (Ndukwe, 2005), it wasn’t until 2001 that 4 private companies were awarded licenses to carry out mobile telecommunications operations in the country. Analysis Using the PESTLE Framework The mobile telecommunications industry in Nigeria will now be analysed using the PESTLE framework. Political/ Legal Factors Nigeria has had a stable democratic government since 1999 following several years of instability under military rule (Corporate Nigeria, 2010). The country’s renewed democracy and the security it has brought has created a stable environment for the establishment and development of the mobile telecommunications industry in the country. The effect of this is that the country and the telecommunications industry in particular is attractive to foreign investors with the 4th largest telecommunications operator in the country, Etisalat, being established in the country as recently as 2008. Economic Factors The political stability within Nigeria has brought about relative economic stability within the country (NDIC, 2009). The result has been a compound annual industry growth rate of about 50% in the telecommunications industry (Aliu, 2005) which indicates a positive effect of the stimulation of the economy. However, the global recession which began in 2008 may have affected the telecommunications industry. The telecommunications industry is capital intensive (Corporate Nigeria, 2010) and raising funds via loans from local banks has been difficult so telecommunications firms in Nigeria have had to source funds from foreign financial institutions, a situation made more difficult with the global economic crisis. In addition, taxation in Nigeria is high. Apart from the 30% corporation tax telecommunications companies are charged, they are also levied with various taxes by local and state governments (Aliu, 2010). These taxes add up and eat into any telecommunications company’s profits. Inspite of the global recession, the telecommunications industry appears to be growing especially in terms of profit earned by the telecoms companies. For example, Etisalat, the newest telecommunications company in Nigeria declared net profits of about $2 million, a growth of about 16% over 2008 (Etisalat, 2010). The consequence of the economic situation in the country may cause a firm considering entering the telecommunications industry in Nigeria to hesitate before doing so. Social Factors Since the dawn of the mobile telecommunications industry in Nigeria in 2001, about 18 billion dollars has been invested in the country on infrastructure and human capital development (Corporate Nigeria, 2010). As a result, the country and its people tend to look at the telecommunications industry with positive eyes. The industry has provided employment to thousands of Nigerians in terms of direct employment and has given employment to hundreds of thousands indirectly in the form of recharge card sellers, security personnel, telephone kiosk operators, cleaners and much more (Ndukwe, 2005). The social factors in Nigeria affect the telecommunications industry positively which is incentive for a new firm to enter this industry. Technological Factors The mobile telecommunications infrastructure in Nigeria was much lower than what was required when telecommunications companies were awarded operation licenses in 2001 (Aliu, 2005). This meant that in addition to the license fees paid, telecoms companies had to build their own infrastructure throughout the country practically from scratch. In addition, the epileptic power supply in the country means that telecommunications companies have to have generators at each of the hundreds of cell-sites they have across the country as well as generating power for use at their offices (Corporate Nigeria, 2010). This has meant investing more time and funds in infrastructure than a telecommunications firm would have to invest in a more developed country. The technological factors facing new entrants to the telecommunications industry in Nigeria are huge which may be cause for concern for a company intending to enter the mobile telecommunications industry in Nigeria. Environmental Factors To carry out operations in Nigeria, mobile telecommunications companies have to build hundreds of cell-sites across the country and because of the irregular power supply within the country, generators have to be put in use at every one of those cell sites (Corporate Nigeria, 2010). Building cell sites involves the destruction of natural vegetation and the generators in use at those cell sites cause air pollution. In addition, the long-term effects of those cell sites on human beings (as many of those sites are in residential areas) are not known. In the author’s opinion, although there is very little antagonism towards telecoms companies at the moment in terms of the damage they may cause the environment, with time and as people become more knowledgeable, there may be possible negative reactions to these companies. Although environmental factors probably will not discourage a new company from entering the telecoms industry in Nigeria, such a company must be aware of its impact on the environment and must put in place plans to minimize their effects as well as come up with plans for damage limitation should there ever be a major issue regarding that company’s presence and its effect on the environment in Nigeria. Conclusion of Analysis Using the PESTLE Framework The PESTLE analysis of the mobile telecommunications industry carried out in this paper reveals that economic factors like the global recession and difficulty raising funds to finance operations and technological factors like the need for telecoms companies to build their own infrastructure and generate their own electricity appear to affect the industry the strongest. Social factors like the greater employment opportunities created for Nigerians by the telecommunications industry, political/ legal factors like the country having a stable government and policies and environmental factors like the impact telecoms companies have on the environment such as the removal of natural vegetation and air pollution appear to be the weaker forces affecting the mobile telecommunications industry in Nigeria. The result of the analysis of the mobile telecommunications industry in Nigeria using the PESTLE framework is that the industry is a good investment for a new firm considering entering the industry as though economic and technological factors affecting the industry are significant, the social, political and environmental forces at work put the industry in a strong position. Analysis using Porter’s (1979) Five Forces Here, the mobile telecommunications industry in Nigeria will be analysed using Porter’s (1979) Five Forces. Competitive Rivalry Competition between mobile telecommunications companies in Nigeria is fierce, typified by regular tariff wars, introduction of new products (and the copying of such products) and a great deal of advertising. According to Porter (1979), activities such as those mentioned above indicate “intense rivalry” or “jockeying for position” by companies. The activities of mobile telecommunications companies written above suggest that though the industry is growing (Aliu, 2005), competition between mobile telecommunications companies is intense and it is a strong force affecting the industry. Threat of New Entrants The threat of new entrants to the mobile telecommunications industry in Nigeria is low as barriers to entry are high. The barriers to entering this industry include the large economies of scale which existing telecommunications companies in Nigeria have, the large amount of capital required by a new mobile telecommunications company in Nigeria; the license fees alone costs millions of dollars (Ndukwe, 2005) and because of the nature of the environment, a new telecommunications company would have to build its own infrastructure throughout the country and generate its own power. Also, such a company would have to pay high taxes (Aliu, 2005). All of this means a potential mobile telecommunications company in Nigeria would need to be able to raise millions of dollars for its operations in the country. Differentiating itself from the incumbent telecommunications companies in Nigeria would also be difficult for a new entrant to the industry in terms of product differentiation, advertising and even brand image. These points indicate that the barriers to entering the mobile telecommunications industry in Nigeria are high. Inspite of this, a new telecommunications company, Etisalat, set up business in Nigeria in 2008 and declared a profit of about $2million in 2009, a growth of about 16% over 2008 (Etisalat, 2010). This may indicate that inspite of the high barriers to entering this industry, financial profit is possible. Bargaining Power of Customers The bargaining power of customers in the mobile telecommunications industry in Nigeria is weak. Although Porter (1979) stated that one of the indicators of a strong buyer group is undifferentiated products or services by the industry, this does not seem to apply in Nigeria. In Nigeria, although there is innovation in the telecoms industry, products and quality are basically the same with all the companies (Corporate Nigeria, 2010). This means that customers see little advantage in changing from one mobile phone operator to another. This is still the case inspite of the fact that switching costs for the customer are low (Corporate Nigeria, 2010). The importance of this is that the bargaining power of customers in the telecoms industry in Nigeria is low indicating greater profits for the telecommunications companies (Porter, 1979). Threat of Substitutes The threat of substitutes to the mobile telecommunications industry in Nigeria is low. The direct competition to mobile telecommunication appears to be fixed telephone lines but the number of fixed telephone lines in use in the country is about 1.4million, a figure which has remained fairly constant since 2001 (Corporate Nigeria, 2010). In sharp contrast, the number of mobile telecommunications users in the country has risen from close to zero in 2001 to 65million today (Corporate Nigeria, 2010). There is clearly very little competition from fixed telephone lines. Other competitors to mobile telecommunications include letter-writing – a quaint and vastly ignored means of communication in Nigeria today (Ndukwe, 2005). Another substitute to mobile telephony is the internet. Internet use is growing at an exciting rate in Nigeria from 10million users in 2007 to over 23million users in 2009 (Corporate Nigeria, 2010). The internet may pose a threat to mobile phones however the 4 biggest mobile telecommunications companies in Nigeria also offer internet services so it appears that mobile telecommunications companies provide the product (mobile telecommunications) as well as its major substitute (the internet). This is an interesting and positive position for mobile telecommunications companies in Nigeria further indicating that the threat of substitutes to the industry is low. Bargaining Power of Suppliers The bargaining power of suppliers to the mobile telecommunications industry in Nigeria is weak. Although the industry in Nigeria is relatively young, effectively being created in 2001 (Ndukwe, 2005), it has radically changed the Nigerian employment landscape. The industry provides direct employment to thousands of Nigerians and indirectly employs hundreds of thousands others (Corporate Nigeria, 2010). Some of those indirectly employed by the telecommunications industry include staff of supplier firms like advertising agencies, generator suppliers, cleaning firms and security firms. Many of these firms came into existence simply serve the telecommunications industry (Ndukwe, 2005). In addition, telecommunications firms are one of the best-paying companies in the country (NDIC, 2009). Without the telecommunications industry, many of these suppliers would see their incomes reduce or dry up completely. Suppliers of the products and services required by the telecoms industry are a dime a dozen in Nigeria. It is thus clear that those companies need the telecommunications industry more than the telecommunications industry needs them showing that the bargaining power of suppliers in this industry is low. Conclusion of Analysis Using Porter’s (1979) Five Forces After analyzing the mobile telecommunications industry in Nigeria using Porter’s (1979) Five Forces, it appears that the industry is in a good position. This is so because though competitive rivalry between the telecommunications companies is strong with constant price-cutting, undifferentiated products and intense advertising, the threat of new entrants into the industry is low. The high capital required, difficulty in differentiating itself and high taxes levied on the firms mean that the barriers to entering the mobile telecommunications industry are high. In addition, customers have little bargaining power as many Nigerians consider communication via the mobile phone important (Ndukwe, 2005) and products are generally undifferentiated meaning customers have little motivation to switch service providers. The threat of substitutes to the industry is low; some substitutes such as letter-writing aren’t really competition considering the fact that a letter takes much longer to carry a message to its recipient than a phone call and what may be considered a strong substitute to mobile telecommunication, the internet, is provided by mobile telecommunications companies. It’s a win-win situation for the industry in this case. The bargaining power of suppliers like advertising agencies, generator suppliers, cleaning firms and security firms is low as many of these companies rely solely on the telecoms industry for their income (Ndukwe, 2005) with the result that they need the telecommunications industry more than it needs them. To conclude, analysis of the mobile telecommunications industry in Nigeria using Porter’s (1979) Five Forces reveals that the industry is in a strong position and is an attractive one to investors. Conclusion of Paper The competitiveness of the mobile telecommunications industry in Nigeria has been analysed in this paper using the PESTLE framework and Porter’s (1979) Five Forces. From the analysis carried out, it appears that entering the mobile telecommunications industry in Nigeria would be a good investment for a new firm. This is because analysis of the industry using the PESTLE framework revealed that the strongest factors affecting the industry are economic like the global recession and difficulty in raising funds and technological including the need for every telecommunications firm to build its own infrastructure across the country and generate its own electricity while the weaker factors affecting the industry are social factors like the industry providing employment to thousands of Nigerians, political/ legal like political stability and well-structured policies and environmental factors including the potential for Nigerians to rise against the negative effects of telecommunications companies like pollution on the environment in the future. Analysis of these factors put the mobile telecommunications industry in Nigeria in a good position and makes it attractive to investors. Analysis of the mobile telecommunications industry in this paper using Porter’s (1979) Five Forces showed that the industry is in a strong position. This is because inspite of competitive rivalry within the industry being high with regular price wars, undifferentiated products and massive advertising and the barriers to entering the industry like high taxes and huge capital requirements being high, the other forces at stake in the industry make it an attractive one. These other forces are the bargaining power of customers which is low due to largely undifferentiated products and little motivation for customers to switch telecommunications operators; the threat of substitutes which is low as the substitutes to mobile telecommunication like letter-writing is very slow and incomparable with the swiftness of a phone call while the other substitute, the internet, is a service provided by mobile telecommunications companies meaning they provide the product and its substitute – a powerful advantage for them; and the bargaining power of suppliers which is also low as many of the telecommunications industry’s suppliers rely solely on the industry for their income putting the telecoms industry in a strong position. In advising a new entrant to an industry, Porter (1979: 145) stated that “The key to growth…is to stake out a position that is less vulnerable to attack from head-to-head opponents…and less vulnerable to erosion from the direction of buyers, suppliers and substitute goods”. Porter (1979) does not mention the bargaining power of customers in his quote written above but this author thinks it worthy of inclusion. From the analysis of the mobile telecommunications industry in Nigeria carried out in this paper, it appears that the industry is one that would attract investors and investment in this industry by a firm considering doing so would be a good decision especially if such a firm took Porter’s (1979) advice as presented in the quote above.
COMM 120 Grossmont College Interpersonal Communication Discussion.

I’m working on a communications writing question and need an explanation to help me study.

COMM 120 Analysis PaperAssignment DescriptionUnderstanding how to identify and respond to the communicative patterns of others is necessary when one seeks to improve their interpersonal relationships. However, it is just as important to develop the ability to understand and adjust your own patterns of communication if you desire to become a better communicator. Therefore, in this assignment you will be required to write a 3 to 5 page paper analyzing your own patterns of interpersonal communication. You will identify and apply specific course concepts and/or theories from the textbook to conduct your analysis while providing your own personal insights on how you can use this knowledge to improve your communication skills.This assignment is designed to get you to reflect on what you have learned about interpersonal communication throughout the semester and to come up with a plan for how you can improve your interactions with others. Thus, there should be two distinct parts to your paper: 1.) Your reflective analysis and 2.) Your plan for improvement. The first section, the reflective analysis, will make up the bulk of your paper. In this section, make sure to explain what aspects of your own interpersonal communication style you are analyzing by providing relevant examples. In the second section, your plan for improvement, you should provide a minimum of three specific ways you plan to improve your communication with others by using what you have learned throughout the semester.When completing this assignment, you will choose a minimum of three concepts from the textbook and utilize them in your self-analysis. You may decide to analyze one specific experience, or a small set of related experiences, thus you should home in on course concepts/material that help articulate how you intend to improve your communication based on these textbook concepts.You may choose to write about topics such as: a set of work-related experiences you have had in the past in which you did not communicate as effectively as you would have liked to (i.e. getting into arguments, unclear communication with co-workers that resulted in mistakes being made, being misperceived by a supervisor because of something you said or how you communicated, etc.); your tendency to be a poor listener and how it has had a negative impact on your relationships; a time when you failed to articulate yourself well enough and wanted to improve the clarity of your communication with others; etc.Since you will be choosing textbook concepts for this assignment, you will need to provide a reference page including in-text citations in APA style. Your paper will be judged according to the following criteria:1. Your ability to support your analysis through the use of relevant examples2. Your ability to connect classroom learning to your own patterns of communication3. The application of appropriate communication concepts and/or terminology from lecture or the textbook4. The demonstrated ability to think critically about your communicative style and to create a specific plan for improvement (quality of your writing/insights)5. Proper grammar, spelling, and overall format
COMM 120 Grossmont College Interpersonal Communication Discussion

Math question Help needed

Math question Help needed.

Last year budget for government was $4896 and this year
$5350. $4896 is to be reference value. What is relative change in budget from
last year to this year in %? The following year budget will be $5177, what’s
the decrease from this year budget of $5350 in %? If next year budget is
changed so that it is 8% less than this year budget of $5350, what is the
amount of next year budget?
Math question Help needed

Rachel Nickell – The Investigation of Colin Stagg

i need help writing an essay In July 1992, Rachel Nickell was attacked and murdered, her throat was cut, and she was stabbed 49 times then sexually assaulted. The sensitivity and cruelty of this case from the beginning, police faced pressure from the public and media to solve it. The investigation was carried out by Scotland Yard officers of the Metropolitan Police. After collecting evidence from a crime scene, there was no DNA found, which means that there was no forensic evidence to link any suspect with the crime scene (Evans 1992). The Metropolitan Police reached for help and advice from Paul Britton, a criminal psychologist, as profiling is mostly used in those cases where police have just a few clues (Britton 1997). It uses combination of psychological processes and theories with investigation to create offender profiling, geographical analysis of the crime location and offender, advises on interaction with media and providing interview strategies (Stelfox 2009). The work of Paul Britton can be criticised on the basic grounds, as it looked like he was leading the investigation or had too much powers form investigators instead of just offering the help to investigators to profile unknown suspect. Paul Britton was accused of breaching the British Psychological Society’s code of conduct when he helped the Metropolitan Police detectives to design and conduct the operation ‘Ezdell’, a ‘honey trap’ (Morris 2002). Paul Britton gave a detail description of a suspect and directed the investigation to Colin Stagg. However, the main aim of profiling is not to provide information for the police about who exactly committed a specific crime as mention earlier, but to make predictions and suggestions about the most probable characteristics, social and psychological assessment of the offender (Ainsworth 2001, Holmes and Holmes 1996). Paul Britton’s work and involvement in this case can be criticised according to Gudjonsson’s statement, that criminal psychologists tend to work on probabilities, suggestions and predictions, whereas police operate in terms of quilt or innocence, it is like a black and white scenario. It also means that the person labelled a suspect, Britton provided profile of Colin Stagg labelled as a potential suspect, will be presumed guilty until proven innocent (Gudjonsson 1992). ‘Honey-trap’: The Metropolitan Police carried out the covert operation just to see if Stagg will eliminate or incriminate himself. An undercover police woman from the Metropolitan Police’s Special Operation Group played role of covert human intelligence source (CHIS). She had to establish and maintain a relationship with Stagg to collect information about his sexual and violent fantasies (Stelfox 2009). Due to his ‘psychological profile’ of a murderer he was supposed to confess and revel his deepest secrets (Roberts and Zuckerman 2004). In his letters he talked about violent fantasies and over the phone described that he enjoyed hurting people. During the covert operation Stagg never admitted to murdering Rachel Nickell. However, Britton was confident about Stagg’s guilt and received an advice from Crown Prosecution Service’s lawyers. Once again Britton’s role went beyond making predictions and suggestions about most possible characteristics of the suspect (Ainsworth 2001, Holmes and Holmes 1996). He leaded the investigation. Police also believed that those evidences would be sufficient in court and guarantee conviction, after consultation with Britton. Colin Stagg was arrested and charged with Rachel Nickell’s murder in August 1993 (Evans 1992 and Cohen 1999). The case of Colin Stagg was seen as a textbook example of the unethical use of profiling and the abuse of powers (Turvey 2008 and Ormerod 1999), because the investigation was concentrated on finding the suspect and then constructing the investigation instead of investigating the crime scene and conducting investigation. In the other words, that’s an example of a case construction to charge the suspect (Maguire and Norris 1992). However, the entire and sophisticated psychological trap was created by Britton. Stagg was manipulated, entrapped, enticed and promised an affair with a beautiful woman only if he would confess. Simply speaking, the aim of the operation was to trick Stagg into confession. Britton’s way of constructing the covert operation, hints during the interview and analysing his reactions were unethical (Cohen 1999, Evans 1992 and Morris 2002). Also an undercover operation was seen as misconceived and the Metropolitan Police tried to incriminate a suspect by deceptive and unprofessional conduct to receive a confession, entrapment and profiling evidence were excluded and the case was withdrew by the prosecution (Ainsworth 2001, Cohen 1999, Evans 1992 and Johnson 2006). Arrest and interviewing: An introduction of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 determined many illegal activities of British detectives and introduced basics changes in approaching and interviewing suspect in the interview room. It is necessary to remember that inappropriate interviewing techniques may result that a genuinely innocent person will make a confession (Ainsworth 2001 and Cherryman, Bull and Vrij 2002). In Colin Stagg’s case, Paul Britton, gave specific advice to the police about the best way to conduct an interview with a suspect and how to approach him. Those advices were concentrated on the way how to persuade a suspect to confess. Stagg’s interview lasted for three days and during the interrogation suspect’s behaviour was contradictory and sometimes confusing. According to Britton, his denials were suggestive his basic intelligence level, it did not go through his mind that the suspect may be innocent (Ainsworth 2001). Stagg was detained in custody for interviewing for three days, however a suspect cannot be detained in the custody for longer than 24h without being charged, or it can be extended to 36h with the authority of police superintendent. If there is not enough evidence to charge the suspect, he/she need to be released on bail. According to those three scenarios, Stagg’s detentions in custody would be unlawful, but in case of murder charges, a suspect may be refused release and remain in the custody until the trail (Home Office 2010). Trial, conviction and eventual acquittal: There was no forensic evidence linking Colin Stagg with a crime scene, witness said to the police that saw him or a man very like him on the day of Rachel Nickell’s murder – that seems to be enough for the Metropolitan Police to tag Stagg as a suspect. The Metropolitan Police officers were under high pressure from the media and public to get a conviction and tend to misused powers of the science of criminal profiling. They examined and rejected 547 suspects but still have no idea who killed Rachel Nickell. Undercover female police officer tried to get Stagg to confess to Rachel Nickell’s murder, by encouraging Stagg to talk about his sexual and violent fantasies, promising to have sexual intercourse with him if his was the one who killed Rachel Nickell. Months of undercover work produced nothing, Stagg never admitted to murdering and stabbing to death Rachel Nickell. The police decided to make an arrest and charge Colin Stagg with a murder based on the intelligence collected during the undercover operation. Prosecution withdrew the case and Stagg was acquitted in 1994 (Ainsworth 2001, Cohen 1999). Cold case review and new suspect: In 2002, the Scotland Yard police used their cold case review team to have another look at the Rachel Nickell killing. Officers analysed witness statements, checked files for potential suspects and search for a connection between other crimes. They also compared Rachel Nickell’s injuries with other victims and contacted Forensic Science Service about new methods of DNA matching techniques (Tendler 2007). Latest techniques were used to take microscopic particles of victim’s DNA from the clothing and tested them in the laboratory to produce a match. The match did not belong to victim’s partner or son. Sample was helpful to eliminate some of the suspects, but was insufficient to provide identification (Leppard 2007). In 2006, the Scotland Yard team interview convicted sex killers in Bradmoor Hospital. Robert Napper was interviewed was interviewed three times by the murder squad. Year later, Nappel was charged with Rachel Nickell’s murder and he pleaded not guilty (O’Neill 2007). In 2008 Robert Nappel was found guilty of manslaughter of Rachel Nickell on the grounds of diminished responsibility (Leppard 2007 and Dodd 2007). Robert Nappel and series police errors: Robert Nappel was also known as Plumstead Ripper, was suspected of up to 40 violent raped, but has never admitted to them. Police started their ‘gross errors in judgment’ in 1989 where they failed to deal with Nappel’s mother claim who reported that Nappel admitted to raping a woman (Casciani 2010). Police officers could have arrest him before he assaulted and murdered more woman, but instead just ignored the claim (News London 2010). He was eliminated as a suspect from Rachel Nickell’s murder because he was not often in that area of London. However, Metropolitan Police did not checked Nappel’s past and current activities or involvement. In fact he knew the area well because he was attending for the psychiatric treatment in the nearby clinic. That was another mistake made by police which could save women’s life. There were few situations where Metropolitan Police officers did not joined the dots and saw Napper as a suspect. He was asked twice to give a blood sample for examinations in 1992, after phone calls from neighbours that Napper looks like a wanted rapist. Every time, Napper failed to turn up and after few weeks he was eliminated from the suspects because his height did not fit the description. After few months he was arrested for stalking a woman from the local police station. The police searched his flat and found pistol, ammunition, information about how to restrain someone, maps of London, and his private diary which included addressed of previous victims. If the police would link Nappel’s belongings found in the flat with Rachel Nickell’s murder, other local murders, then Nappel hopefully would be arrested quicker. Nappel’s victims were restrained, their addressed were in his personal diary and he also knew how to commune to their houses. However, Napper was only given short custodial sentence and during the trial, references about his mental state were made. No further actions were taken and he walked free from the police again. Year later, he attacked innocent women again, raped and stabbed her to death. After 6 months his finger prints were found in victim’s flat, but according to Britton and his perfect policing skills, the scenario was different and he was free again. In 1999 he was arrested for the above murder on the grounds of diminished responsibility. The Metropolitan Police failed to stop Nappel from committing terrible killing many times as shown above and he remained free for years. That was an example of catalogue bad decisions’ and major errors that allowed Nappel to murder innocent women. The police did not link few dots together to see overall picture of paranoid schizophrenic’s actions (BBC News 2008, Dodd 2007, Leppard 2007, Laville 2008, Laville, Siddique, Percival and Sturcke 2008 and Sinclair 2010). The Independent Police Complains Commission (IPCC) IPCC released a report in June 2010 about the actions of the Metropolitan Police Service in relation to handling the Rachel Nickell’s murder. Their actions were described as ‘catalogue of bas decisions’ which allowed Napper to kill his victims. Police failed to react when Nappel’s mother called to report that her son raped a girl, he simply continued to walk freely on the street s and pick new victims. They missed serious and clearly visible opportunities to question and arrest real killer, committed dreadful mistakes that resulted in innocent women being murdered and several women suffered violent sexual attacks (Holden 2010 and Maynard 2010). References: Ainsworth, P. B. (2001) ‘Offender Profiling and Crime Analysis’, Willan Publishing BBC News (2008) ‘Man admits Rachel Nickell killing’, (accessed on 17/10/2010) Britton, P. (1997) ‘The Jigsaw Men’, Banton Press Casciani, D. (2010) ‘Analysis’ (accessed on 17/10/2010) Cohen, N. (1999) ‘Cruel Britannia: Reports of sinister and preposterous’, Verso Cherryman, J, Bull, R. and Vrij, A. (2002) ‘How police officers view confession: Is there still a confession culture?’, Paper presented to the 10th European Conference of Psychology and Law, Limassol, Cyprus, 12-14th April Dodd, V. (2007) ‘Man charged with murder of Rachel Nickell 15 years ago after new investigation of case’, (accessed on 17/10/2010) Evans, C. (1992) ‘A question of evidence: The Casebook of great forensic controversies, from Napoleon to O.J’, John Wiley and Sons Gudjonsson, G. H. (1992) ‘The Psychology of Interrogations, Confessions and Testimony’, Wiley Holden, M. (2010) ‘IPCC says police must apologise over Nickell murder’, (accessed on 03/11/2010) Holmes, R. M. And Holmes, S. T. (1996) ‘Profiling Violent Crimes: An Investigative Tool’, Sage Home Office, (2010) ‘Police: Custody’, (accessed on 03/11/2010) Johnson, B. (2006) ‘Colin Stagg shows why trial by judge, not by media, is right’, (accessed on 16/10/2010) Laville, S. (2008) ‘Nickell case: Missed clues allowed Napper to kill again’, (accessed on 17/10/2010) Laville, S, Siddique, H, Percival, J. And Sturcke, J. (2008) ‘Rachel Nickell killing: Serial rapist Robert Napper pleads quilty’, (accessed on 17/10/2010) Leppard, D. (2007) ‘Met to charge Robert Napper for Rachel Nickell murder’, (accessed on 17/10/2010) Maguire, M. And Norris, C. (1992) ‘the conduct and supervision of criminal investigations’, RCCJ Research Study 5, London: HMSO Maynard, K. (2010) ‘It’s too late to bring misconduct proceedings for the police failure to apprehend Robert Napper before he murdered Rachel Nickell and others’, (accessed on 03/11/2010) Morris, S. (2002) ‘Honey trap case collapse’, (accessed on 16/10/2010) News London (2010) ‘Police errors’ led to Rachel Nickell killing’, (accessed 17/10/2010) O’Neill, S. (2007) ‘Robert Napper charged with Rachel Nickell murder after DNA breakthrough’, (accessed on 17/10/2010) Ormerod, D. (1999) ‘Criminal Profiling: trial by judge and jury, not by criminal psychologist’, in Carter, D. And Alison, L. (eds.) ‘Interviewing and Deception’, Ashgate Publishing Roberts, P. and Zuckerman, A. (2004) ‘Criminal Evidence’, Oxford: Oxford University Press Sinclair. L, (2010) ‘Police failures led to Rachel Nickell murder’,, (accessed on 17/10/2010) Stelfox, P. (2009) ‘Criminal Investigation: An introduction to principles and practice’, Willan Publishing Tendler, S. (2007) ‘DNA errors led to murder case review’, (accessed on 17/10/2010) Tong, S, Bryant, R. P. And Horvath, M. (2009) ‘Understanding Criminal Investigation’,Wiley-Backwell Turvey, B. E. (2008), ‘Criminal Profiling: An introduction to behavioural Evidence Analysis’, Third Edition, Elsevier

Healthcare Finance Business Plan

Healthcare Finance Business Plan.

The business plan should be 5–10 pages(excluding title page, table of content and reference page). This Assignmentwill be due at the end of Unit 9. Do not wait to begin working on your businessplan, as it will take some time to complete.The business plan must be in APA formatand all references must be in a reference pageThe business plan should include the following components:A. The name of your business B. A description of your business. Describe your idea; purpose, mission, vision, background information,and description of the product and or service. The business must be related tothe healthcare field (e.g., a doctor’s office, a home healthcare practice, anew hospital, etc.) Discuss how your business will meet a significantmarketplace need or solve a problem or challenge that currently exists in thecommunity. Discuss why you believe it is worth pursuing. C. Targeted location (Where you would propose to establish this business and explain your reasoning).D. Market analysis: Define the target market for your idea, why you think it exists, what you believe tobe the size of the market demand for your idea, and who your competitors willbe. Discuss how you would bring your product or service to market (how youwould go about building or developing your product, service or idea into areal, tangible product or service that customers would want and buy). Perform aS.W.O.T. Analysis.E. Budget: Create a budget that shows and discuss what it would cost in terms of time and resources to bring it to market and make it available to the public. In doing so, outline your plans to manage revenue (compliance management), manufacture the product or perform the service (including theproposed manufacturing process or method of performing the service) and your projection of the production costs, which may include: material labor, employees, salaries, equipment facility, etc).F. Requests for proposal (RFP): Include in your plan at least one product request from vendors forequipment you will need for your business. For example, electronic systems are commonly used in healthcare businesses. You can draft a request to review different electronic systems from various vendors that you might use in your business. Be sure to include details on the type of electronic system needed.G. Discuss risks and or uncertainties within your proposal: Outline what you believe are the mostsignificant risks and uncertainties that you are likely to experience in bringing your idea to market and discuss how you would deal with them. H.  Marketing strategy:Discuss your marketing and sales strategies. In doing so, discuss: Your target market, and how you plan to reach that market (e.g. distribution strategy, pricing strategy, promotion strategy). Discuss how your business will offer a unique value proposition and be able to sustain a competitive advantage in the market.  Discuss your marketing plan and budget to promote the business online oroffline.I. Discuss expected profit and return on investments: Estimate the revenues you expect to earn, as well asthe costs and expenses you expect to incur, and the resulting profits you would expect to earn over the first 3–5 years. Remember, even a non-profit business needs to be able to bring in enough revenues to cover its expenses. Estimate the amount of money you think would have to be invested to get your business started.J. Discuss your assessment of whether or not your business service is likely to be successful.
Healthcare Finance Business Plan

countious improvement

countious improvement.

In this final SLP, you will construct a simplified action plan with your team to foster continuous improvement and team learning. Each team member will submit his/her own copy of the same team plan. Plans should be 2-3 pages. To construct your plan, review your assessment from the Case for this module. Then, as a team, choose one improvement for each team process and clearly define the steps your team would have to take to achieve this improvement. Present the steps in a logical order and propose a date by which these steps could be completed, if your team were to stay together. Setting a realistic completion date is an essential part of any action plan. Keys to the Assignment The format for this SLP is flexible. You could consider a list, a chart, or a timeline. Be creative and have fun with it! The following optional reading may help you with your action plan: Writing an Action Plan based on your assessment. ( n.d.) Retrieved from*** I only need an introduction ( we willa slo be addressing the Climite, resources, norms and procedure, and countious improvement) and the chart below filled outeam ProcessAssessment and ImprovementDesign: Are there adequate opportunities for idea generation, development, finalization and closure, and evaluation? Is there an appropriate balance of periods for the team to work together, work apart, and then work together again? Is the chosen leadership structure optimal for guiding the team in its path toward creative results?
countious improvement