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There GMOs in almost everything that we eat. GMO stands for genetically modified organism. “Genetic modification occurs when genes from one organism are transferred to another in ways that do not occur without human intervention. The result is a GMO, or a genetically modified organism. ” (Farrell 1) Soybeans are one of the largest GMO crops being produced. With the modification of the soybean by Monsanto, it is now possible for the crop to survive when herbicides are sprayed over it.

The herbicide that the soybeans are resistant to is Roundup, so farmers do not have to worry about their soybeans dying to the herbicide. I believe that the negative effects of modified soybeans so not outweigh the benefits because genetically modified soybeans so not increase the production but increase the businesses’ profit, and there are health problems that can arise. Having GM soybeans does not mean that more would be produced; it only means that businesses would raise their profits.

Many European countries do not buy any GMO products from the U. S. because they are afraid of any problems that may arise in the future, so I believe that since other countries are not buying any GM food, they do not want to change back into growing food naturally with no modifications or pesticides, because they want to make a bigger profit. They prevent any change that could stop them from making more profit. They do not care if they are damaging the environment; they only care about making more money.

For example, people use Roundup (an herbicide) to kill weeds in their backyards or on the sidewalk. Farmers use the same product on the food that we want; they use it to kill the weeds that are growing around the soybeans. To prevent the soybeans from also dying, they have been modified to withstand the weed killer. Scientists have modified it by adding three different genes to the plant: a gene from bacterium, from a virus, and from a petunia. (McMillen )When combine with the original gene, it looks the same but it is now resistant to the Roundup herbicide.

Even with soybeans modified, farmers do not benefit from it. The modification has not helped the production go up, the only thing that has gone up is the price. “[Costs] about $6 an acre to plant the usual seeds, companies charge over $40 per acre for the genetically modified seeds [and the companies gain $34 per acre of seeds sold]. (McMillen 1) Because the seeds are seeds are patented, (which means that the one who invented it, is the only one who has the right to use or sell the product to anyone,) farmers cannot save any eeds from the ones that they have grown. Therefore; each year they have to buy more from the same business. If the farmers save the seeds, they will be fined or even taken to jail. Genetically modified soybeans can also cause health problems. Soy beans can cause food allergies. Since we don’t really know if the bacteria gene in the soybeans will cause a reaction, scientists have compared the proteins in the soy with other proteins that are known to cause allergies.

If the GM protein has sequences that cause allergies, then according to the World Health Association, the GM crop should not be sold or there should be more testing done on it. However, there are sections of proteins produced in GM soybeans that are identical to allergens, but there was no more testing done to it. (Smith 1) If there are proteins in the soy that are causing allergies, “then the situation may be made much worse by something called horizontal gene transfer (HGT).

That’s when genes spontaneously transfer from one species’ DNA to another. ” (Smith 1) Plants should naturally have barriers that keeps genes from transferring to other species, but since there are foreign genes in the soy, it is losing its ability to stop this from happening. Even though it is most common in bacteria and rare in plants and mammals, genes transfer from one species to another, and a study found that parts of the genes from the soy were found in the DNA of human gut bacteria.

So even after we stop eating GM soy, we could still be exposed to this transfer of genes because it will still be produced in our intestines. (Smith 1)I believe that there should be more testing because we do not know if there are any other risks involved with eating GM soybeans. Genetically modified soybeans are not beneficial because there is no gain in product only the gain in profit of businesses, and it also causes allergies.

With soybeans being resistant to weed killers, weeds are becoming resistant to Roundup, so farmers actually have to use more money to buy more herbicides because they may not be working well anymore. Also it costs more to buy GM soy that soy that has not been tampered with. Not only do businesses profit, but we the consumers can suffer from the product. There are proteins in the soy gene that are identical to genes that cause allergies. We the consumers should be able to decide what we want eat, and also decide how we want the food to be produced.

PRE-RESEARCH NARRATIVE 2 Running head: PRE-RESEARCH NARRATIVE 1 Pre-research Narrative about Name



Pre-research Narrative about




Pre-research Narrative

Being form a different cultural diversity has always been a challenge to me. As a Chinese student, studying in the United States made me realize how migrants are often discriminated in the basis of education, race, religion and national characteristics. I realized interacting with diverse group of students can make one recognize the value of uniqueness among individuals in their own ways. Our reading levels, cultural backgrounds, abilities, religious beliefs, and personalities constituted to our differences. At first this was stressful. Then I came to embrace it later in my studies. I think institutions should provide students with a conducive environment for learning. Students should also learn to value and use diversity for greater good.

Having applied and accepted in Binghamton University where I proceeded to study Business Administration. My college life was quite different from high school, most notably the differences in respect to race, religion, socio-economic class, and all sorts of differences that divide people. These divisions contradicted my illusions of animmigrationcountry that was so diverse but everyone is abletoblend in. Diversity, I quickly learnt, was not everyone’s cup of tea; some frowned upon it while others pretended to embrace it. Making friends in college wasan uphill battle and Iremember wondering if things would be any different if I had stayed in China.Diversity changed my perspective on a myriad of things.My college experience inspired me to research more on the different cultures that make up the world.

Cultural diversity is everywhere. A small nation like Togo has 37 tribes who converse in 39 different languages. Another example is Chad, a country with a fairly small population of 8.6 million who belong to an upwards of 100 ethnic groups. On the other hand, the least culturally diverse countries include Haiti, Uruguay, and Argentina (Morin, 2013). Owing to my cultural heritage, I maintain a pulse on what China is doing around the world. In the past decades, China has established itself as an economic powerhouse with Africa, a move that has been dubbed the new scramble for Africa. This is evidenced by a plethora of developmental projects that China has launched in collaboration with various African governments. The Thika Superhighway project in Nairobi that spans 31 miles was executed by three Chinese companies with the goal of eradicatingchronic traffic congestion and connecting Nairobi to Ethiopia. This high profile project is just an example of Chineseinfrastructure projects thatyield good will for China and pave way for Chinese-owned businesses on the continent (Langfitt, 2011).

Researching further, I found that this is not China’s first foray into Africa; in the 1960s and 1970s, China attempted to spread its communist ideologies to the developing world urging them to abandon or reject the western world’s imperialistic ideals. After the Cold War, China embarked on more realistic approaches to spread their influence such as energy, trade, and investment (Brookes & Shin, 2006). The China-Africa collaboration seems to thrive because this superpower does not stipulate governance approaches when seeking economic cooperation with African nations. This easy-going nature breaks the longstanding tradition of Western governments and NGOs who require countries to have high governance standards before any investments can pour in. This approach has earned China a tongue-lashing from the West as they accuse China of fostering poor leadership by rolling out developmental projects in countries with poor regimes such as Zimbabwe (Kwok, 2012). Pundits argue that the West is forlorn by the decreasing influence they once had over the continent. Despite these conflicting views, there is room for both the US and China to make their mark on the continent as their interests differ. China is largely focused on infrastructure, extracting natural resources (like in Zimbabwe), and manufacturing. On the other hand, the US advocates for good governance practices, implementing sound policies to sustain countries towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and technological advancements (Hanauer & Morris, 2014).

Factual statistics on the level of Chinese investment in Africa are not quite forthcoming. The Chinese Ministry of Commerce estimates that the nation’s direct investments in Africa multiplied eight-fold between the period of 2005- 2014 to amount to $3.2 billion. Chinese aid increased as well as investment loans issued by the Export-Import Bank. Other researchers argue that Chinese investments in Africa are grossly exaggerated and most of these gigantic projects do not amount to much. Deborah Brautigam of School of Advanced International Studies in Washington, DC penned a book Will Africa Feed China?, where she cites that most of China’s foreign direct investment actually goes to the Asian continent while a mere 3% is directed to Africa (The Economist, 2015).The Afrobarometer, African-led research network, released a report depicting the prevailing attitudes of Africans towards China. The research was conducted in 36 nations and 63% of respondents inferred that China had a positive impact on their economic and political spheres. However, countries like Algeria, Egypt, Ghana, Lesotho, Madagascar, and Zimbabwe, only less than half of those polled shared these sentiments (Dionne, 2016). From this understanding, I wish to know the impact of China’s relentless trade and commerce endeavors. How are the industrialized nations responding to this burgeoning influence? What steps are they taking to ensure that their influence doesn’t dwindle? What about internet censorship in China? My research project will address these issues in detail.

1.The research direction does not really fit in my course. It is a writing class I want it to be more focused on discussing about social problem rather than economic or political issue. 

2.The first part, which you write about my personal life, is well done. I know it is really hard to write about my life story with limited resources but you did well. I tweaked it a little bit, but you can expand this part. just imagine what your life will be like if you go to China, where everyone and everything is so different from where you grow up. Imagine all the language barrier you facing daily and cultural difference that may cause you trouble and embarrass yourself.

3.please throw out the part about my high school exchanging experience and the content about making foreign friends. Focus on the happy school life I have in china instead. (making friends and erase my childhood pain with a broken family.) And please make it like an comparison to thehardtime I have in US making friend and social contact.

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