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Graphene Oxide (GO) as Antimicrobial Property

Over the past several years scientists have studied graphene materials (graphene, graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide) for its antimicrobial properties and its future application in the biomedical field. To date, the exact mechanism for why graphene and its derivatives have antibacterial properties has not been fully understood due to experimental design variables. Scientists have agreed that oxidative stress, phospholipid extraction, and nanoknives all play an important role in the antibacterial properties of graphene materials. There are several techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron spectroscopy, and mass spectroscopy that have been used to monitor change in morphology and cell death after exposure to graphene and its derivatives. Through these techniques scientist have been able to confirm that graphene materials are able to promote cellular death in both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, leading to its promising future also in pharmaceuticals. Graphene is a two-dimensional hexagonal structure, consisting of a basal plane (along the surface) and lateral edges, that are made up of sp2 hybridized carbons which form a conjugated Ï€ system. This Ï€-conjugated system makes graphene very hydrophobic and able to interact with the hydrophobic cell membranes of bacteria. Graphene oxide (GO) is most commonly prepared using the Hummers method, which consists of a multi-step synthesis. First the graphite material is oxidized to form graphite oxide and then this is exfoliated via sonication to form a single layer of material called GO. Through the oxidation process oxygenated functional groups are introduced into the basal surfaces and lateral edges of GO. On the basal surface of GO, the functional groups of epoxides and hydroxyl groups are present, whereas, the larger groups such as carboxyl and carbonyl groups form along the lateral edges. It is important to note that with the introduction of the oxygenated functional groups, the basal plane and lateral edges will need to adopt sp3 hybridized carbons, which results in the formation of defect regions where the Ï€-conjugated system is broken. The presence of these defects will be explored in more detail below as these areas are critical in the antibacterial properties of GO. In the literature, GO and other graphene materials have demonstrated through both physical and chemical mechanisms they have the ability to reduce bacterial cell count of both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria1. Several pivotal studies have been conducted in order to determine the key mechanism behind the antibacterial properties of GO. Nada et.al studied the antibacterial mechanisms using Raman spectroscopy2, Zhang et.al studied the antibacterial activity using mass spectroscopy3, and Yusong et.al examined the effects of extraction of phospholipids from E-coli by graphene nanosheets4.These studies have led to the development of several mechanisms including the cutting of the membrane wall by the sharp edges of the defect sites (nanoknives), phospholipid extraction and oxidative stress. The various experiments to date regardless of experimental design demonstrated that it is not a single mechanism that is responsible for the antibacterial properties of GO but rather a combination of several mechanisms that can contribute to the overall antibacterial properties. Ultimately, it is the breakdown in the cell membrane that causes intracellular leakage of vital proteins, nucleic acids, and cytoplasmic material that results in the loss of reproduction and cell death. The cutting mechanism also referred to in the literature as nanoknives is one of the most important mechanisms that lead to the antibacterial properties of GO. The sharp lateral edges of GO are able to penetrate into the cell membrane’s inner and outer layer. This leads to the loss of cell membrane integrity and leakage of intracellular materials such as the cytoplasm, nucleic acids, proteins and amino acids. Nada et al used a variety of techniques, such as Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to observe the cellular changes (deformation or loss of cell membrane integrity) of bacteria, such as E Coli when exposed to varying concentrations of GO material. Raman spectroscopy was used to determine how E.coli reacts to an increasing concentration of GO. From the research done by Nada and team the bands with the greatest change were those of adenine (a nucleic acid) (729cm-1), the S-S stretching vibrations (490cm-1) of the disulphide bonds (found on the surface of the cell) and the amide group (found in proteins) bending vibration at 610cm-1.2 The intensity of each of these bands increased with the increase in GO concentration. This positively confirms that GO had penetrated into the cell membrane, causing the loss integrity and allowing the intracellular material such as adenine and other proteins to leak from the cell. Once this material was leaked from the cell, its vibrational absorption increase the signal in the Raman spectrum intensified. The examined the effects of GO on E. coli using SEM was used to observe the morphological changes in cells after exposure to GO. Figure 1 below, shows the morphological effects on E. coli with increasing GO concentration2. Image A represents the control of E. coli cells. In image B, E. coli was treated with low concentration of GO causing morphological changes seen by the distortion (flattening or squishing) of the rod shape. As the concentration of the GO treatment increases the sharp edges of the GO material are able to penetrate into the cell membrane (as seen in the red arrow in image c) and lead to a loss of cell membrane integrity resulting in the leakage of the intracellular material. 2 This effect was not isolated to only gram-negative bacteria but also gram-positive bacteria as well, in which the thickness of the cell membrane is different however similar results were observed. Therefore, the thickness of the cell membrane does not play a critical role in the nano-knife cutting mechanism as GO was able to penetrate both the inner and outer cell membrane walls. The size of the GO also plays a key role in the cutting ability of GO due to the changes in the basal plane and lateral edges. A study lead by Perreault examined how altering the size of GO changed the cell viability of E. coli. GO sheets were altered by varying the sonication time and power in order to obtain GO sizes ranging from 0.65 µm2 down to 0.01 µm2.5 Using live/dead fluorescence staining it was determined that there was no change in cell viability (%living) when the bacteria was not in contact with GO as shown in the control of figure 2.5 The green dots represents the number of colony forming units (CFU) alive and the red dots are dead CFUs. The smaller sheet size of 0.01 µm2 has significantly lower cell viability (30%) when compared to the 0.65 µm2 sheet (73%).5 This phenomenon is explained by the fact that as the size of the GO material is decreased the amount of defects in the sp2 hybridized carbons of the basal plane and edges increases. The defects are caused by either the addition of oxygen groups or shrinkage in size that destroys a portion of the basal plane. This effect creates additional sharp edges in both the lateral edges and basal plane leading to more nanoknives that are capable of cutting through the cell membrane. This allows for increase areas of interaction with the bacterial. This was also confirmed using SEM where larger sheet sizes (0.65µm2) showed very little deformation and almost normal cell structure whereas smaller sheets (0.01 µm2) appeared to be flattened and deformed leading to a compromised cell structure5. It is interesting to note that the amount of surface defects also plays a critical role in the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that will create oxidative stress to the cell membrane and additional loss of membrane integrity. Therefore, it is impossible to determine if only the physiochemical mechanism of cutting is the single mechanism that impacts cell viability or multiple mechanisms do. In reality, with smaller GO size the loss of cell membrane integrity and intracellular leakage can be attributed to both the nano-knife effect and oxidative stress due to the increase in defects. This mechanism also has been shown to work in combination with other mechanisms such phospholipid extraction in which after cutting into the cell membrane the phospholipids are better able to be extracted by GO. This effect is due to hydrophobic attraction between the phospholipid tails and the Ï€-conjugated sp2 carbons of the basal plane. This will be discussed in further details in the later sections. GO is highly hydrophobic due to the Ï€-conjugation of the basal surface which allows it to interact with the phospholipid layer of the bacterial cell membrane. The oxygenated groups on GO provides a hydrophilic portion of the compound that is able to interact with the polar heads of the phospholipids. Yusong et al performed a detailed experiment on this and showed that extraction of the phospholipid molecules via hydrophobic interactions causes cell membrane deformation and collapse.5 There are two main mechanisms for the extraction of the phospholipids depending on the size of the GO material. With larger GO materials, the nanosheet will lie along the cell membrane causing a disruption of the phospholipid membrane; allow the GO material to embed itself into the lipophilic portions of the membrane1. For smaller GO materials, the sheet will lie perpendicular to the membrane and penetrate through the cell membrane (either partially or completely) via the nano-knife mechanism. This further supports the theory that it is not a single mechanism that allows for the antibacterial properties but a combination of several. The extraction of phospholipids occurs in several steps (see Figure 3). The first step involves a slight shifting of phospholipids due to the docking of the GO nanosheet as described by Yuesong (Image a).4 Next the phospholipid head will begin to break through the cell membrane and “climb” up the GO sheet (image b). This climbing effect is observed as result of the strong attractive forces between the hydrophobic regions of the basal plane and the hydrophobic tails of the phospholipids. This extraction process will continue until the GO material is covered completely with phospholipids with several layers of phospholipids climbing at the same time (image d). The phospholipids will evenly spread over the surface in such a way that the hydrophobic tails will align with the hydrophobic regions of the basal surface and the polar heads will align with the oxygenated functional groups of GO (images e and f).4 The loss of the phospholipids from the cell membrane causes a loss in membrane density which weakens the cell membrane. Due to the loss of density and the penetration of the GO into the cell, cell membrane integrity is lost resulting in the leakage intracellular fluids. This effect can be seen with the aid of TEM as morphological changes are easily identified using this method of analysis (see figure 4)4. Image A represents the initial state in which no morphological changes have occurred when E-coli was treated with GO.4 Over time as the phospholipid extraction occurs, the cell membrane density will decrease as shown in images b and c seen by the Type B arrows. The last step in the process is when cell integrity is lost and the intracellular material begins to leak. This effect is also observed in the images d-f where the cells are transparent due to loss of the cytoplasm4. This confirms that the phospholipid extraction occurs with the aid of the nanoknives leading to loss in cell viability. Another group of scientist lead by Zhang’s used mass spectroscopy to map the metabolites of E-coli before and after exposure to GO.3 A typical mass spectrum of E-coli without GO treatment is shown Figure 5a. The most important peaks are at m/z 306 which corresponds to glutathione (GHS), which is an antioxidant commonly found in E. coli, and the membrane phospholipids phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG), at approximately m/z 600-8003. As the concentration of GO increased the overall intensities of the GSH, PE and PG all decreased (see fig 5b). This aligns with the previous studies of Yusong in which the extraction of the phospholipids leads to a decrease in cell membrane density. This was clearly observed by the decrease in signal intensities of both PE and PG. In the mass spec results obtain by Zhang’s team there was also a decrease in GSH intensity. GSH is a critical antioxidant found in E. coli and will act as a scavenger for any free oxygen radicals that may be present in the bacteria’s environment. GSH prevents the oxidative breakdown of the phospholipid membrane that can also lead to a loss of cell membrane integrity and intracellular leakage. This finding confirms the previous hypothesis that there are many mechanisms running in parallel that ultimately attribute to the overall antibacterial properties of GO. In this very example, the nano-knives are able to cut into the phospholipid membrane and start the chain reaction of phospholipid extraction. This extraction causes a decrease in phospholipid density which in parallel with the cutting of the membrane by the nanoknives and oxidative stress leads to a loss in cell membrane integrity. This loss in cell membrane integrity leads to a loss of intracellular material such cytoplasmic material, nucleic acids and proteins.. As demonstrated by the mass spectrum results obtained by Zhang et al, oxidative stress occurs when there is a decrease in antioxidant concentration (such as GSH)3. The consumption of GSH occurs in the presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are typically composed of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anions (O2*), hydroxyl radical (OH*) or singlet molecular oxygen species(1O2)1. When the antioxidants (such as GSH) are depleted the ROS compounds will then cause oxidation of key lipids in the cell membrane, proteins or even nucleic acids. The formation of the ROS compounds occurs due to the very nature of GO. When graphite is oxidized to form graphite oxide, the basal plane obtains additional defects as the result of the loss of Ï€-conjugation. This loss of Ï€-conjugation occurs due to the introduction of the oxygenated functional groups such as epoxides and hydroxyl groups which creates sp3 hybridized carbons. The introduction of the sp3 carbons alters the planer geometry of the basal plane by introducing tetrahedral carbons, creating defects in the lateral edges and basal plane. Additional defects can also be introduced as mentioned in the previous section when the size of the GO material is decreased. As the size of the sheets decreases the ability of the GO to stay as a perfect hexagonal structure also diminishes as the structure gets distorted to accommodate the smaller size. The process of oxidative stress begins with the formation of ROS compounds. Oxygen is absorbed to the surface of the basal plane or lateral edges at the defects sites to form surface oxides. These surface oxides release ROS species in the presence of antioxidants as a result of a redox reaction. In the presence of GSH (an antioxidant found in E. coli), the surface oxides found on GO are reduced by an electron transfer from GSH. Another GSH molecule will then donate a proton to the ROS species, causing its reduction and subsequent release of a water molecule.5 The deprotonated GSH molecule will then react with another GSH molecule to form glutathione disulphide. If GSH is not available, the ROS species will then oxidize the lipids in the cell membrane to form as a lipid peroxide radical causing oxidative stress to the cell membrane. This oxidative stress will continue down the cell membrane until the lipid peroxide radical encounters an antioxidant bound to the cell membrane such as Vitamin E. It is important to keep in mind that with an increased amount of free oxygen radicals the extent of oxidative stress increases and the overall cell integrity decreases. As mentioned earlier, the size and shape of the GO plays a key role in determine the extent of the oxidative stress. As the size of the GO material decreases from 0.065 to 0.01µm2 the amount of surface defects increases. Again this is due to the loss of the conjugation and destruction of the basal plane. With the smaller GO material the presence of additional defects allows for the formation of many more surface oxides that can later be reduced to form ROS compounds. These ROS compounds then will continue to deplete the antioxidants and lead to further lipid peroxidation. This effect will continue until enough oxidative stress exists to cause the membrane to collapse and bacterial death to occur. Perreault and team demonstrated this effect when they examined through Raman spectroscopy and cell viability testing that the size of the GO material plays a critical role in the ability of the material to induce oxidative stress. Figure 6 shows that as the size of the sheet decreases, the amount of disorder due to the defects (D band) increases. Therefore there is a direct correlation to number of defects and the ability of GO to form ROS species that interact with GSH. This is further confirmed with the graph in figure 6a which shows the %loss of GSH decreases with the increase in GO size. Therefore it not only the nanoknives that that are influenced by the size of GO but also oxidative stress due to the adsorbed oxygen and ROS formation. As demonstrated through the various studies conducted by Nada et al, Zhang et.al, and Yusong et al the key antibacterial mechanisms of GO are cutting via nanoknives, phospholipid extraction and oxidative stress that contribute to the overall antibacterial properties of GO. The research to date indicates it is not a single mechanism that creates the antibacterial properties of GO but a combination of all factors. How much antibacterial is dependent on the physical size of GO plays and the number of defects in the basal surface and lateral edges. As the size of GO decreases a larger degree of surface defects forms. These defects play two important roles in the antimicrobial properties of GO. First, an increase in surface defects creates an increase in the number of sharp edges that causes a loss of cellular membrane integrity. Directly, the cell membrane is compromised by the penetration of the nano-knives resulting in intracellular leakage of the cytoplasm, amino acids, proteins and nucleic acids, Indirectly, once the nano-knives cut into the cell membrane it becomes embedded through attractive force between the hydrophobic tails of the cell membrane’s phospholipids and basal plane promotes phospholipid extraction. This extraction causes a decrease in cell membrane density which further breaks down the membrane causing additional intracellular leakage of key nucleic acids, cytoplasm and proteins. Lastly, the increase in surface defects of the basal plane increases the presence of reactive oxygen species. These species will react with any antioxidant present in the bacterial cell depleting their levels. Once depleted or reduced, the ROS will cause oxidation of the cell membrane lipids leading to a chain reaction of oxidative stress through the cell membrane. This also will lead to a loss of cell membrane integrity and intracellular leakage of key proteins and nucleic acids responsible for cell growth and replication. Without this material the bacteria cell will die leading to the antibacterial properties observed in GO. With the development of drug resistant bacteria, new and inventive ways to treat bacterial infections need to be explored. GO with its unique chemical and physical properties show much promise as the next antibacterial treatment. Additional studies need to be conducted to determine the cytotoxicity of GO in animals and humans in order to development new treatment therapies. Zou,X.; Zhang, L.; Wang, Z., Luo, Y. Mechanisms of the Antimicrobial Activities of Graphene Materials. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2016, 138, 2064-2077 Nada, S.S; Yi, D.K; Kim, K. Study of antibacterial mechanisms of graphene oxide using Raman spectroscopy. Sci. Rep. 2016, 6, 28443; doi: 10.103,srep28443 Zhang, N.; Hou, j.; Chen, S.; Xiong, C.; Liu, H.; Jin, Y.; Wang, J.; He, Q.; Zhao, R.; Nie, Z.. Rapidly probing antibacterial activity of Graphene oxide by Mass Spectrometry-based metabolite fingerprinting Sci. Rep. 2016, 6, 28045; doi: 10.1038,srep28085 Yusong, T.; Lv, M.; Xiu; Huynh, T.; Zhang, M.; Castelli, M.; Liu, Z.; Huang, Q.; Fan, C.; Fang, H.; Zhou, R. Destructive extraction of phospholipids from Escherichia coli membranes by graphene nanosheets. Nat. Nanotechnol. 2013, 8, 594-601, doi:10.1038/nnano.2013.125 Perreault, F.; Fonseca de Faria, A.; Nejati, S.; Elimelech, M. Antimicrobial Properties of Graphene Oxide Nanosheets: Why Size Matters. ACS Nano. 2015, 7, 7226-7236
COM 223 Ashford University Week 5 Online Learning Advertising Campaign Paper.

Review the Final Paper instructions found in Week 5. This assignment will require you to design an advertising campaign aimed at promoting online education. The draft should provide a preliminary description of all the parts of the campaign identified in the Final Paper instructions.The draft must be 1000 – 1500 words in length (do not include title and reference pages in your word count) and formatted according to APA style. The draft must contain an introduction with thesis statement, at least three body paragraphs, and a conclusion. For a review of how to create these elements of an essay, visit the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external site.). Identify at least three persuasion theories covered in the course, and apply them to the analysis of your advertising campaign as noted in the Final Paper instructions in Week 5. You must use at least three scholarly resources to support your claims and sub-claims. At least one of those sources should come from the Ashford University Library. Cite your resources in text and on the reference page.The Final Paper DraftMust be 1000 to 1500 words in length (do not include title and references pages in your word count) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Writing Center (Links to an external site.).Must include a separate title page (Links to an external site.) with the following:Title of paperStudent’s nameCourse name and numberInstructor’s nameDate submittedMust use at least three scholarly sources.The Scholarly, Peer Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources (Links to an external site.) table offers additional guidance on appropriate source types. If you have questions about whether a specific source is appropriate for this assignment, please contact your instructor. Your instructor has the final say about the appropriateness of a specific source for a particular assignment.Must document all sources in text (Links to an external site.) in APA style as outlined in the Writing Center.Must include a separate references page (Links to an external site.) that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Writing Center.Carefully review the Grading Rubric (Links to an external site.) for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.
COM 223 Ashford University Week 5 Online Learning Advertising Campaign Paper

AU Apple Organization Products Evaluating a Corporate Societal Relationship Essay.

Evaluating a Corporate-Societal RelationshipPreparationAccording to the textbook, the current world economy is increasingly becoming integrated and interdependent; as a result, the relationship between business and society is becoming more complex. In this assignment, you will be researching a Fortune 500 company from an approved company list provided by your professor.InstructionsWrite a 4–5 page evaluation of your chosen company’s performance with respect to its stated values. Do the following:Summarize the company’s primary products and or services.Suggest three ways in which the primary stakeholders can influence the organization’s financial performance. Provide support for your response.Describe two critical factors in the organization’s external environment that can affect its success. Support your assertions.Assess the company’s biggest success or missed opportunity to respond to a recent or current social issue. How did it impact company performance?Integrate at least two supporting resources from the Strayer University Library or other reputable sources.
AU Apple Organization Products Evaluating a Corporate Societal Relationship Essay

Correlational Study Examining Emotional Intelligence, Burnout, and Job Insecurity Research Paper. The notion of emotional intelligence According to Mayer, Salovey and Caruso (2008), the original notion of emotional intelligence (EI) was that some people have the capacity to reason as well as utilize emotions to augment their thoughts more efficiently than others (p.503). Ever since 1990, emotional intelligence has developed into a small sphere of consulting, education, testing and publication (Mathews, RobertsCorrelational Study Examining Emotional Intelligence, Burnout, and Job Insecurity Research Paper

Effects of Hedge Funds on the Global Financial Crisis Critical Essay

Effects of Hedge Funds on the Global Financial Crisis Critical Essay. Article Summary The article titled “Don’t Blame Hedge Funds for Financial Crisis, Study Says,” in 19th September 2012 issue of the The Wall Street Journal, attempts to remove the hedge fund from blame in the global financial crisis. The article reports that banks were the major causes of the global financial crisis. Introduction Prior to the global financial crisis, the U.S. had a thriving financial market. The market capitalization of publicly traded companies was approximately $63 trillion.1 Investors had high confidence in the financial markets. Investors made huge profits from investing in the financial markets. However, the global financial crisis led to the complete disarray of the financial markets. The global financial crisis led to the collapse of several large corporations that had thousands of employees.2 Collapse of companies led to the dwindling of investor confidence. In addition, millions of Americans lost their source of livelihoods due to the collapse of the companies. During the global financial crisis, home foreclosures were a common occurrence.3 This necessitated the federal government to act swiftly to stop the economy from disintegrating into a depression. The federal government provided bailouts to large corporations. In addition, the government provided a fiscal stimulus to stimulate growth of industries.4 These measures helped in preventing the disintegration of the US economy. The subprime mortgage market was the main cause of the global financial crisis. Various parties claimed that the hedge fund caused the global financial crisis. However, in reality, the hedge fund was a victim of the global financial crisis.5 Regardless of whether hedge funds had a part to play in the onset of the global financial crisis or not, the crisis shows the importance of regulation in reducing risks that financial markets face. Analysis Overview of Report According to the Rand Corporation, the hedge fund did not cause the global financial crisis. However, various parties were of the opinion that the hedge fund played a significant role in initiating the global financial crisis. Hedge funds are “private investment pools that are not available to members of the public.”6 Hedge funds have a wider investment flexibility than public investments. Most hedge funds operate as limited partnerships. This enables hedge funds from to benefit from various advantages of limited partnership.7 Hedge funds usually borrow money to make investments. Borrowing money magnifies the profits or losses of hedge funds.8 As of July 2012, the hedge fund controlled assets worth $1.87 trillion.9 Therefore, due to the vast value of assets under the control of hedge funds, hedge funds may pose significant risks in the financial systems. This necessitates regulation to prevent risks, which may have devastating effects on the financial systems. However, before the global financial crisis, there was no extensive regulation of hedge funds. The transactions of hedge funds were not under scrutiny from regulators.10 To prevent hedge funds from becoming a systemic risk, it is critical to have sufficient counterparty credit risk management in major financial institutions. 11 This is because major financial institutions control huge volumes of hedge funds. Involvement of the hedge fund in the global financial crisis Rand Corporation does not discount the fact that the hedge fund may play a critical role in the global financial crisis12. In undertaking the research, Rand undertook a survey of 45 fund managers, regulators and lawyers. The report also reviewed other studies on the effect of the hedge funds in the global financial crisis. Banks had the greatest responsibility in causing the global financial crisis. Banks bore the greatest responsibility, as they invested heavily in the subprime mortgage market. However, hedge funds “bet both on and against the subprime mortgage market.”13 In fact, hedge funds bet against troubled assets raised attention on the growth of the housing bubble. In addition, short selling of hedge funds was not a main factor in deterioration of the global financial crisis. During the financial crisis banks pulled out their money from investment banks. This led to the worsening of the financial crisis, as it investment banks went into bankruptcy. Therefore, banks were the major parties that led to the worsening of the global financial crisis. Regulation of the hedge fund The limited impact of hedge funds on the global financial crisis is due the fact that hedge funds are a reserve of a few “sophisticated investors,” who have assets worth more than $1 million.14 In addition, individuals who have an annual income of more than $200,000 may also invest in the hedge fund. However, the investment in the hedge fund must not constitute more than 20% of the individual’s net worth. In addition, the net investments of a hedge fund manager must be more than $25 million.15 These measures restrict the number of investors who may engage in a hedge fund. This reduces the impact of the hedge fund on ordinary investors. The financial crisis resulted in a significant increase of the regulatory oversight of the hedge funds. The global financial crisis prompted regulators to ensure that hedge funds with assets of $150 million or more register with federal regulators. Registration enables regulators to examine the activities of hedge funds firms to ensure that they undertake financially sound activities.16 In addition, the largest hedge fund firms should file quarterly reports with the Securities Exchange Commission (SEC). The SEC in turn shares the information with the Financial Stability Oversight Council, which monitors the systemic risk of the hedge fund. This measures help in detecting potential factors that may pose a significant to the financial systems. However, these measures may not be sufficient in preventing hedge funds from exposing the financial systems to risks. Small hedge funds, which are not eligible for direct regulation, may pose significant risks on the US financial systems if they act collectively.17 Therefore, it is critical for oversight regulatory bodies to formulate a strategy that would detect when small hedge fund firms are acting collectively. Theoretically, there are three levels of regulation of hedge funds. These levels are the fund itself, the hedge fund manager, and the distribution of the fund. Usually there is no regulation on the hedge fund itself. However, it is possible to regulate the fund managers and the distribution channels of the hedge fund. The primary regulator of the hedge fund regulates hedge funds that operate within the country. In 2006, 55 % of US hedge funds were offshore. This resulted in minimum regulation of the hedge funds. Hedge fund managers undertake their activities from certain financial centres. However, local fund managers can opt not to register with local supervisors. Hedge fund distributors can register in Europe or Canada and avoid registering in the US. However, this would not prevent them from operating in the US. 18 In the U.S., regulators do not regulate hedge funds. Regulators mainly target hedge fund advisers. In addition, they require hedge fund advisers to register within their area of jurisdiction. Regulators may take action against hedge fund advisers who engage in illegal activities. These include insider trading, misappropriation of funds, or presenting falsified credentials.19 These measures help in protecting investors’ funds and prevent undeserving investors from investing in hedge funds. Various parties call for more regulation of hedge funds. Direct management of hedge funds would prevent excessive risk taking. Under the current practice, hedge funds firms may take excessive risk taking even after market failure. Risk management does not prevent excessive risk taking during market failure. Parties that call for direct regulation of hedge funds provide several proposals through which regulators may achieve this successfully. The first approach is ensuring there is mandatory registration of hedge fund managers, or parties that distribute the products of the hedge fund managers. This approach treats hedge funds as mutual funds. Availability of hedge funds to common investors necessitates regulators to treat hedge funds as mutual funds. Common investors can access hedge funds through a fund of funds, which is available from various hedge fund managers.20Regulators may also require prime brokers who are under the regulation of banks to provide more disclosure. This would increase the transparency of the prime brokers. Transparency would necessitate prime brokers to reduce excessive hedge fund leveraging. This would help in alleviating systemic risk.21 Conclusion Hedge funds are some of the most lucrative investments. Limiting the number of investors who access hedge funds reduces the risk that hedge funds pose to the financial markets. Hedge funds were not the main causes of the global financial crisis. It is widely accepted that the main cause of the global financial crisis was the subprime mortgage market. The major investors who fuelled the growth of the subprime mortgage market were banks and financial institutions. However, regulators should increase the regulation of the hedge funds to prevent hedge funds from causing the next financial crisis. Appendix Bibliography Chung, Juliet. “Don’t Blame Hedge Funds for Financial Crisis, Study Says.” The Wall Street Journal, 2012. Web. Desai, Padma. From Financial Crisis to Global Recovery. NY: Columbia University Press, 2011. Dolezalek, Holly. The Global Financial Crisis. North Mankato, MN: ABDO, 2011. Doyran, Mine Aysen. Financial Crisis Management and the Pursuit of Power: American Pre-Eminence and the Credit Crunch. Surrey:Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2011. Grant, WynEffects of Hedge Funds on the Global Financial Crisis Critical Essay

Fitzgerald Keys And Apple Tree Language Education Essay

best assignment help The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Fitzgerald Keys and APPLE TREE Language approaches on the English achievement and retention level of the hearing-impaired pupils. The intermediate hearing-impaired pupils were chosen as subjects who included (3) grade levels, namely: Grade V, Grade VI and Grade VII of Western Mindanao State University Laboratory Elementary School enrolled for the school year 2007-2008. To pursue with its objective, the study made use of the quasi-experimental design, where the Grade Point Average (GPA) was used to create the two groups. In this design the intermediate SPED pupils were the subjects. They were divided into two groups. In group A, the teacher utilized the “Fitzgerald Keys” language approach while in group B the “APPLE TREE” language approach was used. After a month of teaching the targeted lesson of five different topics, the Achievement Test was administered to both groups. Then, a week after, both groups were given the same test to determine the subjects’ retention level on the acquired knowledge. The result of the analysis showed that both groups who were taught using Fitzgerald Keys and APPLE TREE language approaches had good achievement and retention levels. Based on this result, it was concluded that the APPLE TREE and the Fitzgerald Keys language approaches are both effective for the hearing-impaired pupils and can further enhance the activities suited to the needs of the pupils. It was recommended, then, that teachers continue to use the Fitzgerald Keys and APPLE TREE language approaches. Introduction Everyone is capable of learning, regardless of strengths and weaknesses. Deaf learners are the same with the hearing children; they have their unique potentials in which educators and parents need to identify in order to provide them with appropriate educational reinforcement. Hence, deaf children are not exempted from being an important part of the school environment. The Department of Education stressed that education must be accessible to all including the differently-abled people. Thus, Western Mindanao State University Laboratory Elementary School created a special education program. It was in 1997 when Special Education started to offer elementary education based on the initiative of former WMSU President, Dr. Eldigario D. Gonzales in coordination with special education teachers where Special Elementary Education was conceived. In educating the hearing-impaired pupils, it requires a designed approach to produce best result in the learning process. There are some factors that can hinder learning. One researcher, Marschark (1996) described the hearing-impaired learners as having “shorter memories” than hearing people. These manifestations could lead to poor academic retention of the learners. There will be less absorption of the lesson. Nevertheless, many deaf people are able to make use of their residual hearing to complement their visual perception of English words, but often their complete acquisition of English lags behind hearing individuals, who have full access to both auditory and visual input (Lylak, 2002). The fact that the academic retention of the hearing-impaired pupils is poor due to short memory span, educators should make use of the different approaches to develop the learning process of the hearing-impaired pupils. Deaf learners could hardly communicate by means of audio and oral approach; they rely more on visual representations. However, if visual representations are not presented clearly, such unfavorable conditions occur. Hearing-impaired learners find difficulty in associating the instruction with the visual aid/materials; as a result they become confused of the lessons, and they forget some significant concepts most especially rules, significant figures and events and sequential concepts. Learning is useful and meaningful if the teacher utilizes appropriately designed approach with proper visual aids and presents it in an experiential-based manner. Moreover, to attain success in the learning process of the hearing-impaired pupils, the concerned teacher should take into consideration the needs of the child and the suited approach to be utilized in teaching. According to Moores (2001), much of the academic difficulty observed in schools should be interpreted as relating to what the children do not do rather than what they cannot do. Teachers should find ways how to let these children do what they have not been doing by helping them overcome the difficulty they experience since teacher’s manner of teaching contributes greatly to the child’s learning. It controls the child’s mood in the class, holds attention span during discussion and facilitates absorption of the lesson. Teacher’s manner of teaching also influences the child’s retention of the acquired lesson. To support the hearing-impaired in language learning, several proponents introduced different approaches like natural and structured approaches. The Fitzgerald Keys and APPLE TREE language approaches are among the structured language approaches. These commonly aim to help the hearing-impaired pupils in language learning. Both advocate clear visual representations with integration of naturally occurring situations. However, there are distinct principles stating the differences of the said approaches in language teaching. With these notions, the study was conceived to find out the performance of the hearing-impaired pupils of Western Mindanao State University Laboratory Elementary School and to determine which of the two English language approaches, Fitzgerald Keys or APPLE TREE language approach, would suit better in teaching the hearing-impaired pupils considering their achievement and retention levels. Mainly, this study hypothesized to have significant differences in the English achievement and retention levels of the hearing-impaired pupils using Fitzgerald Keys and APPLE TREE language approaches. It also hypothesized the existence of significant relationship between English achievement and retention levels of the hearing-impaired pupils using Fitzgerald Keys and APPLE TREE language approaches. Lastly, the moderator variables of age, grade level and sex were included to determine significant differences in the English achievement and retention levels of the hearing-impaired pupils using the two approaches. The results of this study may serve as feedback to mentors who are teaching hearing-impaired pupils as well as point of reference for BEED practicum students, administrators and future researchers. For the teachers or mentors, the result of the study may help them in making decision as to the type of approach in teaching language to the hearing-impaired pupils that would help enhance their achievement and retention levels. The results of the study may also serve as teachers’ point of reference to develop the academic skills of the pupils, so that these pupils would have good learning foundation. Having good foundation can be used later to support their secondary and tertiary education. Likewise, for the BEED practicum students major in SPED, they may be guided by the result of the study, as they do their practicum. Eventually, they can utilize their experience in the different approaches in their actual teaching to the hearing-impaired, specifically how the two approaches (Fitzgerald Keys and APPLE TREE language approach) are executed and made effective to the pupils. Proper teaching practices will reduce the incidence of low performance among hearing-impaired pupils. Moreover, school administrators, who manage and support school affairs, may have an idea as to what programs and school activities can be integrated and provided to enhance the academic performance of the hearing-impaired pupils. Lastly, to the researchers, the result of the study may stimulate them to be involved in the educational planning of activities for the hearing-impaired pupils. They may further enhance the study and try out other approaches that are relevant and appropriate to the hearing-impaired pupils’ language performance. As to the scope of this study, it was delimited in terms of the respondents, variables and time frame. The respondents were limited to ten (10) intermediate hearing-impaired pupils; they were chosen based on their GPA from the (3) grade levels namely, Grade V, Grade VI and Grade VII at Western Mindanao State University Laboratory Elementary School, Special Elementary Education during the school year 2007-2008. The variables included only the achievement and retention levels in one subject area which is English specifically on language components of personal pronouns, possessive pronouns, verbs, regular and irregular verbs, adjectives and comparison of adjectives – the subject matter covered from January to February 2008. The study was conducted for duration of one year, 2007-2008. Method The study made use of the quasi-experimental design, where the Grade Point Average (GPA) was used as point of comparison in assigning subjects to the two groups. In this design five (5) the intermediate SPED pupils were placed in Group A and another five (5) in Group B. In Group A, the teacher employed the “Fitzgerald Keys” language approach while in Group B, the “APPLE TREE” language approach was used. The two groups were taught the same five topics, namely: personal pronouns, possessive pronouns, verbs, regular and irregular verbs, adjectives and comparison of adjectives – the targeted lesson for the month of February 2008. After the different topics had been discussed, the Achievement Test was administered to both groups. Then, a week after, both groups were given the same test to determine the subjects’ retention level on the acquired knowledge. In order to increase the internal validity of the experiment, the following extraneous variables were neutralized: the researcher taught both classes to minimize experimenter’s bias; the schedule of the classes was made one at a time in such a way that class in one group was held right after the other to eliminate contamination: that is, there would be no chance for the students to share notes and ideas about the lesson because classes were held one after the other. Topics for discussion as well as visual aids were identical for both classes. Different language approaches were used in teaching the two groups. Also, the type, length and content of test were equally the same, and classes for both were held in the same language room. The experiment used the Language Achievement and Retention Tests as instruments to measure the levels of achievement and retention of the hearing-impaired pupils in language. A two-way Table of Specifications and the corresponding teacher-made test were constructed. Items in the Achievement Test were taken from the Grade IV English language books. The researcher used two instruments with similar content. One instrument was prepared for the Fitzgerald Keys and the other for the APPLE TREE language approach. Content of the instrument to measure the retention level of the hearing-impaired was the same with the content of the Achievement Test. Before administering the tests, these were presented for validation to three (3) SPED experts. Suggestions were given and incorporated for face validity. To measure reliability, these were pilot tested using a comparable sample of intermediate hearing-impaired pupils from Tetuan Central School SPED Class. Using KR21 r value is 0.72 which means that the questionnaire has high reliability index. The WMSU rating scale was used to interpret the achievement mean scores, as follow: 41 – 45 score would be described “Excellent”; 37 – 40 would mean “Very Good “; 32 – 36 would be “Good”; 28 – 31 would be considered “Fair”; 23 – 27 would be “Passing” and 0 – 22 would mean “Failure”. The tools used for analyses were the t-test, Pearson Product Moment Correlation (Pearson r) and One-Way ANOVA. T-test was used to determine the significant difference in English achievement and retention level using the two approaches when the variables were categorized according to sex and age. To determine the significant relationship between the English achievement and retention level using the two approaches, Pearson Product Moment Correlation was used. To answer problem number four, T-test and One-Way ANOVA were used. Lastly, One-Way ANOVA was used when data were categorized according to grade level. Results Significant Difference in the English Achievement Level of the Hearing-Impaired Pupils using Fitzgerald Keys and APPLE TREE Language Approaches As presented in Table 1, the hearing-impaired pupils who were taught using the Fitzgerald Keys approach got a mean Achievement score of 35.6 which was interpreted as good. Likewise, those who were taught through the APPLE TREE language approach had a mean score of 34.8 which was also good. When this difference in terms of the figures was statistically tested at alpha 0.05, the observed value of 0.43 was lesser that the critical value of 2.30. Therefore, there was no significant difference between the means of the two groups in the English Achievement Test using the two approaches. This implied that both Fitzgerald Keys and APPLE TREE are both effective approaches in teaching language. This further implied that the hearing-impaired pupils understood the lessons very well when the teacher utilized these approaches. Table 1. English Achievement Scores of the Hearing-Impaired Pupils Using Fitzgerald Keys and APPLE TREE Language Approaches Strategies Mean Interpretation tob tcrit Interpretation Fitzgerald Keys 35.6 Good 0.43 2.30 Not Significant APPLE TREE 34.8 Good Legend: Excellent – 41 – 45 Fair – 28 – 31 Very Good – 37 – 40 Passing – 23 – 27 Good – 32 – 36 Failure – 0 – 22 Difference in the Retention Level of the Hearing-Impaired Pupils Taught using Fitzgerald Keys and APPLE TREE Language Approaches Taught through the Fitzgerald Keys approach, the pupils obtained a mean score of 34.2 in the retention test which was lower than the mean score of 35.6 in the achievement test. In addition, those who were taught using the APPLE TREE approach got a mean score of 33.8 in the retention test which was also lower than the mean score of 34.8 in the achievement test. However, when the differences between the pupils’ achievement and retention scores through the Fitzgerald Keys and APPLE TREE approaches were statistically tested at alpha 0.05, the t observed values of 0.57 and 0.53, respectively, were lower than the t critical value of 2.30. Therefore there were no significant differences between the mean scores in the achievement test and in the retention test. This implied that Fitzgerald Keys and APPLE TREE approaches are both effective strategies for retention purpose (Table 2). In the retention test, the pupils taught through the Fitzgerald Keys had higher mean (34.2) than those taught using APLLE TREE approach (33.8). However, when this difference was statistically tested at alpha 0.05, the t observed value (0.43) was lower than the t critical value (2.30). Therefore there was no significant difference between the means in the retention test for the two approaches. This implied that the Fitzgerald Keys and APPLE TREE approaches are effective strategies for retention purpose (Table 2). In summary, pupils absorbed the lessons that were mentally stored. In other words, the Fitzgerald Keys and APPLE TREE language approaches can promote good language retention for the hearing-impaired pupils. Table 2. Difference in the Retention Level of the Hearing-Impaired Pupils Taught using Fitzgerald Keys and APPLE TREE Language Approaches Strategies Achievement Test Retention Test tob tcrit Interpretation Fitzgerald Keys 35.6 34.2 0.57 2.30 Not Significant 2.5 4.96 N 5 5 APPLE TREE 34.8 33.8 0.53 2.30 Not Significant 3.34 4.43 N 5 5 b 0.43 tcrit 2.3 Interpretation Not Significant Significant Relationship between English Achievement and Retention Levels of the Hearing-Impaired Pupils Taught Using Fitzgerald Keys and APPLE TREE Language Approaches In using the Fitzgerald Keys, data showed a negligible negative relationship between pupils’ achievement and retention scores as evidenced by the value of r of -0.15 at p= 0.05. This implied that in using Fitzgerald Keys, the retention level of the hearing-impaired pupils cannot be predicted. Pupils with low scores in the achievement test may have high or low scores in the retention test or vice-versa. However, in using the APPLE TREE approach, pupils’ achievement score was positively and moderately related to their retention score. This was supported by the value of r of 0.65 at alpha 0.05. Thus, pupils with high achievement level tended to have also high retention level, and those with low achievement level would also have low retention level (Table 3). Table 3. Relationship between English Achievement and Retention Levels of the Hearing- Impaired Pupils Taught using Fitzgerald Keys and APPLE TREE Language Approaches Language Approaches N Value of r at 0.05 level Interpretation Fitzgerald Keys 5 -0.15 Negligible APPLE TREE 5 0.65* Moderate Relationship Significant Differences in the English Achievement and Retention Levels of the Hearing-Impaired Pupils Taught using the Two Approaches When Variables were Categorized According to Age, Grade Level and Sex Data showed that pupils belonging to the ages 16-19 had higher mean score (36.5) than the pupils belonging to the age 13-15 (34.33). However, when the difference was statistically tested at alpha 0.05, the t observed value of 1.29 was less than the critical value of 2.30. It showed no significant difference in the achievement level of the hearing-impaired pupils. This implied that the pupils from the two groups of ages had similar performance in the achievement test. This further implied that the two approaches are effective in teaching the hearing-impaired pupils who belong to the two different age levels (Table 4). Table 4. English Achievement Level of the Hearing- Impaired When Variables were Categorized According To Age Age N tob tcrit Interpretation 13 – 15 6 34.33 2.94 1.29 2.30 Not Significant 16 – 19 4 36.5 2.38 Data showed that the hearing-impaired pupils belonging to the ages 13-15 and 16-19 had the same retention mean score of 34 and showed no significant difference between the two in the retention level. This was evidenced by the t observed value of 0 which was less than t critical value of 2.30 at alpha 0.05. This implied that the pupils who belong to the different age categories have the same performance in the retention test. This further implied that lessons learned were still absorbed by the pupils (Table 5). Table 5. English Retention Level of the Hearing- Impaired When Variables were Categorized According to Age Age N tob tcrit Interpretation 13 – 15 6 34 4.73 0 2.30 Not Significant 16 – 19 4 34 4.69 In the same way, when the difference was statistically tested at p= 0.05, the observed value of f (0.22) was less than the critical value (4.74). Hence, it showed no significant difference in the achievement levels of the pupils as they were categorized according to grade level using the two approaches. In addition, when the difference in the retention level was statistically tested at alpha 0.05, the observed value of f (0.74) was less than the critical values (4.74). It showed no significant difference in the retention levels of the pupils as they were categorized according to grade level using the two approaches. This implied that grade level did not influence the achievement and retention levels of the pupils. This further implied that Grade V, VI and VII hearing-impaired pupils had the same English Achievement and Retention levels (Table 6). Table 6. English Achievement and Retention Level of the Hearing- Impaired When Variable were Categorized According To Grade Level Test Grade Level V VI VII English Achievement Test 34.66 36 36 ∑X 208 108 36 ∑X2 7252 3914 1296 n 6 3 1 Squares of Variance dF SS Variance Fob Fcrit Interpretation Among Groups 2 4.26 2.13 0.22 4.47 Not Significant Within Conditions 7 67.34 9.62 English Retention Test 33 36.6 32 ∑X 198 110 32 ∑X2 6612 4102 1024 n 6 3 1 Squares of Variance dF SS Variance Fob Fcrit Among Groups 2 31.33 15.66 0.74 4.47 Within Conditions 7 146.67 20.95 More so, when the data were statistically tested at alpha 0.05, the observed value of t (0.65) was less than the critical value (2.30); thus, it showed no significant difference between the English achievement level of the pupils as they were categorized according to sex using the two approaches. This implied that both males and females had similar performance in the achievement test. This further implied that male and female hearing-impaired pupils had the same level of knowledge acquired through the two approaches (Table 7). Table 7. English Achievement Level of the Hearing- Impaired When Variables were Categorized According to Sex Sex N tob tcrit Interpretation Male 5 35.8 3.56 0.65 2.30 Not Significant Female 5 34.6 2.07 In addition, when the data were statistically tested at alpha 0.05, the observed value of t (1) was less than the critical value (2.30); thus, it showed no significant difference between the English retention levels of the pupils as they were categorized according to sex using the two approaches. This implied that both males and females had similar performance in their retention test. This further implied that both groups had the same level of retention by using the two approaches (Table 8). Table 8. English Retention Level of the Hearing- Impaired When Variables were Categorized According to Sex Sex n tob tcrit Interpretation Male 5 32.6 4.82 1.0 2.30 Not Significant Female 5 35.4 4.03 DISCUSSION The study was undertaken to determine the effects of the Fitzgerald Keys and APPLE TREE language approach on the English Achievement and Retention Level of the hearing-impaired pupils in Western Mindanao State University Laboratory Elementary School. The study aimed to determine if teaching language using the Fitzgerald Keys and APPLE TREE language approaches would significantly improve the achievement and retention levels of the hearing-impaired pupils. It was found out that the two groups using Fitzgerald Keys and APPLE TREE language approaches had the same performance in the English achievement which was interpreted as good. This finding confirmed the theory of Wolff in Moores (2001) that deaf children have intact cognitive machinery. Likewise, Graham Bell (n.d.) in Moores (2001) reported that deaf child develops language in the same manner as hearing children do. Another finding was that both groups taught through Fitzgerald Keys and APPLE TREE language approaches had good retention level. This somehow contradicted the idea of Marscharck (1996) describing hearing-impaired learners as having “shorter memories” than hearing people. Based from the results in the achievement and retention tests of the pupils, it was shown that scores cannot be predicted as high and low when using Fitzgerald Keys. However, there was moderate relationship in the pupils’ scores in the achievement and retention test when they were exposed to the APPLE TREE language approach. Both approaches are effective in teaching language to hearing-impaired pupils; however, there are some discrepancies between the two approaches which contribute to the results mentioned. It was clearly explained by Mc Anally (1987) that Fitzgerald did not suggest a specific order in which to present language structures. Whereas APPLE TREE language approach utilized 10 successive sentence patterns, introduced to hearing-impaired learners in sequential, spiralling system. This somehow has influenced the hearing-impaired pupils’ mastery of the lessons. Lastly, it was revealed that there was no significant difference in the English achievement and retention levels of the hearing-impaired pupils taught using the two approaches when the data were categorized according to age, grade level and sex. These results have confirmed the claim of Karchmer and Belmont (1976) as supported by Moores (2001) that deaf students perform at a lower level than the hearing students do. However, after teaching appropriate strategies to deaf students, Karchmer and Belmont found that those deaf children could function at the same level as hearing children. They concluded that the lower initial performance of the deaf students was not due to a cognitive deficit but due to teacher’s lack of knowledge as to which strategy to apply. In so far as the findings of this study were concerned, the following conclusions were drawn: The two language approaches, the Fitzgerald Keys and APPLE TREE language approaches are effective in teaching the hearing-impaired pupils as shown in their good English achievement and retention levels; the hearing-impaired pupils’ English achievement level could predict their retention levels when they were taught using the APPLE TREE language approach; the age, grade level and sex of the hearing-impaired pupils did not affect their English achievement and retention levels when they were exposed to the two approaches, Fitzgerald Keys and APPLE TREE language approaches. Hence, it was recommended that teachers should continue to use these approaches in teaching language to hearing-impaired pupils. Since there was a moderate degree of correlation between subjects’ achievement level and their retention level when they were exposed to the APPLE TREE language approach, it was suggested that this approach be used continually for a better retention level of the hearing-impaired pupils. In view of the fact that primary pupils need a good foundation of learning, it was recommended that this study be replicated to determine where the approaches can be more effective.

Rutgers University Newark Mikes Crime Fact Pattern Analysis Paper

Rutgers University Newark Mikes Crime Fact Pattern Analysis Paper.

Write a 2-3 full page fact pattern analysis where you provide a detailed analysis of what crimes each person may be charged with and which defenses might be available to each person. All information for the paper must be based on the Model Penal Code (MPC) that is attached. Again, it is very important to your overall grade on this assignment that you cite the specific sections of the MPC that support/ relate to each possible crime each person could be charged with. Remember that prosecutors typically charge as many crimes as they can in hopes that they will be able to prove some beyond a reasonable doubt. Also, again, please be sure to list possible defenses for each person/ each crime involved. SCENARIO: Mike and his young girlfriend, Tina, both out of work and penniless, thought that love was all that mattered and decided to get married. Although Mike had no money, he told Tina he was going to buy her an engagement ring. Tina inquired how he could afford it and he looked at her, winked, and said, “watch me”. The couple went to Malaguti’s Jewelry store and Tina picked out the ring of her dreams, which cost $5,000.00. Mike paid in cash and Tina could not understand how and asked where Mike got the money. Mike rushed Tina from the store with the ring. Mike told Tina not to worry about the money and besides, it only cost him $500.00 because the money was counterfeit and he had purchased it earlier from his friend Tony. The argument ended as he kissed her and slipped the ring onto her finger. They got married the next day at the Justice of the Peace. After the ceremony they decided to go to the local bar and drink to their wedded bliss. While there, several friends purchased multiple rounds of shots for them. Mike drank what Tina was unable to. When Mike ordered more, the bartender Tommy, refused to serve him further due to his condition. An argument ensued and Mike pulled out a gun from his pocket and fired a single shot which grazed Tommy’s arm, ricocheted and killed Maria, another bartender, who was standing behind Tommy. Mike grabbed Tina and started to leave. Tina, who had come to her sense about Mike by now, resisted, but Mike forced her out and pushed her into his car. Tina insisted that if he did not turn himself into the police, she would. Mike drove to his friend Tony’s apartment. Mike pushed Tina, now hysterical, into Tony’s apartment and told Tony what happened. Mike, now panicked, aimed the gun at Tina. Tony, a small time x-con did not want to be charged with murder, so he stepped in front on Mike to try to stop him. Before Mike could accomplish this however, Tina had backed away from Mike to an open window from which she fell to her death. Mike then hit Tony over the head with the gun and Tony fell to an unconscious state. Before leaving, Mike filled his pockets with Mike’s phony money to use for his getaway. Mike flagged a taxi down to take to his apartment. The taxi driver, Marie, realized the money was phony Mike had paid his fare with. In a fit of anger, and remembering where she dropped Mike off, Marie decided to get the money that was owed to her and went to confront Mike. After no one answered the door, Marie noticed a doggie door on the side door. She decided to slip through the dog door and tip toe into the apartment to get her money. In the dark, she tripped over a skate board, hit her head. In the morning the police were called to Mike’s apartment. Marie was taken to the hospital and eventually released.
Rutgers University Newark Mikes Crime Fact Pattern Analysis Paper

History Oppression Faced in The March Trilogy Paper

History Oppression Faced in The March Trilogy Paper.

I’m working on a history writing question and need a sample draft to help me study.

***Must have read March 1,2,3*** Write a 2.5- to 3-page paper on the prompt below. Your paper must include at least six examples. You must include examples from books 1, 2, and 3. You may choose to include visual analysis in your examples. Use parenthetical citations indicating the book and page number. For example:undefinedWhen the sheriff in Selma was released from the hospital, he wore a button that said “Never.” (Book 3/171-172) Prompt: as revealed in the March trilogy, describe the tools of oppression used to deny African Americans their civil and political rights. You may wish to consider the role of political leaders, law enforcement, the courts, businesses, every-day racists, etc.
History Oppression Faced in The March Trilogy Paper