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Global Warming and its Effects on the Environment Essay

Global Warming and its Effects on the Environment Essay. Introduction Global warming refers to the continued warming of the earth’s surface due to the effects of climate change. The major cause of global warming has been cited as the release of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. The gases act as a blanket over the earth’s surface making it warmer. It has, therefore, been controversially argued that human beings are the major contributors to the problem of global warming. Global warming has had a lot of effects on the environment and also on a myriad of species of flora and fauna. It is actually predicted that in a matter of centuries, some of the most valued species of animals will become extinct due to the effects of global warming. This paper explores the impacts of global warming on the environment and also suggests some of the measures that can be taken to mitigate the impact of global warming on the environment. Effects of global warming on the environment Global warming has had innumerable negative impacts on the environment. Of more concern are the facts that more adverse effects are being experienced now, more than ever before and also the fact that future predictions of the warming effects of greenhouse gases are even more threatening. This calls for a serious investigation of the global warming issue and also calls for development of suitable intervention strategies. One of the effects of global warming is the fact that it is leading to continuous melting of ice caps. It is predicted that with the stated melting of ice caps, marine ecosystems will be adversely affected and this will consequently result to a worldwide ecosystem imbalance. This is predicted as a likely occurrence because the ice caps will produce fresh water after melting and this will lead to the dilution of the salt in the ocean. This is bound to interfere with the ocean currents in a major way leading to poor regulation of temperatures in the ocean which will make it difficult for some species to survive. The melting of the ice caps is, of course, carried out by the warming effect of greenhouse gases and it also accelerates the rate at which global warming is increasing. This is because the ice caps reflect atmospheric temperatures and give a cooling effect and therefore their absence will undoubtedly increase atmospheric temperatures (Houghton, 1994, p. 9). Other effects of global warming on the environment include the rise in sea levels that have had adverse effects on the environment. The rise in sea levels has been a very serious effect of global warming due to the destructive effect it has in the occurrence of other calamities like earthquakes. In the occurrence of the latter phenomenon, the environment undergoes a lot of destruction since low altitude areas get submerged in water. This water destroys both flora and fauna and consequently affects biodiversity. It is also predicted that the rise in temperatures and the defacing of landscapes in the North Pole will make some species to become extinct. As stated earlier, the melting of ice caps leads to exposure of darker earth surfaces. This leads to more heating of the earth’s surface since the dark surfaces absorb more heat than the snow caps which actually reflect heat. This is stipulated to lead to more global warming. With the increase in the levels of global warming, it is expected that storms and hurricanes will become more disastrous to the environment and affect biodiversity greatly (Weart, 2004, p. 31). This is because they will become strong and sweep away vegetation and other ecosystems which harbour millions of species. The storms and hurricanes also cause massive destruction that kills a large number of plant and animal species. Global warming is also associated with effects like the prevailing increase in the average levels of snow and rain precipitation world over. Some animals that have been commendably affected by the changing ecosystems as a result of global warming are polar bears. It has been noted that polar bears have lost a considerable percentage of their body mass as their icy ecosystem is melted away by global warming and also as fish, on which they live, become less. It is predicted that species will attempt to move north looking for colder ecosystems when the effects of global warming become unbearable. In cases where some species will be unable to move to more favourable ecosystems, the species are bound to live in harsh conditions until they become extinct (Johansen, 2003, p. 25). Mitigation of the impacts Global warming is a problem that cannot be completely solved. This calls for implementation of remedial actions aimed at mitigating the negative effects that global warming has on the environment. To achieve this, any measures that reduce the rate of warming of the earth’s atmosphere are bound to give positive results. One of these measures is the reduction of the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere which are believed to be the chief cause of global warming. The stated reduction in the levels of greenhouse gas emission can be achieved by generally reducing the amount of energy we consumer in our day-to-day activities (Healey, 2003, p. 13). Thus car pooling, use of properly insulated water heaters at home, use of energy saving automobiles, use of appliances that are not faulty and the like are a starting point in the quest to solve the global warming problem. Conclusion As it has been evidenced in the discussion above, global warming has had, and continues to have adverse effects on the environment. Both ecosystems and the organisms that live in them continue to be endangered by the upward trend of atmospheric temperatures around the world. The problem is so serious that some of the species treasured by man will indubitably go to extinction if the status quo continues. It is, therefore, of essence that we become realistic about the global warming problem and find pragmatic solutions to the problem. A lot of hullaballoo has been sounded on the issue which has done so much to derail the efforts to reduce the effects of global warming. People have been debating on whether global warming is caused by humans or it is just a natural occurrence from effects of the planetary orbits. Since this debate has only made the world’s population live under harsher climatic conditions, there is need for consensus over the issue and proper planning to help in saving the world’s ecosystem and mankind from the effects of global warming. Everybody should take responsibility and try his/her best to reduce the amount of energy he/she consumes because this is a sure way of ensuring that the effects of global warming are mitigated. Bibliography Healey, J. (2003). Climate Change. Spinney Press, Rozelle NSW. Houghton, J. (1994). Global Warming: The Complete Briefing. Lion Publishing, Oxford. Johansen, B. (2003). The Global Warming Desk Reference. Greenwood Press, Westport CT. Weart, S. (2004). The Discovery of Global Warming. London, England. Harvard University Press. Global Warming and its Effects on the Environment Essay
Structure and Function of Biomolecules. All Biomolecules have certain functions and these molecules all have a unique structure which is why they function in these ways. These molecules are known collectively as macromolecules, these molecules are grouped into four main categories which each have their own structure. These structures are the key to the macromolecules functions as each of them do a specific task in the body. Macromolecules are grouped into carbohydrates, nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids. In most cases macromolecules are polymers, which is a long molecule which are made by linking together a large number of small, similar compounds called monomers. Polymers are formed by a dehydration reaction, this happens by the -OH group being removed from one monomer, and a hydrogen atom (H) is removed from the other monomer, then the polymer is formed (as shown in Figure 1). This reaction is also used in the linking of fatty acids to glycerol in lipids. This reaction is referred to as a condensation or dehydration reaction, because the reaction produces a water molecule from the -OH and -H groups removed, and for each monomer that is added a water molecule is given off. The opposite reaction is the hydrolysis reaction which breaks down polymer to there respective monomers. Water is added to the macromolecule splitting the bonds between the monomers and the -OH and -H are attached to form the monomers (as in Figure 2). Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are a group of molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a molar ratio 1:2:1. Carbohydrates have a general formula of (CH2O)n, where n is the number of carbon atoms. These carbohydrates contain a lot of carbon-hydrogen bonds, which releases energy when oxidation occurs, as carbohydrates are well suited for energy storage. Sugars are some of the most important energy sources and they exist in several different forms, such as monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides. Monosaccharides are the simplest of carbohydrates, they may contain as few as three carbons but the ones that have a key role in energy storage have six carbons. Disaccharides serve as transport molecules in plants and provide nutrition in animals; they are used by plants for transporting glucose around the plant as disaccharides are not easily metabolised, but disaccharides are usually consumed by humans and animals. Polysaccharides provide energy storage, such as starch consists entirely of α-glucose molecules linked in a long chain. Cellulose is a structural polysaccharide which also consists of glucose linked in long chains, but these molecules are β-glucose. Carbohydrates are used as a source of energy for processes in the body such as muscle movement (Raven et al 2008). Proteins Proteins are linear polymers made up of a combination of 20 different amino acids, which contain amino group (-NH2) as well as an acidic carboxyl group (-COOH). The specific order of amino acids determines the proteins structure and function. The amino and acid carboxyl group go through a dehydration reaction to form a peptide bond which joins the amino acids together to form proteins. Proteins have many different functions which are placed into seven categories; Enzyme catalysis, Support, Defence, Motion, Transport, Regulation and Storage. Enzyme catalysis is when enzymes which are globular proteins with a three-dimensional shape that fit around some molecules to facilitate chemical reactions (Raven et al 2008). Support proteins fibres play a structural role, these fibres include keratin in hair fibrin in blood clots and collagen which forms the matrix of skin, ligaments, tendons, and bones, and is the most abundant protein in a vertebrate body (Raven et al 2008). Defence proteins are globular and use there shape to “recognise” foreign microbes and cancer cells, these cell-surface receptors are from the core of the body’s endocrine and immune system (Raven et al 2008). Muscles contract through the sliding motion of two kinds of protein filaments: actin and myosin (Raven et al 2008). A variety of globular proteins transport small molecules and ions. The transport protein Haemoglobin, for example, transports oxygen in the blood stream (Raven et al 2008). Small proteins called hormones serve as intercellular messengers in animals. Proteins also play many regulatory roles within the cell-turning on and shutting off genes during development (Raven et al 2008). Calcium and iron are stored by binding as ions to storage proteins (Raven et al 2008). Lipids Lipids are varied in structure and function, most of them are non soluble in water. Lipids have a very high proportion of nonpolar carbon-hydrogen bonds; so long chain lipids cannot fold up like a protein to sequester their nonpolar portions away from the surrounding aqueous environment. Lipids are hydrophobic so when they are exposed to water there hydrophilic (polar) sections of the lipids cluster together while the hydrophobic (nonpolar) sections gather together with the inside the polar sections to stay away from the water. Fats and oils are a type of lipid which are formed from glycerol and three fatty acids. Fatty acids are long chain hydrocarbons with a carboxylic acid (COOH) at one end. Fats and oils, also known as triglycerides, can be saturated where the fatty acids contain at least one carbon to carbon double bond or they can be unsaturated which means there are no double bonds. Phospholipids are also lipids and they are composed of a polar head, a phosphate group, glycerol, and two fatty acids. Phospholipids form the cell membranes and they use the previously mentioned method for holding together cells. The hydrophobic heads gather towards the water inside and outside the cell forming the membrane, which certain molecules can go through to get inside or outside the cell. Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides and each nucleotide is made up of a sugar, a base and a phosphate group. Nucleic acids are the information carrying devices of each cell containing the code for all proteins. There are two main forms of nucleic acid which are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). Unique among macromolecules, nucleic acids are able to serve as a template to produce a perfect replicate of it. DNA is usually found in the nucleus of cells, which contains the genetic information necessary to build specific organisms (Raven et al 2008). Cells use RNA to read the DNA’s encoded information and to direct the creation of the proteins. RNA and DNA are similar in structure and consist of duplicate copies of parts of DNA. The duplicates serve as a blueprint specifying the amino acid sequences of the proteins. In addition to serving as subunits of DNA and RNA, nucleotide bases play other critical roles in the life of a cell. For example adenine is a key component of the molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy currency of a cell (Raven et al 2008). Two other important nucleotide-containing molecules are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD ) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). These molecules function as electron carriers in a variety of cellular processes (Raven et al 2008). So Biomolecules have certain functions which they carry out in the body because of there unique structures. These structures are unique as they contain certain bonds between molecules which are all formed in similar reactions. But the four groups of macromolecules are formed in similar reactions, dehydration and hydrolysis reactions, but they all act in different ways. Structure and Function of Biomolecules

Policy Writing and Analysis

Policy Writing and Analysis. Paper details   Write a 3–5 page policy brief in which you will: Demonstrate that you have a basic understanding of the principles of public policy briefings. Use the week’s readings and video about writing a public policy brief as your references for this assignment. Use the structural elements of policy writing to compose a 3–5 page policy brief that applies to a local, state, or federal issue. Gun violence is on the minds of many Americans. Using the key structural elements (for example, background checks are needed), encourage politicians to work with interests group to formulate the language and set the agenda. Then mobilize support in and outside Congress to advocate for tougher background check requirements. Next, propose the policy options stage and find a government agency (Department of Justice) to implement new rules for background checks, evaluating the effectiveness of the new policy and suggesting improvements if necessary. Your assignment must follow these content and formatting requirements: Integrate policy concepts to demonstrate your analytical insights from the readings and your own research with evidence to support remarks about policy issues and problems. Demonstrate full understanding of the public policy concepts and show that your application is relevant and aligns to the learning outcomes. Develop your brief in a cohesive manner, with a logical flow of public policy information from one topic to the next; ensure evidence from resources support your ideas and topics. Ensure your writing demonstrates an understanding of the relationship among materials regarding public policy obtained from all sources. Develop a brief that shows focus on the topic, and create a thoughtful presentation using the thesis statement to provide the focus of the paper with enough scope for in-depth discussion of the public policy concepts and application. Ensure the thesis statement indicates the position taken by the author in the paper, and there is strong evidence to support the public policy position. Developed a brief that shows expert use of the examples for public policy writing. This course requires the use of Strayer Writing Standards. For assistance and information, please refer to the Strayer Writing Standards link in the left-hand menu of your course. Check with your professor for any additional instructions. Appropriately incorporate at least two quality sources. A quality source can be either grey literature, such as a news article, or scholarly, such as peer reviewed/professional industry references. In the case of public administration, government or nonprofit websites are appropriate quality resources. Wikipedia, SparkNotes, and similar websites do not qualify as academic resources. Visit the Strayer University Library to conduct research.Policy Writing and Analysis

COUC 506 Neff & McMinn Paper, Parts A, B, and C

essay writing help COUC 506 Neff & McMinn Paper, Parts A, B, and C.

Neff & McMinn Paper, Parts A, B, and CThis Neff & McMinn assignment is a large component of your grade for this course (300 points total), and it is done in three parts: A, B, and C. These three parts (a, B, and C) will be completed at the end of Week 4 (Part A), Week 6 (Part B), and Week 7 (Part C). Please keep the following overarching things in mind as you complete this assignment:You will significantly interact with the Neff & McMinn (2020) text and the issues that are raised in each chapter. Based on the idea that “integration is conversation” from Neff & McMinn (2020), as a graduate student, you will incorporate other concepts and ideas you have encountered in this course, in your faith journey, in your work experience, and in other areas of your life. The goal here is that you will not merely regurgitate issues in a book report form, but that you will think deeply about how what you are reading in Neff & McMinn (2020) relates to other ideas you can bring to the table. Bringing in ideas from Scripture, from the ACA Code of Ethics (latest edition), from previous textbooks and courses, from other materials in this course (such as the Hawkins & Clinton text) and from your personal and work experience are all fair game and highly encouraged. Creativity is encouraged as you engage meaningfully with these ideas. Please bear in mind, however, that this is an academic paper, and not a paper where you use slang, overly religious jargon, etc.You will not only have an opportunity to interact intellectually with the concepts that are in the Neff & McMinn (2020) text, but you will have an opportunity at the end of Part C (Week 7) especially to share how your own spiritual formation has been impacted by what you have read in Neff & McMinn and in this course.
So with that backdrop, here and the directions for your assignment in three parts:
COUC 506 Neff & McMinn Paper, Parts A, B, and C

8-2 Final Project Two Submission: Management Improvement Plan for a Struggling Company

8-2 Final Project Two Submission: Management Improvement Plan for a Struggling Company. I’m studying for my Management class and need an explanation.

you will submit Final Project Two. It should be a complete, polished artifact containing all of the critical elements of the final product. Final Project Two must be three to four pages in length (plus a cover page and references) with double spacing, 12-point Times New Roman font, one-inch margins, and APA formatting. Include at least two references cited in APA format. Below is what needs to be address for the second part of the paper. I will upload the first part of the paper that needs to be combined for the final draft
Management Plan Recommendations: For this section of the summative assessment, you will make recommendations for the management improvement plan.
a. Describe how implementing the fundamental principles of management will help to improve the management process within your company. You could consider the factors that interfere with or prohibit effectivemanagement.
b. Identify how aspects of the fundamental principles of management will be implemented and communicated to all personnel within the company. You could consider thinking about this from a training standpoint.
c. Describe how the application of the fundamental principles of management will lead to increased employee performance. You could consider what needs to improve the most to help increase employee performance.
d. Explain how applying ethical principles to the fundamental principles of management would be sustained and monitored by the company. You could consider using the rational decision-making model to show how this process can help with ensuring long-term success.
III. Conclusion: For this section of the summative assessment, you will provide a summary of your recommended changes to the management improvement plan using examples revolving around the fundamental principles of management.
a. Summarize how these management changes, based on the fundamental principles of management, will help to ensure organizational success. Be sure to provide examples of how these changes will have the most direct impact.
THE COMPANY I CHOSE WAS MOTOROLA. I will upload the first paper as well that will need to be added to the final part of the paper.

8-2 Final Project Two Submission: Management Improvement Plan for a Struggling Company

American History Research Paper

America is a land with a rich history which has taken scholars a substantial amount of time in their bid to study it. This paper is about the slavery and the struggles that the slaves underwent and the revolution that took place in a bid to have the slaves freed and pronounced as equal American citizens. This is a very interesting topic that has been written about and that has been very well received as well as criticized. It is said that it may be possible to prove that African travelers may have landed in America before the Europeans did and in a bid to support this, there are some stone carvings of a Mexican era called Olmec that have facial features of Africans. Christopher Columbus was termed as the first man to discover America. In his expedition, he had a black navigator named Pedro Nino. When Christopher Columbus arrived in Hispaniola he was accompanied by Africans[1]. This is now currently called Spain. When they left Hispaniola, they were termed as free people and that way they were free by the time they were getting into the Spanish American colonies. Another man called Vasco Balboa travelled to the Pacific Ocean and with him were about thirty Africans. When all this was happening the Europeans had not yet set foot in America. Slavery was not a new thing and it did not start in America; it was only continued there when the settlers started streaming in. Hernan Cortez started a revolution for the Aztec Empire; black Spanish (Conquistadors) people were trying to resist him in a bid to set up their own kingdom[2]. The Africans who had been brought in from Africa were used as casual laborers in Mexico, Puerto Rico and Cuba. After Hernan defeated the uprising, they were awarded land by the Spanish King and they started farming. They were able to produce wheat in bulk. It is also in record that a run-away Moroccan born Muslim slave called Esteban and his friends had tried escaping from the slavery. They boarded a small boat in a bid to free themselves but many died in the sea and only a couple made it as they were washed ashore to what is today referred to as Texas. This Moroccan is the first known person of African accent to ever set foot in today’s Western part of the United States. Esteban was however included in an expedition that was commandeered by a Mexican known as Marcos Niza. Esteban was killed in this expedition in the town of Hawikuh and this today is known as the boarder of Arizona and New Mexico. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Africans did not stop their quest to discover more land though this was not the primary aim of the expeditions. They went on to accompany Francisco Vasquez from Mexico to the current Kansas. Some Africans chose to settle there. Now the Spanish Kingdom had come to a consensus with the Indians after intense fighting between the Spaniards and the Indians. Through this, Indian slavery was abolished in their new colonies[3]. The Africans who had been freed were however restricted from wearing gold, pearls or silk unless they were married to a Spaniard man and they were not also of elite status unless married to a Spaniard. Africans are regarded as some of the first founders of a number of towns in New Mexico, Texas, Santa Fe, and California just to mention a few. There was also a race that was referred to as mulattoes. These were a combination of European and African ethnicity. They were classified as Africans; they were also forcefully shipped to Latin America and forced to labor in farms and mines. There was a group of fugitive slaves who elected Gaspar Yanga as their spokesman and they were successful in signing a memorandum of agreement with the Spanish king. Through this they were granted their freedom and their own town too. This however went on for a period of over two hundred years and the British came in and colonized America, and this led to the streaming in of Europeans in America[4]. Blacks were recognized as free settlers and they were also indicted in the State House of Representatives. The changes have been phenomenon and black women were first allowed to vote in Wyoming; and elsewhere children of black accent were allowed to attend school though the segregation was still at its peak. The African American community took to the streets and they were in demonstration where they were demanding the right to vote as they quoted the constitution[5]. Great strides were made in their quest and they even had the first black officer to commandeer the Buffalo Soldiers. We will write a custom Research Paper on American History specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It was a great struggle for the African American society. Interestingly, they were making progress no matter how limited it was. They had resolved to keeping to themselves as they were not allowed to attend to white churches or stores. Bibliography Davies Catherine, Brewster Claire and Owen Hilary. South American independence: gender, politics, text. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2006. Eggleston, Edward. A first book in American history: with special reference to the lives and deeds of great Americans. California: American Book Company, 1899. Olson, James Stuart and Beal, Heather Olson. The ethnic dimension in American history, fourth edition. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010. Purvis, Thomas L. A dictionary of American history. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers Ltd, 1997. Footnotes Stuart, Olson James and Beal, Heather Olson. The ethnic dimension in American history, fourth edition. (Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010), 113 Thomas, Purvis L. A dictionary of American history. (Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers Ltd, 1997), 54. Edward, Eggleston. A first book in American history. (California: American Book Company, 1899), 18. Edward, Eggleston. A first book in American history. (California: American Book Company, 1899), 28. Catherine, Davies, Brewster Claire and Owen Hilary. South American independence: gender, politics, text. (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2006), 241.