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Gonial Angle as an Indicator for Growth Pattern

Gonial Angle as an Indicator for Growth Pattern. ABSTRACT: Aim: To determine the gonial angle, upper gonial angle and lower gonial angle in patients with horizontal, vertical and average growth pattern belonging to the local Chennai population and determine if it can be used as a growth indicator. Materials and Methods: Gonial angle, upper gonial angle and lower gonial angle measurements were made on lateral cephalograms of 90 patients – 44 males and 46 females. Results A one sample T test was used to determine the mean values for average, horizontal and vertical growth pattern and to check their level of significance. All the values were statistically significant with a P value = 0.000. Conclusion: The upper gonial angle was the same irrespective of growth pattern. The gonial angle and lower gonial angle can be used as an indicator for growth. INTRODUCTION: Gonial angle is widely used in orthodontic cephalogram tracing. It is a valuable indicator to diagnose the growth pattern of patients and also determines the rotation of the mandible. The gonial angle can also be a handy tool in age assessment in extreme situations like mass disaster, remains of human dead exhumed and murderous mutilations, missing individuals, etc.[1]. The downward and backward rotation of the mandible is called as a high angle and these patients showed increased gonial angle. Contrary to this, upward and forward direction of mandible is called as a low angle and these patients showed a decrease in gonial angle.[2] Thus, it becomes one of the most important angles for determining orthodontic or surgical plans in a patient. A few studies focused on the mandibular angle, its change throughout aging, and changing relation to dental status. This study was conducted on lateral cephalograms of a total of 90 subjects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the gonial angle as an indicator for the growth pattern. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lateral cephalograms of 90 patients which includes 44 males and 46 females belonging to the local Chennai population were obtained from the patient records of the department of Orthodontics. The growth pattern were grouped into three groups namely vertical growth pattern, average growth pattern and horizontal growth pattern based on the clinical and cephalometric FMA. The gonial angle was measured by taking the tangent to the posterior border of the ramus and tangent to the lower border of the mandible on lateral cephalogram (Fig 1). Because of the superimpositions seen on lateral cephalograms, reliable measurement of the gonial angle becomes difficult. The gonial angle was measured on the lateral cephalometric radiograph using a mathematical protractor. The angle is recorded in degrees. FMA, gonial angle, upper gonial angle and lower gonial angle are measured. Frankfort mandibular plane angle is the angle formed between FHP and mandibular plane (Tweeds, 1954).[3] Gonial angle is the angle formed by the points articulare, gonion and methon. Upper Gonial angle is the angle formed by the points articulare, gonion and nasion and lower Gonial angle is the angle formed by the points nasion, gonion and meton. The cephalograms were traced on matte acetate paper with 2H pencil under double illumination. Since only angular measurements were recorded magnification was not calculated. The values obtained were tabulated and subjected to statistical evaluation. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: A one sample T test was done using SPSS 22 software to determine the mean values for average, horizontal and vertical growth pattern and to check their level of significance. RESULTS: Table 1 and Graph 1shows the results obtained. In patients with horizontal growth pattern, the mean value for the FMA was 19.6°±0.45° (P=0.000). The mean value for the gonial angle was 122.43°± 1.40°(P=0.000). Mean value for lower and upper gonial angle were 66.80°±.01° and 55.30° ±0. 99° respectively with (P=0.000). In patients with vertical growth pattern, the mean value for the FMA was 33.93°± 1.32°(P=0.000). Mean value for gonial angle’s was 130.20°±1.39° (P=0.000).Mean value for lower and upper gonial angle were 76.40°±1.39°and 53.80°±1.15° respectively with (P=0.000). In the average growth pattern, the mean value for the FMA was 24.93°± 0.26° (P=0.000). The mean value for gonial angle was 127.03°±0.997° (P=0.000). Mean value for lower and upper gonial angle were 71.53°±0.9° and 55.17°±1.07°respectively (P=0.000). DISCUSSION: Evaluation of growth pattern plays a major role in diagnosis and treatment planning. There are various cephalometric parameters to evaluate growth pattern. Those commonly used are SN to mandibular plane, Frankfurt horizontal plane angle and Jarabak’s ratio. However, fault in the SN plane and Frankfurt horizontal plane can produce erroneous results in growth pattern. The Jarabak’s ratio is based on the posterior and anterior facial height and does not reflect the rotation of the mandible. In the present study the samples were grouped into horizontal, average and vertical growth pattern based on the clinical and cephalometric FMA. The mean value of FMA was determined for each group and was found to be 19.6°±0.45°, 24.93°± 0.26° and 33.93°± 1.32° for horizontal, average and vertical growth pattern and the values obtained were statistically significant with a P value of 0.000 and confidence interval of 95%. The gonial angle ranged from 119.5749° to 125.2918° in horizontal growers, 127.5048° to 132.8952° in vertical growers and 124.9940° to 129.0726° in average growers. The lower gonial angle range from 64.7351° to 68.8649° in patients with horizontal growth pattern, 73.5518° to 79.2482° in average growth pattern and 69.6812° to 73.3855° in vertical growth pattern. The upper gonial angle ranged from 53.2568° to 57.3432° in horizontal growth pattern, 51.4518° to 56.1482° in vertical growth pattern and 52.9738° to 57.3596° in average growth pattern. It can be seen that the upper gonial angle is almost the same in horizontal, vertical and average growth pattern. The lower gonial angle on the contrary increased in the degree of angulation from horizontal, average and vertical growth pattern and can be used as an indicator for assessing growth pattern. According to Rakosi,[4] the norm value for gonial angle in Caucasians with average growth pattern ranged from 128°±7° which was almost similar to our measurements 127.0333°±.99710° and ranged from 124.9940° to 129.0726°. The upper gonial angle in Caucasians with average growth pattern ranged from 52° to 55° but in our sample it had a mean value of 55.1667°±1.07220° ranging from 52.9738° to 57.3596°. The lower gonial angle in Caucasians was between 70° to 75°. In the present sample the lower gonial angle ranged from 69.6812° to 73.3855° with a mean of 71.5333°±.90558°. This value was less compared to the Caucasian population. CONCLUSION: The upper gonial angle was the same irrespective of growth pattern The lower gonial angle increases from horizontal, average and vertical growth pattern The lower gonial angle in the present sample is less compared to Caucasians The mean values in average growth in the local Chennai population were 127.03°±0.997°, 71.53°±0.9° and 55.17°±1.07° for gonial angle, lower gonial angle and upper gonial angle respectively. All the values were statistically significant with a P value = 0.000 The lower gonial angle can be used as an indicator for growth pattern Gonial Angle as an Indicator for Growth Pattern

Treatment Programs for Juvenile Offenders Research Paper

Table of Contents Introduction Role of the youth in the juvenile treatment programs Parents and the Community The Program Administrators Conclusion Reference List Introduction Juvenile offenders require a special treatment in order to make them avoid repeating offensive behavior because juvenile crimes have been rated high among the major determinants of the crime rates in society. Unfortunately, most of the people do not directly attribute crimes to children. They assume that children cannot be involved in criminal activities due to their innocence. However, researches by juvenile offenders researchers like Schemalleger (2008, p 542) have indicated that 10% of 99,794 juvenile arrests that were made in United States in 2008 were of children aged 12 and below. It is also heart wrenching to realize that 17% of all police arrests made every year comprise juvenile offenders. This finding is very alarming. Therefore, it calls for various stakeholders in juvenile treatment programs to be zealous since children only comprise 26% of the United States’ population. The figure indicates that adolescents are capable of committing crimes unless they are tamed at an early age. Since most of the juvenile offenders are adolescents, various stakeholders can correct this behavior through proper treatment, which is of paramount importance to focus on especially the roles that various stakeholders in the treatment programs play. When the stakeholders strengthen the output of their particular roles in treatment of juvenile offenders, the effort will eventually reduce the rate of crimes in the future by having every stakeholder in various treatment programs understand his or her roles and the impact of their role on its success. Although correctional institutions and various governments have always centered their efforts on the use of scare straight programs when dealing with juvenile offenders, it has been widely discredited due to its lack of efficiency and effectiveness. Various non-confrontational methods have been shown to perform better than scare-straight programs. Such non-confrontational juvenile treatment methods include discussions and positive reinforcement, educational programs, family programs, re-entry programs, youth recreation programs, and community-based programs. In all the programs, various stakeholders are involved. The effectiveness of such programs therefore largely depends on the contribution of the key stakeholders. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, since the increasing rates of juvenile crimes forced various stakeholders such as parents, the youths themselves, and various administrators such as lawyers and police to develop juvenile treatment programs, the stakeholders become integral in implementation. The paper endeavors to discuss the impact of various stakeholders in treatment programs for juvenile offenders. Role of the youth in the juvenile treatment programs Youths have a role to appreciate juvenile programs and their objectives. Youths who participate in the juvenile treatment programs are the major stakeholders. In fact, the whole program is designed to change them from delinquents to law-abiding citizens in their states. Schemalleger (2008, p.546) asserts that the Illinois Juvenile Court Act of 1899 was meant to make the court focus on children’s interest in case of a crime rather than on their criminal acts thus indicating that all juvenile treatment programs are designed for the good of the youth involved in the crime. In fact, in the Illinois court judges were barred by law from referring to juvenile offenders as criminals instead of delinquents. All delinquents should therefore play their rightful roles in the implementation of juvenile treatment programs since it is geared towards their well-being. The youths who have been involved in the crime have to accept the circumstances under which they been associated with criminal activities. Acceptance of one’s situation is a great role that can enhance the success of the treatment program. The youth must appreciate that all other stakeholders in the juvenile treatment program are focused towards his or her success in the future. The other role that the youth involved in the juvenile treatment program should play is that of feeling guilty of the committed offence, which marks the beginning of the healing and the change program. For the delinquent to reform from their criminal acts, they must begin by accepting that what they did is wrong and is punishable in the society. In fact, according to Schemalleger (2011, p. 547), when the delinquents are pampered, they continue with criminal activities even when they have been tried in courts of law thus making young criminals not to be remorseful about their evil acts. We will write a custom Research Paper on Treatment Programs for Juvenile Offenders specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The assumption that, when children commit a criminal act, they do so unwillingly and that they should not be regarded as criminals is misleading. As Dammer and Albanese (2011, p. 264) argue, due to the assumption of guilt, the Juvenile Court Act of 1938 flopped. From this Act, the court was to assume that it was the ultimate parent to all juvenile offenders to compel the state to use non-punitive measures in handling delinquents. Moreover, juvenile offenders could not be taken through the formal judicial procedures in prosecuting crime acts. Consequently, by 1980 the rate of juvenile crimes worsened (Dammer

NRS429VN Grand Canyon Family Health Assessment Paper

nursing essay writing service NRS429VN Grand Canyon Family Health Assessment Paper.

Refer back to the interview and evaluation you conducted in the Topic 2 Family Health Assessment assignment. Identify the social determinates of health (SDOH) contributing to the family’s health status. In a 750-1,000-word paper, create a plan of action to incorporate health promotion strategies for this family. Include the following:Describe the SDOH that affect the family health status. What is the impact of these SDOH on the family? Discuss why these factors are prevalent for this family.Based on the information gathered through the family health assessment, recommend age-appropriate screenings for each family member. Provide support and rationale for your suggestions. Choose a health model to assist in creating a plan of action. Describe the model selected. Discuss the reasons why this health model is the best choice for this family. Provide rationale for your reasoning.Using the model, outline the steps for a family-centered health promotion. Include strategies for communication.Cite at least three peer-reviewed or scholarly sources to complete this assignment. Sources should be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria.Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.
NRS429VN Grand Canyon Family Health Assessment Paper

Development is No Longer the Solution to poverty Essay

Table of Contents Introduction Development Serves First World Nations Not Third World Nations Illusions of Poverty Reduction The Development Problem Lies in the Favoured Economic Models Conclusion Reference List Introduction Prescribed solutions from societies that do not experience lack in its absolute sense will not work for the world of third world counties anguishing in poverty. Historically, such prescriptions have led to increased dependence on hand outs and or a complete breakdown of institutions necessary to fight poverty at an indigenous level (Dos Santos 1970). This essay is a critical assessment to the phrase below, made by Sachs (1992) while referring to the worthlessness of development as a solution to poverty. The impression of development stands like a decay in the scholarly scene (Sachs 1992, p. 1). The same author proceeds to say, “delusion and disappointment, failures and crimes have been the steady companions of development, and they tell a common story: it did not work” (Sachs 1992, p. 1). “Moreover, the historical conditions, which catapulted the idea into prominence, have vanished: development has become outdated” (Sachs 1992, p. 1). The author finished by stating that “but above all, the hopes and desires, which made the idea fly, are now exhausted: development has grown obsolete” (Sachs 1992, p. 1). Development Serves First World Nations Not Third World Nations The differentiation-integration model of development theory uses various components of societies to define development. However, it falls short comprehensively offering the universal depiction of development as an end means to solve the poverty problem. Even after bringing forth the question of taking into account social, psychological conditions, and concomitants of productive development, it goes on to narrow the focus to a question of transitioning from backwardness to advancement in the economic status (Bernstein 1971). The problem here is that the advancement refers to first world countries. Thus, the notion of modernization is simply a quest to transform third world into first world without offering a lasting solution to the cause of the poverty (Banuri 1990). The first-world countries became economically superior by relying on the abundance of raw materials and cheap labour from the world. It has also been having international market access that fosters trade. On the other hand, modernization theorists expect third-world countries to replicate similar situations, and become economically advanced, when the conditions do not allow them. While they may have abundance in raw materials, they lack the freedom and capacity to exercise their capacity of resource exploitation (Peet

Georgia Highlands College Immunity and Constitutional Structure Bibliography

Georgia Highlands College Immunity and Constitutional Structure Bibliography.

The source I used:1.Crocker, K. M. (2019). Qualified immunity and constitutional structure. Michigan Law Review, 117(7), 1405–1461. https://search.informit.org/doi/10.3316/agispt.201… (Original work published May 2019) 2. Jirard, S. A. (2020). Policing America: Racism, Reform, and Redefining Justice3. Nielson, A. L., & Walker, C. J. (2017). A Qualified Defense of Qualified Immunity. Notre Dame L. Rev., 93, 1853. 4. Sherman LW. Preventing Avoidable Deaths in Police Encounters with Citizens: Immediate Priorities. The ANNALS of the American This is what needs to be include in each annotated bibliography.Provide the citation in APA format;Provide information on the author(s), their argument, and audience to whom they are writing; Summarize the source (article, book or report); and Discuss how the source is relevant to the topic you have selected.
Georgia Highlands College Immunity and Constitutional Structure Bibliography

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