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Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) Benefits

Indian agriculture has a rich historical past. Hymns in Rigveda describe plowing, sowing, irrigation, fruit and vegetable cultivation. An ancient Indian Sanskrit text, Bhumivargaha, classified agricultural land into twelve categories: urvara (fertile), ushara (barren), pankikala (muddy), maru (desert), aprahata (fallow), jalaprayah (watery), kachchaha (land contiguous to water), sharkara (full of pebbles and pieces of limestone), shadvala (grassy), nadimatruka (land watered from a river), sharkaravati (sandy), and devamatruka (rainfed). Archaeological evidence suggests that rice was grown along the banks of the Indian river Ganges in the sixth millennium BC. Thousands of years ago, Indian farmers used to domesticate cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs and horses The farmers used traditional methods of cultivation. However, over past fifty years Indian population has tripled. To meet the food requirements of the increasing population and save them from starvation increase in farm production was the need of the hour. Norman Borlaug, titled as the “Father of the Green Revolution” introduced the concepts of introduction of high-yielding varieties of cereal grains, increase of irrigation infrastructure, advancement of management techniques, distribution of hybridized seeds, use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides to farmers in developing countries. India too successfully implemented it, which led to rapid growths in farm productivity and enabled us to become self-sufficient by the 1970s. However, this historical revolution created some problems also. For example high yield was associated with land degradation. Also there was increase in number of weeds. There was evidence of chemicals in water and crops making them unsafe. Today, India is among the top three global producers of many crops, including wheat, rice, cotton, pulses, peanuts, fruits and vegetables. Worldwide, India has the largest herds of buffalo and cattle. It is also the largest producer of milk. Also India has one of the largest and fastest growing poultry industries. India’s basic strength lies in its farms. With this huge farm productivity it becomes imperative that the safety and quality of farm produce is ensured at all stages of production. We need to balance the requirements of food security and safety both. The solution to this complex problem is by adopting Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs). To increasing the quantity and quality of food in response to growing demand it is required to increase the agricultural productivity. Good agricultural practices, often in combination with effective input use, are one of the best ways to increase productivity and improve quality. GAPs enhance the production safe and good quality food. These practices are ususally environmentally safe and ensure that the final product is appropriate handled, stored and transported. When GAPs are put in practice in true spirit it can be assured that the food will meet quality and safety standards at the time of harvest. GAPs protect food at the primary stage of production from contamination by the following :- Physical hazards like rocks, dirt ,sand filth, putrid and decomposed materials Toxic chemical hazards and contaminants from the environment like heavy metals, environmental pollutants and industrial chemicals) Excessive or unsafe levels of agricultural chemical residues as pesticides, fertilizers, veterinary drugs and other chemicals Contamination or damage by pests, vermin and other insects Biological contamination by mould, pathogenic bacteria or viruses which can cause spoilage, crop damage and food borne illness or chronic health hazards in humans According to Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations Good Agricultural Practices are “practices that address environmental, economic and social sustainability for on-farm processes, and result in safe and quality food and non-food agricultural products” (figure 1). Figure 1: Four main pillars of GAP. The international market is becoming competitive. The developed countries have become more demanding, critical and stringent when it comes to accepting export of food from developing countries. To have a good standing of our farm produce in the international market Indian Good Agricultural Practices (INDGAP) have been formulated. Adopting theses practices will ensure a safe and sustainable farm produce. INDGAP defines certain minimum standards with a well defined system of accreditation mechanism and implementation of GAP. These standards are voluntary and non discriminatory to the growers. INDGAP has different modules for all farm, crops, fruits and vegetables, combinable crops, green tea and coffee. Broad outline of various aspects which need to be managed are :- Site history and management Soil management Soil mapping Plant nutrition management an fertilizers Irrigation and fertigation Integrated pest management Plant protection products Traceability Complaints management Visitors safety Record keeping Health welfare and safety of workers Environmental conservation Waste and pollution management The potential benefits of GAP are significant improvement in quality and safety of food and other agricultural products. There is a marked reduction in risk of non-compliance with national and international regulations regarding permitted pesticides, maximum levels of contaminants (including pesticides, veterinary drugs, radionuclide and mycotoxins) in food and non-food agricultural products, as well as other chemical, microbiological and physical contamination hazards. Adoption of GAP helps to promote sustainable agriculture and contributes to meeting national and international environment and social development objectives. However there are various challenges related to GAP. The most prominent is a definite increase in cost of production. There is lack of harmonization between existing GAP-related schemes and availability of affordable certification systems which often leads to increased confusion and certification costs for farmers and exporters. There is a high risk that small-scale farmers will not be able to seize export market opportunities unless they are adequately informed, technically prepared and organised to meet this new challenge. It is required that governments and public agencies play a facilitating role in this aspect. However, at times it has been experienced that compliance with GAP standards does not promote all the environmental and social benefits which are claimed. Some key points for adopting GAP are:- Selecting the right type of land to be cultivated for food crop production; Planting the best-quality seeds and of the most appropriate varieties; Use of authorized and acceptable chemical inputs (fertilizers, pesticides) as per approved directions (e.g. concentration, frequency, timing of use); Controlling the quality of irrigation water (in case of use); Use of appropriate harvesting and on-farm storing and handling techniques; Use of suitable methods for shipping of produceto markets or food processors.
CMNS 455 Athabasca University Public Information and Manipulation Discussion.

I’m working on a writing report and need support to help me learn.

Length:12 pages (approximately 3200–3500 words)Format:Present your research in the form of an academic research paper with a clear thesis statement, research questions or objectives, review of related literature and other evidence, and an analytical conclusion that supports your evidence in answering the research question(s).Criteria:Cite all sources used within the paper and provide a complete reference list at the end of the paper, using a standard academic style such as MLA, APA, or Chicago. Please consult the Course Information’s guide to writing essays for more information. Use both primary and secondary sources in your research. Primary sources are works produced by government departments, such as policy statements, acts, discussion documents, annual reports, and departmental website information. Newspapers and magazines as well as websites of news organizations, such as the CBC and BBC, are also good sources. You should also use at least six secondary sources: critical peer-reviewed academic papers and texts. You may include course readings, but use at least four outside sources as well.Topic:Choose one of the following topics (either A or B) for your research paper.Topic A: History, Public Information, Manipulation, PropagandaThe late Washington Post publisher Phil Graham referred to journalism as a “first rough draft of history.” Many journalists like to think they are producing public information of vital importance for citizens. But journalists and their media organizations sometimes use the ideal of public information as a rhetorical justification for manipulation and propaganda (whether commercial or political).Write a research paper describing the interplay of freedom and responsibility in news production (providing examples). Your paper should:Consider the circumstances under which reporters may agree or disagree on factsConsider the circumstances that make it acceptable (or not) for governments or media organizations themselves to place limits on freedom of speechDiscuss the distinctions between truth and truthfulnessConsider whether it is normal/abnormal that journalists report from a particular “point of view”As well, based on the readings in this course, differentiate between journalism, public information, manipulative discourse (with your own definitions), and propaganda and suggest solutions for journalists who want to work free of propaganda and censorship.Topic B: The Theory and Practice of Codes and StandardsChoose three journalistic codes of ethics from Canada, the United States, Europe, and/or the Middle East. Ensure at least one of your choices is from a newspaper code and at least one is from broadcasting, so that you can highlight similarities and differences. Critique several examples of reporting by media organizations that have stated their support for these codes of ethics. Critically examine two different media (newspapers, magazines, radio, TV, or the Internet) to distinguish between their specific cultures, technological constraints, and possibilities. Examine the specific ethical challenges posed by each medium. Critically examine how news organizations are regulated by external organizations and how they regulate themselves. If you write about new media such as the Internet (online editions of news media, blogs, etc.), consider whether they are opening the way for a more interactive kind of journalism, and whether such innovative practices could make journalism more accountable, responsible, and ethical, or whether they could have the opposite effect.Consider these questions when writing your research paper:What are the key ethical issues raised by journalism as public information, as manipulative discourse, and as propaganda?Is there a gap between the theory and the practice of codes and standards? If so, do you consider the gap normal or abnormal?How has the broader social, political, and economic environment shaped professional standards for journalists and their media organizations?What are the outstanding or future issues for ethical journalism that still need to be addressed by individual journalists and their media organizations?
CMNS 455 Athabasca University Public Information and Manipulation Discussion

internal revenue code. I need help with a Accounting question. All explanations and answers will be used to help me learn.

1. Maria Gonzalez lives in San Diego, CA. Over a decade ago, Maria’s family emigrated from the Jalisco region of Mexico (a small town known as Etzatlan) to the U.S. and obtained U.S. citizenship shortly thereafter. During the current tax year, brush fires ravaged large parts of Jalisco. Although Maria had no close relatives left in the region, her family history stimulated her generosity and she made a $3,000 cash contribution to the Association Comunitaria De Autosuficiencia A.c., a registered Mexican charity that helps farmers engage in more sustainable techniques (the fires were attributed in part to farmers burning their fields). She found the charity after reading an internet news item on fires. The funds were used to provide immediate food, shelter, and clothing to fire victims and to develop communications to discourage field burning as a farming technique. Maria generated adjusted gross income of $60,000 in the current year. Is Maria’s charitable contribution deductible for income tax purposes?
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internal revenue code

Capella University Applying Sociological Imagination Paper.

Develop a 6-8 page reflection on your life, applying the sociological imagination and using specific sociological concepts to better understand your life experiences.While we may not notice, society is constantly changing. For sociologists, social change is the continual change of society’s culture, structure, and institutions over time. Every society experiences change—it is through this change that the norms and understandings in a society become altered. Fashion is a great example of social change, as what we wear is dependent on the culture at the time. One hundred years ago it was not common for women to wear pants. Now it is perfectly acceptable. While most women are in favor of being able to wear pants, social change is sometimes not always welcome by members of a society. Can you think of any groups or organizations in the United States that are actively opposed to some kind of social change?Most social change is the result of conflict, demographic change, and technology.Conflict and change: Conflict in a society (such as a war or even an election) can create significant change in a society.Demographic change: Changes in the make-up of a population can also affect society. As the makeup of our society in terms of sex, race, age, et cetera, changes, so do many structural and cultural elements of society. How would our society be different if most of the population was under the age of 10? Or over the age of 70?Ideas and Change: Technology is often a driving force behind social change and has brought significant changes to our society. Think back to twenty years ago—how different was society in terms of technology? How did that impact your everyday life? In our current time, our cell phone alarm wakes us up, we check our smart phone, make some coffee in our Keurig, remote start our car, and then use our navigation system to get us to work. This is a significantly different experience than we had twenty years ago.As you reflect on your life and experiences in Assessment 6, consider how much has changed over the course of your lifetime. What are some major social changes? What do you think had changed for the better? For the worse?Demonstration of ProficiencyBy successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment criteria:Competency 3: Explain the significance of social inequality for the individual and society.Explain one’s own educational experience from a sociological perspective.Competency 4: Analyze the influence of culture on both the individual and society.Examine the impact of culture and socialization on one’s own life.Competency 5: Analyze the impact of social change on society and social institutions.Analyze the impact of social structure, social change, and groups on one’s own life.Explain sociological issues that affect one’s own field of study.Analyze the role of technology and media in one’s own life.Competency 6: Compose text that articulates meaning relevant to its purpose and audience.Develop text using organization, structure, and transitions that demonstrate understanding of cohesion between main and subtopics.For this assessment, reflect on the question, “Who am I?” and conduct a micro-level analysis to explain and analyze your everyday experiences. In doing so, you will look at the impact of social forces on your individual life. Using your sociological imagination requires you to apply many of the concepts, theories, and applicable sociological understandings that you have encountered in the course.DeliverableReflect on your everyday experiences that relate to concepts encountered in this course. For example, have you encountered any element of inequality in your life? Have you encountered any norms? Consider how a sociologist would explain these experiences.Write an essay in which you complete all of the following:Introduction: Introduce yourself and what you plan on discussing in your paper.Culture and Socialization: Examine the impact culture and socialization has had on your life. Include the following when creating this section:How did you develop a sense of self?What agents of socialization had the biggest impact on you? How?How has culture influenced your life?Social Structure and Groups: Analyze the impact of social structure and groups on your life. Include the following:How have various groups (primary, secondary, reference, et cetera) guided your behavior?What statuses have you held? What roles have you played?How have social hierarchies shaped your life choices?Education: Explain your educational experience from a sociological perspective. In doing so, include the following:What major functions has education had for you?How has education been related to your life outcomes?What experiences with inequality have you had in education?Professional Field: Explain sociological issues that affect your field of study or the field you intend to study at this point in your education. Be sure to include any social changes that may impact your field.Technology and Media: Analyze the role technology and media have in your everyday life.What impact have new communication technologies and social media had on your life?What messages have the media and popular culture communicated to you?What role has globalization played in your life?Summary: Briefly describe your experience with this assessment.Additional RequirementsWritten communication: Develop text using organization, structure, and transitions that demonstrate understanding of cohesion between main and subtopics. Written communication is free of errors that detract from the overall message. Write in a professional style using references and correct grammar, usage, and mechanics.Sources: Cite at least five scholarly sources.Length: 6-8 pages, not including title and reference pages.Format: Include a title page and reference page. Use in text citations to cite your sources. [Example: Writing becomes better as the child matures (Britton, Thomas, & Miller, 1996).]Font and size: Times New Roman, 12-point.Culture and SocializationThese resources give you examples of how concepts related to culture and socialization are applied to everyday life.Livingston, J. (2011, June 30). The fashion report: Names edition [Blog post]. The Society Pages: Sociological Images. Retrieved from http://thesocietypages.org/socimages/2011/06/30/th…Sharp, G. (2008, July 18). Historical trends in baby names. The Society Pages. Retrieved from http://thesocietypages.org/socimages/2008/07/18/hi…Willow, M. (2016). Black names aren’t that simple. Contexts, American Sociological Association. 15(4), 4-9.Note: You will need to scroll down the page to find the “Black Names Aren’t That Simple” heading.Bridges, T. (2016, February 25). Why popular boy names are more popular than popular girl names [Blog post]. The Society Pages. Retrieved from https://thesocietypages.org/feminist/2016/02/25/wh…Bridges, T. (2014, January 1). Stop the war on pink—Let’s take a look at toys for boys [Blog post]. The Society Pages. Retrieved from https://thesocietypages.org/girlwpen/2014/01/01/st…Wade, L. (2010, November 21). Gendered toy advertising [Blog post]. The Society Pages. Retrieved from http://thesocietypages.org/socimages/2010/11/21/ge…This video highlights gender advertising and questions the effects on children’s development.Run time: 8 minutes.Bailey, S. (2014, January 17). Thoughts on toys, kids and gender stereotypes [Blog post]. The Society Pages. Retrieved from https://thesocietypages.org/girlwpen/2014/01/17/th…Pilcher, J. (2017). Names and “doing gender”: How forenames and surnames contribute to gender identities, differences, and inequalities. Sex Roles, 77(11-12), 812-822.Macionis, J. J. (2019). Society: The basics (15th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson. Available in the courseroom via the VitalSource Bookshelf link.Chapter 2, “Culture,” pages 42-53 and 68-72. This chapter introduces you to the concept of culture and what elements make up culture.Chapter 3, “Socialization: From Infancy to Old Age,” pages 74-98. This chapter introduces you to the agents of socialization and the impact they have on our development as social beings.These resources help you understand the role of media and technology in our everyday lives.Steinke, A. J. (2018, October 24). Global media coverage of immigration: There’s research on that [Blog post]. The Society Pages: Sociological Images. Retrieved from https://thesocietypages.org/trot/2018/10/24/global…McKenzie, L. (2018). Smartphones for all students: An academic equalizer in an era of income inequality? Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2018/12/05/col…Macionis, J. J. (2019). Society: The basics (15th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson. Available in the courseroom via the VitalSource Bookshelf link.Chapter 5, “Mass Media and Social Media,” pages 124-154. This chapter introduces you to the ways in which sociologists analyze media and technology.Chapter 17, “Social Change,” pages 524-532. This chapter helps you understand the different elements of social change and the impact social change has on individuals and society.These resources help you understand the hidden elements of education where sociologists focus.National Assessment of Educational Progress. (2017). Data tools: State profiles. Retrieved from https://www.nationsreportcard.gov/profiles/statepr…Macionis, J. J. (2019). Society: The basics (15th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson. Available in the courseroom via the VitalSource Bookshelf link.Chapter 15, “Education, Health, and Medicine,” pages 450-469. This chapter will help you understand the main issues in education today according to sociologists.These resources introduce you to the components of social structure such as status, role, groups, and organizations. They also help you understand the role that social structure plays in your everyday life.McLeod, S. (2018, December 28). Solomon Asch: Conformity experiment [Blog post]. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from https://www.simplypsychology.org/asch-conformity.h…ABC News (Producer). (2006). Conformity: In the real-life lab [Video]. Films on Demand.When people decide whether or not to follow the crowd, what happens inside their brains? This ABC News program explores that question, highlighting neurological research that helps explain conformity and sheds light on the complex relationship between group and individual behavior.Run Time: 10 Minutes.Milgram, S. (1963). Behavioral study of obedience. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67(4), 371-378.This is a well known experiment of destructive obedience in the laboratory where the subject was asked to administer increasingly more severe punishment to a victim.Macionis, J. J. (2019). Society: The basics (15th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson. Available in the courseroom via the VitalSource Bookshelf link.Chapter 4, “Social Interaction in Everyday Life,” pages 100-123. This chapter introduces you to how sociologists understand social structure and how it impacts our daily interaction.Chapter 6, “Groups and Organizations,” pages 156-179. This chapter focuses more in-depth on the impact of groups and organizations in our lives.
Capella University Applying Sociological Imagination Paper

“Hamlet” and “Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead” Essay

“Hamlet” and “Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead” are two plays. There is a definite connection between them, but it goes beyond the mere obvious drama of death. Both plays have a common theme of a surreal world where people are objects ruled by a higher and unknown force. Even though these works of art were created in a deem and distant past, they still can be attributed to the modern times. The link of “Hamlet” and “Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead” to the present days can be seen in the lost characters. People are often unaware of their point in life and how to define own goals and dreams. Just like Rosencrantz and Guildenstern feel lost and are unaware of their purpose, so do people in the modern society. With such a vast amount of information people begin doing something, only to realize that their actions were pointless and unclear, so they begin doing something else. The same is seen in the characters from the play, as they are not sure of why or where they are going. Several times, they thought about working out their destination, deciding to change the course of their lives, only to later give up and say that there is no point in life. They choose a path that forcefully takes them there, and they have neither strength nor want to decide anything for themselves (Shakespeare, 1987). The two plays have a lot of parallels, but they are different kinds of tragedy. “Hamlet” is based on the feud within a family. Hamlet is torn apart by the recent events, and everything that follows springs from his anger and the need for revenge. Most of the time, the mood of the play is depressing and sad, as people become marionettes of greed and other people’s selfishness. “Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead” is a much different type of tragedy, as these two individuals are very sneaky, fake, seemingly kind and understanding. Hamlet realizes the fact that his two “friends” act out of someone else’s will and he treats the situation accordingly. Two of his oldest friends cannot even begin to understand the reasons for Hamlet’s feelings because they themselves are not sure what is going on in their lives and minds (Shakespeare, 1987). In the closing scenes, both Rosencrantz and Guildenstern end up unhappy and unlucky. The whole play they are unhappy, as events seem to collide, they cause them great confusion and grief. In the course of the play, they become more miserable with each act, so they reach the finish completely in loss of control over their lives and their individualities. They are unlucky because every time they want to make something out of the situation, they appear as losers and are left with less than they had before. The drama of their fate is their absence from reality. They do not know what is going on, even when they directly participate in an event. They are unlucky because they do not know any of Hamlet’s secrets and plans. The fact that the letters got switched up, makes them even more unlucky and more unhappy. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The two plays have been intertwined in an interesting and provocative way. The message of both masterpieces is clear, as people must learn about themselves before going out into the big word and influencing or manipulating others. Reference Shakespeare, W. (1987). Hamlet. Cheltenham, United Kingdom: Nelson Thornes. More about Hamlet Do you think Hamlet is a problem play or a tragedy? Why? 5 851 What does the first soliloquy reveal about Hamlet? 5 27 How is Laertes a Foil for Hamlet? 5 165 What Does the Ghost Tell Hamlet? 5 58 Which Details in Hamlet Reflect Elizabethan Society? 5 228 What Incident Serves to Initiate the Conflict in Hamlet? 5 70

Mercantilism and theories of international trade

python assignment help During the period 1400-1800, a group of writers appeared in Europe was concerned with the process of nation building who were famously known as Mercantilists. Until the end of the eighteenth century, most statesmen in Europe believed in mercantilist approach to trade and particularly it prevailed in England during first Queen Elizabeth’s time (1558 to 1603) and Queen Victoria’s era (1837 to 1901). Much of the underpinning of free enterprise system was developed in late eighteenth century and early nineteenth century. Mercantilism took many forms, but essentially it was a belief that national power depended upon national economic wealth. Wealth was at that time equated with possession of precious metals such as gold and silver [1] . According to the mercantilists, the central question was how a nation could regulate its domestic and international affairs so as to promote its own wealth. The solution lay in a strong foreign-trade sector. Mercantilism advocates, building up a surplus of exports over imports to increase the stock of bullion. This excess of exports over imports was referred as favourable balance of trade by the mercantilist (1767) even though ‘balance in our favour’ had been used by John Cary [2] (1695) earlier. They believed that, such revenues would contribute to increase spending which leads to a rise in domestic output and employment. To promote a favorable trade balance, the mercantilists advocated government regulation of trade. Tariffs, quotas, and other commercial policies were proposed by the mercantilists to minimize imports in order to protect a nation’s trade position. Mercantilist ideas were never universally accepted, and economic policy measures associated with them were enforced only half-heartedly. By the end of eighteenth century, the economic policies of the mercantilists were under strong attack. Mercantilist doctrine was criticized by David Hume in his ‘Political Discourses’ (1752). Hume claimed that given a free market in bullion, and internal price flexibility, any attempt by a country to build up a long-term favourable balance of trade was fore-doomed to failure. According to David Hume’s price-specie-flow doctrine, a favorable trade balance was possible only in the short run, for over time it would automatically be eliminated. The mercantilists were also attacked for their static view of the world economy. To the mercantilists the world’s wealth was fixed. This meant that one nation’s gains from trade came at the expense of its trading partners; not all nations could simultaneously enjoy the benefits of international trade. This view was challenged by the publication of Adam Smith’s (1776) ‘Wealth of Nations’. According to smith the world’s wealth is not a fixed quantity and he argued that international trade permits nations to take advantage of specialization and the division of labour, which increase the general level of productivity within a country and thus increase world output (wealth). Smith’s view of trade suggested that both trading partners could simultaneously enjoy higher levels of production and consumption with trade. He advocated free trade on the grounds that it promoted the international division of labour. But of the advantages of free trade as a general rule he was in no doubt. It is important to realize the limitation of Adam Smith’s free trade argument. He demonstrated that two countries would gain from specialization when one was more efficient than another at producing a product but less efficient than its partner at producing another product (Absolute Advantage). But it was left to a later writer, Ricardio, to show that there might be a gain even one country was better than its partner at producing both products. This was the famous principal of comparative advantage. David Ricardo (1817) in his Principles of Political Economy was the first writer systematically applies this principle of comparative advantage or comparative costs to trade between countries. In doing so Ricardo made a substantial advance from Adam Smith’s position, Whereas Smith showed that trade between two countries were profitable if each had an absolute advantage over the other in the production of a commodity, Ricardo showed that gain was also possible in cases where one country had an absolute advantage over the other in the production of both commodities, but whereas its advantage was greater in one commodity than in other. The situation as outlined by Ricardo could not exist within a single country but since labour and capital are not mobile between countries, differences in costs can persist. In the original Ricardian model, the most important factor affecting the pattern of international trade was the difference in labour time costs. Ricardo’s emphasis upon labour time costs certainly attracted criticism. Naussau Senior (1830) pointed out that it was misleading to explain trade primarily in terms of labour time, since money cost differentials might reflect productivity differentials rather than differences in the length of labour time required to produce a commodity. Senior fixed attention on labour productivity rather than on the relative amount of labour time devoted to producing various products [3] . A similar criticism of Ricardo was advanced by J.S.Mill, who argued that since special factors might depress wages in certain industries, but not in the other industries in the same country, the products of those industries whose wages were ‘artificially’ low might sell at relatively low prices. Marshall, for example, endeavoured to include capital and other production costs along with labour costs by his use of the concept of a ‘representative bundle’ of a nation’s factors of production consisting of a given amount of labour working with an average amount of capital. All these were attempts to develop a more realistic measure of costs than one which took account only of Ricardo’s labour time costs. But they had a common notion that differences in comparative real costs determined comparative advantage. Although each made a valuable contribution to theory, neither Senior, Mill or Marshall attempted a full examination or reformulation of Ricardo’s doctrine. This was left to taussig (1927) who paid a very careful attention to the role of factors other than labour costs in international specialization. In particular he examined the part played by the relative cost of capital, namely relative interest rates. A number of writers attacked the classical position on the grounds that it presupposed a two country and two commodity world. Others criticized the absence of any discussion about transport costs. A number of writers in the classical tradition tried to accommodate comparative cost theory to the real world situation where more than two commodities normally exchange between two countries. Perhaps the best known and most useful contribution in this field was that of von Mangoldt- Edgeworth [4] . Their approach admits that in a many commodity world, knowledge of real costs alone is insufficient to show which commodities will be imported and exported by any given country. In order to determine the pattern of import-export trade, one needs to know the relative money wage rates in the two countries. An obvious omission so far is the absence of any consideration of transport costs and early international trade theory paid very little attention to transport costs. The existence of transport costs may well affect the profitability and pattern of international trade. In 1930’s, fundamental changes were occurred in attitudes towards the real cost theory of international trade. One of the most significant developments was the contribution of Professor Gottfried Haberler’s (1933) in his ‘Theory of International Trade’. He pleaded for a restatement of international trade theory in terms of opportunity rather than real cost. But according to Heckscher and ohlin, trade between nations is profitable when it enables them to take advantage of their differencing factor endowments. H-O approach is an awareness of the relationship between trade and domestic economic structure. However it has been criticized by the later writers. One of the most interesting criticism of the H-O approach as applied to trade in manufactures is by S.Linder [5] (1961) who argues that so far from being explicable by differences in factor endowments, trade in manufactures is explained by similarity in demand patterns. In contrast to much earlier theorizing, the Linder approach emphasizes the role of demand conditions in making trade worthwhile. A rather different criticism of the Heckscher – Ohlin approach comes from Kravis, who argues that, the determinant of trade pattern is ‘avaliability’ or supply elasticity within trading countries rather than their relative factor endowments. One of the ironies of the history of economic thought is the almost complete neglect by nineteenth century classical economists of the movement of factors between countries, both of human beings and capital. Ricardo and his successors accordingly failed to work out the relationship between factor movements and commodity trade. But in the real world there is both factor and commodity movement exists. The most drastic changes in the world economy have been due to the international flows of factors of production, including labour and capital. In the 1800s, European capital and labour (along with African and Asian labour) flowed to United States and later US has sent large amounts of investment capital to Canada and Western Europe. Although the free trade argument tends to dominate, virtually all nations have imposed restrictions on the international flow of goods, services and capital. The advocates of protectionism says that free trade is fine in theory, but it does not apply in the real world because the modern international trade theories assumes perfectly competitive markets whose characteristics do not reflect real-world market conditions. Despite the power of free trade argument, however, free-trade policies met major resistance among poorer nations whose companies and workers faced losses in income and jobs because of unfair competition. Domestic producers contend that import restrictions should be enacted to offset these foreign advantages, thus creating a level playing field on which producers can compete on equal terms. All developed countries have used protectionism prior to the 19th century and also the damage caused by the wars for trade such as, colonial wars, opium wars and world war I made the economies to protect their own interest. During 18th and 19th century majority of the economies in the world had implied barriers (tariff and non-tariff barriers) for free trade to protect unfair competition. But many liberal economist of the 20th century such as John Stuart Mill, Cordell Hull has advocated free trade. The British economist John Maynard Keynes criticized of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 for the damage it did to the interdependent European economy and later he advocated free trade because he believed that it promotes high levels of employment. The tremendous growth of productive forces utilizing the scientific and technological advances in developed economies has resulted in huge growth of their output and this expansion leads them to the search for new markets. Since World War II the trend has been in favor of free trade. Finally, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) (1944) has sponsored a number of initiatives for free trade. The United States has played an instrumental role in the several GATT initiatives, including the Uruguay round (1986-93), which negotiated the Trade Related Investment Measures (TRIMS) and later it becomes the part of WTO. The neoliberal and modern economist divorce the traditional theory and tend to discuss that both labour and capital are mobile between nations. There are a number of modern theories explaining FDI, amongst one of the earliest theories was developed by MacDougall (1958) and later elaborated by M.C. Kemp (1964). MacDougall-Kemp developed marginal productivity theory to analyze income effects and assessed the balance of costs and benefits accruing to the different sectors of the host economy. The decrease in the marginal productivity of capital due to the increase in capital stock due to FDI has counterbalanced by the higher marginal returns to labor in the host economy. Since the gain to the labor sector exceeds the loss to the capitalist sector, it follows that FDI yields net positive income effects to the host country. In case of the investing country, return on capital invested will be equivalent to marginal productivity of capital outflow. But the limitation in MacDougall’s theory is based on the assumption of perfect competition and FDI takes place in the traditional sectors such as production of primary commodities or basic industrial manufacturing. In the real world perfect competition does not exist and FDI activities began to venture into new sectors such as technology or knowledge-based or modern capital-intensive manufacturing. Under these circumstances, decline in capital productivity needs not be a realistic consideration. Except MacDougall-Kemp hypothesis, FDI theories are primarily based on imperfect market conditions. One of the earliest theories based on the assumptions of an imperfect or oligopolistic market was the industrial organization theory developed by Stephen Hymer. Hymer (1960) explains that firm specific advantages are mainly due to the technological advantage which helps the multinational firms to produce a new product different from the existing one. The important aspect of this theory is that, the technological advantages are transferred more effectively from the parent unit to its subsidiary in the host county irrespective of the geographical distance. The multinational firm harvests huge profits because of non-availability of technological advantage to the rival in the imperfect market. Graham and Krugman (1989) proved this hypothesis empirically that, it was the technological advantage possessed by European firms that had led them to invest in the USA. Caves (1971) also feels that firm- specific advantages are transmitted more effectively if the firm participates effectively in the production in the host country than through other ways such as export or licensing agreements. The industrial organization theory has also been acknowledged by Kindle berger (1969), Johnson (1970). They explained that the important determinant of FDI is the advantages of superior knowledge and economies of scale that allow a multi-national firm to operate its subsidiary aboard profitably than the local competitors. Another earliest theory based on the assumptions of an imperfect market was developed by Raymond Vernon who played a significant role in the post-World war development of GATT. The mobility of capital in the internationalization process has discussed in his famous International Product Life Cycle model (IPLC). Vernon (1966) argued that every product follows a life cycle which is divided into three stages viz., innovation stage, maturing product stage and standardized product stage. Initially the firm innovates a product to meet the domestic demand and a portion of output has been exported to other economies. Then in the next stage the rivals in the host country produces similar product at a lower price whereas the product of the innovator is often costlier because of the transportation cost and tariff imposed by the host government. At the final stage, price competitiveness becomes more important; and in view of this fact, the innovator shifts the production to a low cost location. Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) in production plants drive down unit cost because of labour and transportation cost decrease. The product manufactured in a low cost location is exported back to the home country or to other developed countries or marketed in the host country itself. The product cycle theory explains the early post-World War situation but with the changes in international trade environment, the stages of the product life cycle did not necessarily follow in the same way. Vernon (1979) himself had discussed about this limitation in his later writing, that even in the second stage itself firms were moving to the developing world to reap the advantages of cheap labour. Bhagwati (1972) criticized that, export threat not always cause a firm to set up a subsidiary in the host country. He argues that if it is true, all US firms should have set subsidiaries abroad in countries to which they had been exporting. Hood and Young (1979) emphasized upon the location-specific advantages. They explain that since real wage cost varies among countries, firms move to low wage countries. Sometimes it is the availability of cheap and abundant raw material that encourages the MNCs to invest in the county with abundant raw material. Buckley and Casson (1976) also assume market imperfection, but in their view imperfection is related to the transaction cost which is involved in the intra-firm transfer of intermediate products such as knowledge or expertise. The transaction cost in case of intra-firm transfer of technology is almost zero, whereas in case of technology transfer to other firms is extremely high. This view is more or less in similar with the appropriability approach of Magee (1979), which emphasizes on the potential returns from technology creation as a prime mover behind internationalization of firms. Many critics of course argue that intra-firm transaction cost may not necessarily be low. If subsidiaries are located in a new environment, the transaction cost is usually high. Kogut and Parkinson (1993) opine that if the transaction cost is very large if the transfer of intermediate goods involves substantial modification of well established practice. Franke, Hofstede, and Bond (1991) are of the view that, the internalization process will be a costly affair, if the cultural differences between the home country and the host country are wide. The major combination of imperfect market-based theories of FDI is Dunning’s eclectic paradigm [6] . It explains that at a given point of time the stock of foreign assets owned by a multinational firm is determined by a combination of ownership advantage (O), the extent of location bound endowments (L) and the extent to which these advantages are marketed in the host country (I). Dunning (1993) believes that pattern of O-L-I advantages varies between countries and activities. Foreign investment will be greater where the arrangement is more prominent. Later, he introduced a “dynamised add-on” variable to his theory which is strategic change. The O-L-I configuration varies according to strategies adopted by the multi-national firms, which is evident from the fact that market seeking investment has a different O-L-I configuration from that of a resource based investment. Finally it has been empirically tested and proved by Dunning (1980, 1993), that is the varying configuration shapes the direction and pattern of FDI.

Annual Artificial Intelligence Products Convention Business Letter

Annual Artificial Intelligence Products Convention Business Letter.

I’m working on a communications question and need guidance to help me study.

In exactly 7 months, 2 days and 4 hours, retailers of Artificial Intelligence products from throughout the “Middle East” well decent on your city for the 09th annual Artificial Intelligence products convention, sponsored by your employer “Taqnia Cyber” as executive assistant to the president of the Association, you bear full responsibility for organising the convention and preparing for the guest.Assignment Question(s):Write a letter of request to the major of your city ask for public services (such as police and paramedical services, due to Covid-19 Pandemics) that you will require during the convention. Demonstrate, if possible that the convention is the interest of the mayor’s city. (02.50 Marks)undefinedBy the means of business letter, reverse the convention facilities of the star flight hotel. Abide by any request the hotel has made for a deposit. Specify the arrangements you expect from the hotel during the convention. (02.50 Marks)
Annual Artificial Intelligence Products Convention Business Letter

The role of global leadership skills in mcdonalds corporation

Introduction Recent decades have seen the growth of companies in international business. They undertake activities involving cross border transactions of goods, services, resources between two or more nations. The phenomenon is formally known as globalizationwhich continues to grow due to several factors such the expanding technologyintransportationandcommunications, the removal of international businessrestrictions by governments, and hunger of consumers for foreigngoodsandservices. Companies having a worldwide approach to markets and production or with operations in more than a country are known by several names, like “multinational enterprises,” “multinational corporations,” or “transnational companies.” Included among the well-known multinational corporations operating in multiple national markets is McDonald’s Corporation. McDonald’s is one of the world’s largest chain of hamburgerfast food restaurants, serving nearly 47 million customers daily. At one time it was the largest global restaurant chain, but it has since been surpassed by multi-brand operatorYum! Brands(KFC,Taco Belland others) and sandwich chainSubway (Breitbart, 2009). Research Aims and Objectives The purpose of this study is to analyze McDonald’s as a multinational corporation and determine the application of global leadership skills in its international operations. Specifically, answers to the following specific questions shall be gathered: 1. How does McDonald’s Corporation operate in terms of international organization, business objectives, functional areas, management style and company culture, and communication? 2. How is McDonald’s corporation perceived in related literature in terms of cultural competency, political competency, international competency, and use of information technology? Academic Sources