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Globalization: Metaphysical Perspective of the Western Industrialized World Essay

The development of the world is something that touches each person on this planet and creates new circumstances to live in. This is why globalization and industrialization are the two notions, which people should care about and enlarge their knowledge about day by day. The metaphysical perspective of the western industrialized world may oppress people in many ways: children have nothing to do but accept the already existed conditions without any opportunity to change something from the very beginning, the metaphysics of the reality people live in cannot be examined properly, because people do not really comprehend how significant this very issue is, and, finally, it is not that easy to define who are really interested in the technological development and a life on the earth that is closely connected to planetary perspective only. With the help of the articles by David Carpenter and David Peat, we will try to analyze how exactly the metaphysical perspective of the representatives from the western industrialized world may oppress this world and destroy cultures. Without any doubts, “European consciousness dominates the world” (Peat, 1997). In order to comprehend the ideas of the metaphysics perspective, it is also possible to address the article of this author, who uses our society’s metaphysics in comparison to another society. With the help of Peat’s ideas, we come to the conclusion that each thing that people take as an inevitable is considered to be a kind of social conditioned perceptions, and this is why people are responsible for any change in this world, and people have to be ready to cope with the difficulties, created by themselves. Another writer, who presents really interesting information about the development of this world and this development’s impact on people, is David Carpenter. He admits that children are our future, and this is why it is crucially important to protect them by any possible means, providing all the necessary environment to be healthy and safe (Carpenter, 2006). To my mind, nurses are one of those people, who may provide the necessary support to the population to overcome all the changes, connected to the world’s industrialization and globalization. These people have close connection to health care and other issues, which provide safer future for our children. Smoking, drugs’ using, and use of not clean water – all this cause certain problems with health and abilities to accept industrialization, specially, it touches the Western countries. This is why nurses should be responsible for such things as the presentation of the information concerning healthy eating and drinking, spending time outside, dangers of smoking, etc. It is also necessary to remember about all those things, which our ancestors presented to us. Of course, lots of people try to find out as many reasons to promote the technological growth, however, we should be able to remember about our past and all those loses, our ancestors faced to safe this world for use. In order to live this life properly, people should think about the ways of how to develop and improve our present and create safe future, but not at expense of our past. Only in this case, people will get all the opportunities to feel the improvement and not to forget how it is to be a human, not dependent on technologies. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In general, I want to admit that the metaphysical perspective of this world’s industrialization remains one of the most burning issues nowadays. People should be able to develop and encourage the use of technologies, but not to forget about the ideas from the past. Such attention to past will help to comprehend that health is of great importance, and our children should have a change to life in healthy future, not spoiled by the technological process. Reference List Carpenter, D. O. (2006). Children’s Environmental Health in Central Asia and the Middle East. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 12(4), 362-368. Peat, F. D. (1997). Blackfoot Physics and European Minds. Futures, 29(6), 563-573.
Unit 2 Operations Management Discussion.

Many discussion opportunities come up where you need to respond to other people’s opinions and comments. Respond to your Discussion topic after you have completed your Reading.Lean SystemsThe advent of new technologies (the Internet, computerization, etc.) and the impact of globalization (products not only available from every country but being developed in multiple countries) has increased not just the demand for goods and services but also has increased customer requirements and expectations. As such, organizations must be constantly changing to be as economically competitive as possible. This means doing more with less as the organization becomes as “lean” as possible (no fat).The operations manager must be aware of how and why lean systems are necessary.To answer the Discussion topics, you will need to do additional research using the virtual library and/or the Internet.In order for an organization to do more with less they must examine all facets of the production or service process. To that end, address the questions below:How does just-in-time (JIT) inventory control help organizations become leaner?Where does the information on waste (waste in raw materials, waste in process and flow, etc.) come from?Should line employees be involved in making recommendations to improve lean production and processes or should this decision making be left only to management?
Unit 2 Operations Management Discussion

ENG 102 Georgia Military College Hills Like White Elephants Article Review Paper.

Critical Thinking ForumFirst, explore GMC Library for articles or reviews about any one of the stories assigned in week 3 (remember, the step-by-step instructions for literature.Then, answer the following questions in a unified response.What did you learn from reading your chosen secondary source? What information or insight was most memorable?What might be the value in reading about others’ views of an author and their work? Why do you think educators require students to include professional research?Think about Response Paper 2, which involves analyzing a theme in one of these stories. If you were to quote or paraphrase any of this material from your secondary source within your paper, what would it be and why?
ENG 102 Georgia Military College Hills Like White Elephants Article Review Paper

Production of Propylene Glycol From Glycerol. Glycerol is a by-product obtained during the production of biodiesel. As the biodiesel production is increasing rapidly, the crude glycerol generated from the transesterification of vegetables oils has been generated in a great quantity. About 10% of crude glycerol will be formed during the synthesis of biodiesel from triglycerides. Products obtained from glycerol can be used in food, pharmaceuticals, polymer, agricultural, cosmetics, resins functional fluid plastics etc. Increasing the production of biodiesel, excess of glycerol has been formed, causing market prices to fall; this would become a cheaper feedstock in the chemical synthesis. For this reason, it is essential a new technology for conversion of glycerol into valuable chemicals to make biodiesel production a cost effective process. Glycerol can be converted into higher value products such as 1,2-propanediol (propylene glycol) and 1,3-propanediol from reduction of glycerol. Propylene glycol 1,2-propanediol is an important product chemical derived from propylene oxide. Bio-routes enable reduction to 1,3-propanediol, as an important monomer which has potential effectiveness in a manufacture of cyclic compounds and polyurethanes, and production of polyester fibres.1,3-propanediol is the organic compound with the formula CH2(CH2OH)2 and its colourless viscous liquid that is miscible with water. They are also used in liquid detergents, wetter flavouring and fragrances, cosmetics, precursor in chemical and pharmaceutical industry, painting and animal food. 1,2-propanediol has an annual global demand estimated at between 1.18 and 1.58 billion tonnes1. By early 2007 it was selling at around US$1.8 per kg, with a 4% annual growth in market size2. Either 1,2-propanediol or 1,3-propanediol can be produced by selective dehyroxylation of glycerol through chemical hydrogenolysis or by biocatalyst reduction. Researchers hope commercial production of 1,2propanediol is turning excess glycerol into an advantage for the biodiesel industry. Processes: 1. Hydration of acrolein 1,3-propanediol is currently produced by the hydration of acrolein to β-hydroxypropionaldehyde, which yields 1,3-Propanediol upon hydrogenation. In this process the yield is low and also acrolein is dangerous hazardous chemical. There is a low yield in the first step of the process is because acrolein has a large tendency to polymerize through self-condensation, the hydration reaction has to compete with acrolein self-condensation to produce the desired β-hydroxypropionaldehyde. Due to the low efficiency and hazardous chemical nature of acrolein process, researchers have been interested for an alternative method to produce 1,3-propanediol. An alternative way is producing 1,3-propanediol from glycerol. Since glycerol has been derived from biomass it has been attractive process as it can be useful way of reduction of petroleum in the future. 2. Selective dehydroxylation The production of 1,3-propanediol from glycerol through selective dehydroxylation the scheme is to selectively convert the middle hydroxyl group of glycerol into tosyloxyl group. Once it has been converted then to eliminate the transformed grouped by catalytic hydrogenolysis. The tosyloxyl group is a better leaving group than hydroxyl group and is easier to replace with a hydride ion. The conversion of glycerol to1,3-propanediol is done in three steps: acetalization, tosylation, and detosyloxylation. Glycerol dehydroxylation process attracts the attention of investigators for the fermentation process. The first step (acetalization), in the conversion of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol is to acetalize the glycerol with benzaldehyde. The purpose of this step is to protect the first and third hydroxyl groups of glycerol. This is because that only the 2nd group can be tosylated in the second step and then removed in the third step. The last step of the conversion is a detosyloxylation reaction or a hydrolysis reaction. The tosylated central hydroxyl group removes in the detosyloxylation reaction. The protection removes on first and final hydroxyl groups in the hydrolysis reaction. This last step converts to 1,3-Propanediol. It also regenerates the group protection reagent benzaldehyde, which can be recycled back to the acetalization reactor for reuse in the first-step conversion4. As it shown in figure 1 the detosyloxylation reaction is basically involves hydrogenolysis reaction. The reaction is done with hydrogen molecular in the presence of a transition metal catalyst. The tosylate has not been hydrogenolysed catalytically with hydrogen molecule as a reducing agent. Currently hydrogenolysis of tosylates is affected with lithium hydride. These reagents are too expensive to use industrial scale. The feasibility of catalytically hydrogenolysis the tosylate is focus of the current research. 3. Hydrogenolysis process: The above diagram shows the conversion of glycerol to glycols. In the presence of hydrogen and metallic catalysts, glycerol can be hydrogenated to 1,2-propanediol, 1,3-propanediol, or ethylene glycol. This glycol production by hydrogenolysis is a process used is economically and environmentally attractive compared to their production from petroleum derivatives. Hydogenolysis of glycerol are used from supported metal catalysts from transition metals. For this reaction supported catalyst such as Ruthenium, Platinum, Rhodium, and Palladium are used. Addition of solid acid to metal catalysts enhances the conversion and selectivity of reaction5. Solid acid catalyst contributes the main role in conversion of glycerol hydrogenolysis. It is found that Ruthenium based catalysts exhibit better activity than other metals for this reaction5. However, Ruthenium gives excessive C-C bond cleavage which leads to degrative products. In hydogenolysis of glycerol to get 1,2-propanediol it requires selective cleavages of C-O bond without cleavage of C-C bond. For this reason, copper based catalysts are better catalysts in comparison to other transition metal catalysts. The copper based catalyst is active under mild reaction conditions and does need a separate solid acid catalyst. Studies shows that copper chromite catalyst is a good selectivity and conversion for propylene glycol under mild reaction conditions particularly at low H2 pressures. The figure below shows using copper chromite catalyst shows the highest selectivity for 1,2-propanediol with higher conversion compare to different catalyst at temperature 200oC and at pressure 13.8bar. In a reactive distiallation glycerol can be hydrogenolysis over copper chromite catalyst at less than 10 bar and 200OC in a reactive distillation. The aim for this process is to produce propylene glycol in pure condition. The reactive distillation process now achieves greater than 99.8% purity, which means the product can be used both as industrial feedstock and as antifreeze2. The practical advantages of the reactive distillation approach are: Low water content of the feed low pressure (200psi) High selectivity (>90%) Low catalyst cost. Using a two-step reaction process under mild reaction, the reaction pathway proceeds through acetol (hydoxyacetone) intermediate. The first step: relatively pure acetol is produced from glycerol at 0.65bar pressure and 200oC in the presence of copper chromite catalyst. The second step: using a copper catalyst again similar to the first step, the acetol is further hydrogenated to 1,2-propanediol at 200oC and 13.8 bar hydrogen pressure. This allows 1,2-propanediol in 90% yield and at considerably lower cost than starting from petroleum. The selectivity to propylene glycol decreases if temperature is above 200oC due to excessive hydrogenolysis of the 1,2-propanediol. The reaction is conducted in two step, because major problems can occur when the reaction is conducted in a single step are the catalyst becomes coated with oligomers and its difficult to achieve above 80% selectivity for 1,2-propanediol. However in two steps, by combining the reaction and separation steps, 1,2- propanediol yield is 99% and the catalyst life cycle is significantly extended. Water and acetol are simultaneously removed from the reaction mixture during the heating step as they are formed, the lower pressure used in the first of the two step prolongs catalyst life. Further reduction of acetol water feed with hydrogen over a similar copper chromite catalyst at 13.8bar and 185oC allows 1,2-propanediol selectivity greater than 95% and 99% conversion. Acetol formed as an intermediate is the advantage of this new process as it acetol is an important monomer used in industry to manufacture polyols. When this produced from petroleum it costs as little as $1 per kg, opening up even more potential applications and markets for glycerol8. The second advantage further purification is not required when using the copper chromite catalyst to convert crude glycerol, whereas supported noble metal catalysts are easily poisoned by contamination for example chlorides. The disadvantage of this process is the use of high pressure and temperature as it is expensive to use high pressure equipment and also increases the capital cost of the process. An additional disadvantage is copper chromite based catalyst are undesirable for the environmental aspects as chromium is toxic. For this reason, research has studied using Cu-ZnO catalyst at high pressure instead of copper chromite catalysts. However the greatest selectivity (100%) for 1,2-propanediol obtained by hydrogenolyisis of an aqueous solution of glycerol in the presence of CuO-ZnO catalysts gives a low yield. Copper chromite catalyst has much better selectivity and conversion compare to CuO-ZnO catalysts. There are a number of routes to produced propylene glycol from renewable feedstock. The most common is the hydrogenolysis process in presence of a metal catalyst. However this important reaction at the moment is limited in the laboratory scale. New glycerol hydrogenolysis processes developed by Davy, soon to be commercialised indication suggest that the process will give high purity propylene glycol, suitable for all applications. In this process under relativity moderate conditions glycerol is reacted with hydrogen over a heterogeneous copper catalyst. The glycerol recycle stream is vaporised in a recalculating stream of hydrogen, typically from pressure-swing adsorption unit. High purity propylene glycol recovers from the refining scheme, where as the water produced in the reaction is to be passed to a biological treatment plant. High quality small by products stream can be used as functional fluids or as solvents. By products are removed by distillation and glycerol conversion is around 99%. High selectivity to the desired product is the advantage of the Davy process. 4. Fermentation process: There are number different way to produce 1,3-propanediol. For example glycerol production by hydrogenolysis in presence of a metal catalyst and also by the hydration of acrolein to β-hydroxypropionaldehyde, which yields to 1,3-Propanediol. Even though it is possible to produce 1,3-propanediol by these methods, they are expensive and are environmental pollutants. Glycerol can serve as a feedstock for the fermentative production of 1,3-propanediol and its production by fermentation appears to be a reasonable alternative to chemical synthesis. Bacterial strains are able to convert glycerol into 1,3-propanediol and are found in the species of Lactobacillus, Citrobacter, Klebsiella, and , Clostridum. In a two-step enzyme-catalysed reaction sequence glycerol is converted to 1,3-propanediol(PDO). These equations are shown in figure 7. In the first step: dehydrates the catalyses conversion of glycerol to 3-hydroxy-propionaldehyde (3-HPA) and water, equation 1. In the second step: 3-HPA is reduced to 1,3-propanediol by a pyridine nucleotide: NAD oxidoreductase to yield 1,3-propanediol, a dead end cellular metabolite. The overall reaction consumes a reducing equivalent in the form of a cofactor, reduced beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleoride(NADH), which is oxidised to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD )9, equation 3. The genes are responsible for the conversion of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol. Hetrologous genes in Escherichia coil for example from Cirobcater and klebsiella have shown to convert glycerol to 1,3-propanediol. From all these bacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae is the most interesting because of their yield, productivity, efficient conversion to 1,3-propanediol and resistance to both reagents and products. The technical and economic aspect of this process is attractive for this fermentation process. This technique uses immobilisation instead of freely suspended cells which causes an increase in productivity. One of the disadvantages of this process is its low theoretical yield. Another disadvantage is that the process is substrate-inhibited. The bacteria used in the fermentation are generally not able to stand a glycerol concentration above 17. Thus, both the productivity and product concentration are low. Production of Propylene Glycol From Glycerol

Capella University UnitedHealth Group Management Paper

Capella University UnitedHealth Group Management Paper.

In a 5–7 page narrative, address the following: Provide a brief background on the chosen public or nonprofit agency.Explain a recent change in leadership that took place in that organization.Identify the artifacts of communication that were used around the change in leadership.Analyze the strategies used with those artifacts to communicate the change in leadership.Evaluate the effectiveness of the execution of the agency’s succession plan. Submission Requirements Your assignment should meet the following requirements: Written communication: Your
writing should clearly identify where each grading criterion or part of
the assignment is addressed. Your points must be logical, substantive,
and relevant based on the evidence presented. The writing must be free
of errors that detract from the overall message.APA guidelines: Resources
and citations must be formatted according to current APA style and
formatting. Be sure to distinguish an electronic journal article by
including the DOI or URL. When appropriate, use APA-formatted headings.
Capella University UnitedHealth Group Management Paper

Gender Studies homework help

research paper help Gender Studies homework help. This is a paper that is focusing on the ethical and legal issues in nursing study essay. The paper also provides additional information to use in writing the assignment paper.,The ethical and legal issues in nursing study essay,An Essay on Ethical and Legal issues in nursing, Instructions to Write the Essay, An essay to be written on Ethical and Legal issues in nursing based on the case study given below.  This assessment has a weighting of 40%., You need to consider:,o, The legal and ethical concerns that the situation in the scenario raises., The possible actions or inactions that could be taken and also the implications of those actions., You do not need to provide the ‘right’ answers, what you will be assessed on is your ability to determine the implications of different actions or inactions from a legal and ethical perspective., Firstly, think of the possible courses of action (or inaction) that could be taken and then consider, do any ethical theories support (or not) the actions that you discuss?,o, Secondly, which ethical principles, doctrines or concepts apply to the actions/inactions put forward and if so, how?, Thirdly, do any of the ethical principles conflict with each other or with the law?, Fourthly, which torts or other legal concerns apply to your suggested actions/inactions?, Consider the Code of Conduct, Code of Ethics and RN Standards of Practice (2016), how do they apply to this situation?,The ethical and legal issues in nursing study essay,Scenario:, On 18th January 2020, Nicole Mary Smith (pseudonym) was admitt to the Emergency department of a private hospital with the chief complaints of abdominal pain, poor appetite, and urinary symptoms. Upon review by the Emergency physician, she was admitt to the surgical ward for further investigations and symptom management. The patient is an 86-year old woman, who lives in an assisted living facility. Her daughter and also her grandson live in a nearby suburb and often visit her. During the preceding two weeks, Nicole’s condition has drastically deteriorated. Her daughter appears to be anxious and has narrated her struggle to manage the visits to the hospital and her work and family responsibilities. The visiting Oncologist has refereed Nicole to the palliative care team after the initial diagnosis of ,metastatic ovarian cancer,.,You are the registered nurse looking after Nicole. You entered the room to administer pain relief, the patient’s daughter approaches you and says, “Why do you keep bothering us, do not give her any injections; she is going to die anyway”. She goes on, “I just cannot wait for all of this to be over; I have my own family to look after”. You realize her concerns and try to reassure her. However, you been new to palliative care and are finding the situation challenging., Write an academic essay on Ethical and also legal issues in nursing, specific to the given scenario. Additionally, provide supporting evidence to your claims and include recommendations to improve future practice.,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Gender Studies homework help

BUS 463 Strayer University Operating a Small Business Start Up Paper

BUS 463 Strayer University Operating a Small Business Start Up Paper.

You will need to define the legal form for this business. For a business
to be successful, it must have a clear organizational structure. You
will need to define the structure for your business, including the
number of employees required and a breakdown of their job titles and a
description of their jobs. It is critical that employees work as a team,
and you will need to define how you will create an atmosphere of
teamwork and collaboration. It is also necessary to show how you will
evaluate the stakeholders in the business and make sure that they are
involved and understand how they are affected. Funding a business can be
very challenging, and this assignment requires you to define the
funding sources. Last, you will be challenged to innovate your business,
so the assignment requires you to define the technology that will be
used to create innovation.
BUS 463 Strayer University Operating a Small Business Start Up Paper

The Identifying Factor Of Azotobacter

The Identifying Factor Of Azotobacter. It is all too easy to forget about the soil microorganisms that are so crucial to the health of the flora and fauna of an ecosystem. When speaking of soil microorganisms, this classification can be further broken down into three subcategories: fungi, protista and bacteria, with bacteria making up the largest portion of the microorganisms (Boyle et al., 2007, Pelczar et al. 1993). These soil microorganisms play a central role to the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients such as, Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Sulphur; elements which are detrimental for the growth and life of organisms (Bastida et al., 2007). In addition to their role in nutrient cycling, soil microorganisms largely contribute to soil structures by breaking down and decomposing organic matters, and are also an important food source for other organisms such as earth worms and amoebae (Bastida et al., 2007). Considering the impact of soil microorganisms on the environment and ecosystem, it is easy to see how soil microorganisms also impact human lifestyle and economy. In recent times, a flood of research has been conducted on the importance of microorganisms on agriculture, with interests in the ability of nitrogen fixing bacteria to substitute for nitrogenous fertilizers (Cakmacki et al. 2006). This lab focused on the bacterial portion of soil microorganisms, specifically, the isolation and identification of a single bacterium from a local soil sample using a number of aseptic laboratory techniques and Bergey’s Manual of Systemic Bacteriology (1984). Materials and Methods The following methods were taken from the Biology 203 Lab Manual (Robertson 2008). Two soil samples were taken, the first from forest soil and the second, a coarse woody debris, from compost. These two samples were serially diluted to make solutions from 10E-2 to 10E-7, and from each sample pour plates, slants, streak plates and broths were inoculated using aseptic technique. The colony morphologies were observed and recorded and each plate was enumerated. From these samples 4 bacteria were chosen and subcultured onto streak plates and slants. After preparing and Gram Staining the slides the cell morphologies of the bacteria were observed and noted. The colonies were again subcultured onto streak plates and tested for the ability to hydrolyze starch by adding Iodine. The colonies were also cultured into Sulfide, Indole and Motility (SIM) deeps to test for the presences of the Sulfur cycle and motility. In addition Peptone broths were inoculated and the cultures were tested for ammonification. Ammonium sulfate broths and nitrite broths were inoculated and nitrification was tested for as well denitrification was tested for by inoculating nitrate broths. Aerobic respiration was confirmed when catalase tests were carried out by adding H2O2 to a sample of bacterium. Finally cultures were individually exposed to each of several different temperatures, salinities and levels of pH in order to determine their optimal environmental conditions. A single colony of bacteria was chosen to be identified: bacteria 1 from soil sample 2. Results The colony morphology can be described as a glistening opaque white color with a flat and irregular shape. The growth was smooth and soft. The diameter of the colony approximated 15mm. Under 1000x magnification it was revealed that the cells were bacilli, singlet and had a diameter of approximately 2μm. The cells stained Gram negative. Table 1: Summary of Results for Unidentified Bacterium 1 of Soil Sample 2 Test Result Starch Hydrolysis Positive H2S reduction Negative Motility Negative Aerobic or Anaerobic Aerobic Ammonification Positive Denitrification (NO3- to NO2-) Negative Nitrification (NH3/NH4 to NO2-) Positive Nitrification (NH3/NH4 to NO3-) Positive Catalase Positive Optimal temperature 22°C Optimal pH 5 Optimal salt concentration 0% The results of the remainder of the tests – biochemical and environmental – are summarized by Table 1. It was concluded based on the Iodine and starch reaction that this bacterium hydrolyzed starch as a source of Carbon. The Sulfur cycle did not occur as there was no black precipitate from the combination of Iron and hydrogen sulfide found in the SIM deeps. The SIM deeps did reveal that these bacteria were non-motile, growing only on the stab line. The proteins in the peptone broth were degraded to ammonia signifying that this bacterium is an ammonifer. Nitrification was also confirmed with the bacteria oxidizing the NH3 and NH4 in the broths to NO2- and NO3. Denitrification however, did not occur; NO3 was not reduced. The addition of H2O2 led to bubbling as it reacted with catalase present in the cells. Optimal environmental conditions were found to be 22°C, pH of 5 and 0% salinity. Between the temperatures of 4, 15, 22 and 54°C, growth was strongest at 22°C, then 15 and weakest at 37 and 4°C . Growth at pH was only slightly stronger than at pH 7 but substantially stronger than at pH 3 and 9 (refer to table 2). Growth in salinity was best at 0% and decreased with .05%, 2% and 5% respectively. Table 2: Growth of bacterium 1 at various pH based on absorbance levels at 580nm pH Bacterial Growth 3 .227 5 .692 7 .510 9 .147 Discussion Each of these steps aided in the possible identification of the bacterium as Azobacteraceae Azotobacter a genera of bacteria found in soil, water and roots (Bergey’s Manual, 1984). Due to the thinner layer of peptidoglycan surrounded by a phospholipid outer membrane as opposed to a thick external layer of peptidoglycan this bacterium stained Gram negative (Prescot, Harley and Klein 2005). Of vital importance for identification was the presence of catalase, an enzyme present in aerobic bacteria that breaks down the toxic byproduct of electron transport: H2O2 (Wang et al. 2008). The search to identify Bacterium 1 began with these two broad criteria: Gram negative and aerobic respiration. This particular bacterium was non-motile, the bacterium grew only along the stab line in the SIM deep rather than spreading throughout the medium. This turned out to be an important factor while identifying as it as Azotobacter which contains both motile and non-motile bacteria (Bergey’s Manual, 1984). These three qualities alone pointed in the direction of Azotobacter; the biochemical and environmental tests served to confirm that Bacterium 1 was indeed Azotobacter by matching the characteristics of this particular genera to the bacterium. Nitrification was a common characteristic between the two and was confirmed to occur in Bacterium 1 when the ammonia broth was oxidized to nitrite and nitrite was oxidized to nitrate (Bergey’s Manual, 1984). Denitrification however, did not occur the nitrate was left intact and un-reduced. Ammonification, the breakdown of nitrogen containing compounds to ammonia, was also a common characteristic of Bacterium 1 and Azotobacter (Bergey’s Manual, 1984, Roberts, 2008). Although the test for motility in the SIM deep was positive, the sulfur cycle test in the SIM had a negative result. The sulfur containing compounds were not reduced by the bacterium to produce H2S and, this result even as a negative, was an important factor in identification because Azotobacter also does not reduce sulfur (Bergey’s Manual, 1984, Roberts, 2008). Bergey’s Manual (1984) classifies Azotobacter as a heterotroph and, similarly Bacterium 1 was identified as a heterotroph when Iodine was added to the streak plate containing starch and no color change occurred in the area under and around the colony. This was an indication of the bacterium breaking down and metabolizing the starch. Finally, the optimal environmental conditions of both Bacterium 1 and Azotobactera were found to be very similar. The optimal conditions were stated as: pH of 4.8 – 8.5, temperature of 15 – 37ËšC and low salinity (Bergey’s Manual, 1984). Bacterium 1 had very similar environmental conditions of: pH of 5, 22ËšC and salinity of 0% NaCl. Considering the nitrifying and ammonifiying qualities of the Azotobacter, this bacterium plays an important role in the nitrogen cycle by breaking down proteins and converting the nitrogen into a form that can then be used by other organisms (Butenschoen, Marhan and Scheu, 2007, Cakmakci et al. 2006). Azotobacter, as one of the more common nitrifying soil microbes, is known to produce a great amount of usable Nitrogen, and therefore is closely linked to plant growth and health (Cakmakci et al. 2006, Prescot, Harley and Klein 2005). Interestingly, although many nitrifying organisms hold a symbiotic relationship with plant roots, providing Nitrogen in exchange for nutrients, Azotobacter, in particular, does not (Prescot, Harley and Klein 2005). Azotobacter also carries out starch hydrolysis, and therefore aids in the decomposition of organic matter in soil and the mineralization process (Smith and Smith, 2001). The identification of Bacterium 1 as Azobacteraceae Azotobacter is not definite and several other tests would have required in order to prove this statement as true. One test which would have been very helpful would have been a test for cyst formation; a key characteristic of the Azotobacter (Bergey’s Manual, 1984, Prescot, Harley and Klein 2005). The Azotobacter are not rhizobacteria and therefore it would have been appropriate if there were some way of observing the bacteria in their natural habitat. In addition, the tests that were carried out had limitations to the amount of information that could have been gleaned from the results. The nitrification, ammonification, and denitrification tests were based on a simple color change, and there was no way of telling the process by which these functions, if present, occurred, nor were the tests specific to the concentration of the compounds present. All of these tests and techniques could also have been subjected to error, for example, measurement errors under the microscope, errors in serial dilutions and even, contamination of cultures. From a simple compost soil sample it was possible to isolate and subculture a single bacterium species. Using various biochemical tests such as, tests for nitrification, ammonification, denitrification and the sulfur cycle, it was possible to determine the characteristic metabolic functions of the organism. These results, in addition to observation of cell and colony morphology, especially Gram staining, enabled the identification of the bacterium as Azobacteraceae Azotobacter. The Identifying Factor Of Azotobacter