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Green Roofs in Malaysia

In Malaysia, green roofs are considered as a fairly new concept although the concept offers many benefits. Green roofs promotes amenity and aesthetic benefits, environmental benefits, and economic benefits. The principal aim of this research is to improve the quality of green roof systems in Malaysia by develop design guidelines for green roof systems. This research will identify the performance benefits of green roof, the current phenomenon of green roof as well as their obstacles to adopt green roof systems. Mixed method of qualitative and quantitative approach will be applied in this research. The review of the literature will be conducted to gather information about green roof in order to identify the benefits of green roof systems. Survey will be conducted among three target populations, namely developers, architects and landscape architects who work in the Malaysian construction industry. Individuals for the sample group will be selected because as providers of green roofs, their views and actions have a direct influence on green roof development. The categorization of the building professionals will enable easy identification of any disparity in views between them. Besides that, the case studies also one of the vital steps to achieve the objective of this research. The Case Studies will combine different methods to compile an understanding of design guidelines for green roof systems. Case study methods involve an in-depth, longitudinal examination of a single instance or event. They provide a systematic way of looking at events, collecting data, analyzing information, and reporting the results. This research is attempted to develop design guidelines for green roof systems in Malaysia. The findings from this research will open new avenues and fields for future researchers and academicians to carry out extensive researches on the topics concerned. INTRODUCTION The green roof is a system that used growing medium and vegetation on the top of the building roof (Cresswell, 2007). The vegetation is planted in a layer of soil or growing medium as the top layer of the roof. The water membrane system is positioned between growing medium and roof deck to carry away access water and also have a filter system to make sure that the plants have a sufficient water supply during dryer day (Long et al., 2006, Piper, 2003). Green roofs have been increasingly popular in Germany, United Stated of America and Europe (Koonce, 2010) not just because of the aesthetic value, but also for improving environment (Li et al., 2010). As discussed by (Castleton et al., 2010) the roof of a building can be partially or completely covered with a layer of vegetation. Many expert confirm that green roof can be classified into two types of systems which are intensive and extensive (Long et al., 2006, Molineux et al., 2009, Cresswell, 2007, Castleton et al., 2010). Intensive systems is more like a roof garden supporting large tree and shrubs, but require deep substrates and regular maintenance. Therefore, it is generally heavy and requires a specific support from the building (Molineux et al., 2009, Cresswell, 2007). The extensive system is opposite of intensive systems which have a thin substrate layer with low level planting, typically sedum or lawn, and can be very lightweight in structure (Castleton et al., 2010). Instead of lightweight, these roofs require little or no additional structural support from the building, less expensive, low maintenance, and designed for limited human access. Plants selected for extensive system are usually have a shallow root system, good regenerative abilities, resistance to direct solar radiation, harsh winds or heavy rainfall, and ground cover species on slopes up to 30% (Long et al., 2006, Cresswell, 2007). There are many potential benefits of green roofs. These may be considered to fall into three main categories, Amenity and Aesthetic Benefits, Environmental Benefits, and Economic Benefits, although there is a great deal of crossover between categories. Amenity

Analysing Types Of Collection System Engineering Essay

Based on their mode of operation, collection systems are classified into two categories: hauled-container systems and stationary-container systems. Hauled-Container Systems (HCS): Collection systems in which the containers used for the storage of wastes are hauled to the processing, transfer, or disposal site, emptied, and returned to either their original location or some other location are defined as hauled-container systems. There are two main types of hauled-container systems: (1) tilt-frame container and (2) trash-trailer. The collector is responsible for driving the vehicle, loading full containers and unloading empty containers, and emptying the contents of the container at the disposal site. In some cases, for safety reasons, both a driver and helper are used. Systems that use tilt-frame-loaded vehicles and large containers, often called drop boxes, are ideally suited for the collection of all types of solid waste and rubbish from locations where the generation rate warrants the use of large containers. Open-top containers are used routinely at warehouses and construction sites. Large containers used in conjunction with stationary compactors are common at commercial and industrial services and at transfer stations. Because of the large volume that can be hauled, the use of tilt-frame hauled container systems has become widespread, especially among private collectors servicing industrial accounts. The application of trash-trailers is similar to that of tilt-frame container systems. Trash-trailers are better for the collection of especially heavy rubbish, such as sand, timber, and metal scrap, and often are used for the collection of demolition wastes at construction sites. Stationary-Container Systems (SCS): Collection systems in which the containers used for the storage of wastes remain at the point of waste generation, except when moved for collection are defined as stationary-container systems. Labor requirements for mechanically loaded stationary-container systems are essentially the same as for hauled-container systems. There are two main types of stationary-container systems: (1) those in which self-loading compactors are used and (2) those in which manually loaded vehicles are used. Because a variety of container sizes and types are available, these systems may be used for the collection of all types of wastes. The major application of manual transfer and loading methods is in the collection of residential wastes and litter. Manual methods are used for the collection of industrial wastes where pickup points are inaccessible to the collection vehicle. Collection Routes: Once the equipment


term paper help Contents Introduction Literature Review Buildability/constructability Productivity Supply Chain Lean construction Sustainability Innovation and technology Value engineering BIM E-procurement Partnering Case Study Conclusion References Introduction Procurement is the act of obtaining goods and services from external sources (i.e. a building contractor) and includes deciding the strategy on how those goods are to be acquired by reviewing the client’s requirements and their attitude to risk. One of the features of the construction industry over the last three decades or so, has been the use of various procurement methods for the projects such as management contracting, project management and design and build. With the growth in the use of these methods, a number of researchers have investigated the criteria for their selection and their performance in terms of time, cost and quality . Procurement can be described as a series of considered risks – each method has individual strengths and weaknesses, which must be carefully calculated by clients and industry alike. Procurement routes generally differ as follows;  Client’s exposure to financial insecurity  Control Client has over design and construction processes  Extent of design information at tender stage  Information required at time construction commences  Extent of involvement by contractor at design stage  Organisational arrangements  Distribution of risk/responsibility Procurement method selection is difficult, because even the most experienced client or contractor does not know all the potential benefits or risks for each method. New innovative methods of procurement have focused on reducing this risk. According to extensive research on the topic of procurement, some of the recurring problems in the course of procuring projects include: Cost Overrun Cost overrun essentially refers to the final cost of a construction project exceeding the original estimates (Avotos, 1983). Wanjari et al (2015) identified the top three factors affecting cost overruns in construction to be inflation in prices of raw material, delay in planned activity and lack of co-ordination between construction parties. Late Delivery Prakash (2016) denotes delay as the most common, costly, complex and risky problem encountered in construction projects. Potential causes of delay by fault of the client include late submission of drawings and specifications, frequent change orders etc. Delays caused by contractors can generally be attributed to poor managerial skills. Late delivery of a project can be minimised when the causes of delay are identified at an early stage. Furthermore, factors such as ground conditions, topography, logistics, weather, available technologies, labour availability and services can all greatly affect a project’s programme Overstaffed Organisations According to research (Intergraph, 2012), contractors are annually faced with high value construction claims as a result of inefficiency factors impacting labour. Design changes frequently occur mid construction and there may be need for new or additional material, constraints, and equipment, which affect the sequence, duration, and schedule of work packages. This, in turn, leads to an increase in idle time of workers waiting on material or in some cases, manpower increases causing work areas to be overcrowded with workers who now need to share and occupy the same work space, scaffolding, or equipment with other trades. Hence, a further drop in productivity. Low Efficiency Low efficiency can be put down to a number of factors such as untidiness on construction sites, slow turnaround of information provided by clients/consultants, lack of training/misuse of automated document control systems, poor planning etc. A number of previous studies (particularly Horner and Duff, 2001; Chan, 2002) have identified the quality of project management and supervision as critical to productivity. This paper aims to review research surrounding the topic of procurement, analysing the common issues raised with regard to the various procurement methods and offer potential solutions to the shortcomings of current procurement based on research undertaken. Literature Review Buildability/constructability To put it simply, ‘buildability’ essentially refers to ‘the extent to which the design of a building facilitates ease of construction, subject to the overall requirements for the completed building’ (CIRIA, 1983, p. 6) Buildability has been linked to time, cost, quality and safety performance in construction. Buildability issues are partly due to confrontational attitudes between client, contractors and consultants under the traditional procurement arrangement. It has been postulated that construction time performance is strongly associated with buildability in the design of external wall elements, simplicity of assembly and installation considerations, while other design attributes affect cost, quality and safety performance to varying degrees. Benchmarking of buildability should not constrain designs but rather be used as a guide, supported by a databank. Buildability benchmarking may be more applicable to projects such as public housing, small office buildings, three-star hotels, factories, schools and social service centres, etc. Fully integrated procurement methods such as Design and Build and project management are most appropriate for clients placing a high priority on the buildability of their project. Chan et al. (2010) asserted that if a proactive contractor is involved at the pre‐construction stage with advanced works, programme planning and materials procurement, as well as the buildability of project design will be remarkably enhanced. A comparative study of buildability perspectives between clients, consultants and contractors conducted by Patrick T.I. Lam and Franky W.H. Wong, (2011) revealed that clients/consultants look at buildability from a longer term and schematic design perspective in the overall interest of their companies, whilst contractors look for more flexibility during the construction process. The study concluded that it is beneficial to integrate the contractors’ expertise into building designs early enough so that buildability issues can be worked out to the satisfaction of all concerned. Productivity Productivity is the output produced by a unit of study as a proportion of the inputs required to produce it (OECD, 2001). In construction, the output is usually expressed in weight, length, or volume, and the input resource is usually in cost of labour or man-hours (Intergraph, 2012). Horner and Duff’s (2001) analysis of 25 years of construction productivity research up to 2001 concluded that there had been few changes to the way construction projects had been managed over the last 50 years and that there was huge room for improvement. A recent 2014 study conducted by Martin Loosemore (Faculty of the Built Environment, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia) found that poor tendering practices can lead to productivity issues, with participants claiming that tender periods can be too short and don’t give subcontractors ample opportunity to innovate. He concluded that everyone in the supply and demand chain has a role in improving productivity. A “culture” of productivity improvement will need to be “nurtured” across the business and supply chain if productivity is to be improved. The results of the study also indicated that contractors should revisit their tender processes. Chan (2002) stated that site welfare, job prospects, skills training and qualifications are critical to sustaining long-term productivity improvements. Supply Chain ‘Supply chain’ is the term used to describe the linkage of companies that turns a series of basic materials, products or services into a finished product for the client. SCM (supply chain management) is a process to coordinate and distribute all commodities among the stakeholders in a strategic manner. Wang et al. (2018) points out that a proper, efficient planning approach with regard to materials and logistics will improve the project performance and as a consequence can reduce the whole construction cost. Al-Bizri and Gray (2010) are of the opinion that the construction supply chain is not integrated into one group with a common purpose, and as a potential solution suggest the use of technology clusters. This involves the grouping of supply chains (i.e. the client, designers, engineers, construction team etc.) to enable focused procedures. The benefits of a more integrated supply chain for end-users and project clients include a more responsive industry delivering facilities that better meet user needs, delivered to time and cost with minimum defects. This in turn creates higher customer satisfaction levels and an improved reputation Khalfan et al (2014) note that some of the key barriers to greater integration within the construction supply chain include the fragmentation of project delivery system, lack of trust, and adversarial contractual relationship. Dainty et al. (2001) suggest that some of the barriers of integration could also be broken down through improvement of communication abilities among project-based staff. Barratt (2004) reports some of the SCM implementation problems including: collaboration is difficult to implement; over-reliance on technology for implementation; failure to differentiate between whom to collaborate with; and lack of trust between trading partners. Lean construction Recently, the concept of lean thinking has been adopted by the construction industry as a means of supply chain improvement (Ballard and Howell, 2003; Green and May, 2005; Jorgensen and Emmitt, 2009). Hence, the term lean construction. Eriksson and Koskela (2009) identify six main components of lean construction; Waste reduction Process focus in production planning and control End customer focus Continuous improvements Co-operative relationships Systems perspective Relying on competitive bidding is not efficient when applying lean construction to procurement (Elfving et al., 2005; Green and May, 2005). Rather than optimising client satisfaction, prioritising lowest tender prices will foster self‐protecting attitudes among contractors (Eriksson and Laan, 2007; Khalfan et al., 2007). In terms of applying lean construction to procurement, it can be argued that strong emphasis should be put upon the importance of forging co-operative relationships from the outset as well as acknowledging continuous improvement (i.e. partnering). A fundamental change should be made in the behaviours and attitudes of the parties involved (Eriksson and Laan, 2007). Sustainability Sustainable procurement is defined as: a process whereby organisations meet their needs for goods, services, works and utilities in a way that achieves value for money on a whole life basis in terms of generating benefits not only to the organisation, but also to society and the economy, whilst minimising damage to the environment (CIPS). Sustainable procurement can improve procurement practices and enhance the sustainability performance of the construction industry as a whole. Ofori et al. (2002) considered the main obstacles to sustainable procurement to be designing a proper supply chain, and overcoming the traditional attitudes in the construction industry, as the main obstacles for implementing sustainable supply chains. Ruparathna et al (2015) identified budget restrictions, lack of awareness, understanding, information, commitment, and demand as well as insufficient policies, regulations, incentives, and lack of leadership as some of the main challenges for implementing sustainable procurement. In order to achieve improved sustainability, significant change will need to be made within the construction industry with a particular focus on the organisation, structure and communication channels of the industry. Hamza and Greenwood (2007) note the challenges in achieving sustainability under the traditional and design and build procurement arrangements due to conflicts with the contractor’s incentive to avoid delays and extra cost. Innovation and technology There is increasing pressure from clients to improve quality, reduce costs and speed up construction processes. (Naoum et al., 2015). Egbu (2004) argued that the ability to innovate depends largely on the way in which an organisation uses and exploits the resources available to it. There is pressure within the construction industry to become more innovative and deliver better value for money for clients, however there are certain characteristics of the industry that appear to slow progress and make innovation difficult (Valence, 2010). The level of innovation within the construction industry is directly influenced by the procurement method chosen. The traditional design-bid-build method does not allow for capture of intellectual property and knowledge externalities by contractors in their tenders. With the increased use of non-traditional procurement methods such as design and construct, D

University of Maryland Week 3 The Evening Shades Executive Report

University of Maryland Week 3 The Evening Shades Executive Report.

In this discussion, you will re-write a sample paper’s executive summary by applying the format and structure from the Victoria Business School Report (from Week 3). Provide feedback for one classmate’s answers. Please examine the sample research-based report, Evening Shades.” BE AWARE: this paper cites sources and lists references using APA 6th Edition.Complete the following task. Post your answers as your response to this discussion topic.Examine the executive summary. Please re-write the executive summary using the example from the Victoria Business School from week 3 as your model. In other words, read over the executive summary from the report in the document from the Victoria Business School. Then rewrite the executive summary for the “Evening Shades” report in the format and structure of the Victoria Business School report. Remember to respond to one classmate’s executive summary rewrite.
University of Maryland Week 3 The Evening Shades Executive Report

Career PortfolioHide Assignment Information Instructions Over the last few weeks, you have learned how to: examine skill sets and develop resources necessary for entering a career path. compare, evaluate, and assess career and economic markets, utilizing

Career PortfolioHide Assignment Information Instructions Over the last few weeks, you have learned how to: examine skill sets and develop resources necessary for entering a career path. compare, evaluate, and assess career and economic markets, utilizing.

Hide Assignment InformationInstructionsOver the last few weeks, you have learned how to:examine skill sets and develop resources necessary for entering a career, evaluate, and assess career and economic markets, utilizing different technologies to formulate best options for a career path.Using what you have learned from the course resources, your peers, and your professor, you will submit the final drafts of several assignments this week. Be sure to incorporate any feedback from your professor into your final submission. You will submit AS ONE WORD DOCUMENT or PDF:Final: Cover Letter (updated with feedback received earlier this session)Final: General Resume (updated with feedback received earlier this session)Final: Reference list (to be completed this week)Final: Thank you note (to be completed this week)All documents should be free of grammatical/formatting errors. Remember that you should be using Arial, Times, or Courier as your font (12pt).
Career PortfolioHide Assignment Information Instructions Over the last few weeks, you have learned how to: examine skill sets and develop resources necessary for entering a career path. compare, evaluate, and assess career and economic markets, utilizing