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Global System for Mobile (GSM) Communication Overview

Tara Rushdi Haydar Sinar Selahaddin Merdan Rojgar Mewlud Murad Contents (Jump to) Introduction What is GSM? GSM Network Architecture What is Roaming? What is GRAN? Requirement need for building GSM Generation of GSM Conclusion References Introduction GSM is a connection between two people − a caller and the called person – is the basic service of all telephone networks. To apply this service, the network must has ability to set up and maintain a call, which includes some tasks: identifying the called person, determining the location, routing the call, and ensuring that the connection is continued until conversation lasts. After the transaction, the connection is terminated. In a fixed telephone network, providing and managing connections is an easy process, because telephones are connected by wires to the network and their location is permanent from the networks’ point of view. Whereas, in a mobile network, the establishment of a call is more complex task, because it doesn’t have wire and permanent location. It enables the users to move by wireless (radio) connection. What is GSM? GSM stands for Global System for Mobile Communication and is an open, digital cellular technology transmits mobile voice and data services. It is a digital mobile telephony system that is widely used technology in the world. The GSM market has more than 70 percent of the world’s digital cellular subscribers. The GSM makes use of narrowband Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) technique for transmitting signals. The GSM was developed by using digital technology. It has an ability to carry 64 kbps to 120 Mbps of data rates. GSM operates at either the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz frequency band. In Europe, operates in the 900MHz and 1.8GHz bands and in US, operates 1.9GHz and 850MHz bands. The GSM is a circuit-switched system that divides each 200 kHz channel into eight 25 kHz time-slots. Cell phones use GSM network by searching for cell phone towers in the nearby area. GSM carriers have roaming contacts with other GSM carriers and typically cover rural areas more completely. GSM also has the advantage of using SIM (SubscriberIdentityModule) cards. The SIM card, which acts as your digital identity, is tied to your cell phone service carrier’s network rather than to the handset itself. This allows for easy exchange from one phone to another without new cell phone service activation. Today, more than 690 mobile networks provide GSM services across 213 countries and GSM represents 82.4% of all global mobile connections. According to GSM World, there are now more than 2 billion GSM mobile phone users worldwide. GSM World references China as “the largest single GSM market, with more than 370 million users, followed by Russia with 145 million, India with 83 million and the USA with 78 million users.” GSM network architecture The GSM network is divided into three major systems: The operation and support system (OSS) The switching system (SS) The base station system (BSS) GSM network architecture The Operation and Support System (OSS) The OSS stands for operation and support system. The function of OSS is that monitors and controls the system. The aim of OSS is that customer cost-effective support for centralized, regional, and local operational and maintenance activities that are needed for a GSM network. An important task of OSS is to ensure a network overview and support the maintenance activities of different operation and maintenance organizations. The Switching System The switching system (SS) is responsible for performing call processing and Subscriber-related functions. The switching system (SS) includes some functional units: Home location register (HLR)—The HLR is a database used for storage and management of subscriptions. The HLR stores permanent data about subscribers, including a subscriber’s service profile, location information, and activity status. When a person buys a subscription, he/she is registered in the HLR of that operator. Mobile services switching center (MSC)—The MSC performs the telephony switching functions of the system. It controls calls to and from other telephone and data systems. Also, it performs toll ticketing, network interfacing, common channel signaling, and others functions. Visitor location register (VLR)—The VLR is a database that contains temporary information about subscribers that is needed by the MSC in order to service visiting subscribers. The VLR is always integrated with the MSC. When a mobile station roams into a new MSC area, the VLR connected to that MSC will request data about the mobile station from the HLR. Later, if the mobile station makes a call, the VLR will have the information needed for call setup without having to interrogate the HLR each time. Authentication center (AUC)—A unit called the AUC provides authentication and encryption parameters that verify the user’s identity and ensure the confidentiality of each call. The AUC protects network operators from different types of fraud found in today’s cellular world. Equipment identity register (EIR)—The EIR is a database that includes information about the identity of mobile equipment that intercepts calls from stolen, unauthorized, or defective mobile stations. The Base Station System (BSS) All radio-related functions are performed in the BSS, which consists of base station controllers (BSCs) and the base transceiver stations (BTSs). BSC—The BSC provides all the control functions and physical links between the MSC and BTS. It is a high-capacity switch that provides functions such as handover, cell configuration data, and control of radio frequency (RF) power levels in base transceiver stations. BTS—The BTS handles the radio interface to the mobile station. The BTS is the radio equipment (transceivers and antennas) needed to Service each cell in the network. BSC controls a group of BTSs. MS MS stands for Mobile Station. It is a combination of terminal equipment and subscriber data. The terminal equipment is called ME (Mobile Equipment) and the subscriber’s data is stored in a separate module called SIM (Subscriber Identity Module). Therefore, ME SIM = MS. The SIM card contains an identification number of the user and list of available networks. What is Roaming? Roaming allows a mobile subscriber to automatically make and receive voice calls, send and receive data, or access other services when travelling outside the geographical coverage area of their home network, by means of using a visited network. Roaming is technically supported by mobility management, authentication and billing procedures. Establishing roaming between network operators is based on – and the commercial terms are contained in – dedicated roaming agreements. If the visited network is in the same country as the home network, this is known as national roaming. If the visited network is outside the home country, this is known as international roaming. If the visited network operates on a different technical standard than the home network, this is known as inter-standard roaming. GSM Roaming, which involves roaming between GSM networks, offers the mobile subscriber the convenience of being able to use a single number, a single bill and a single phone. The convenience of GSM Roaming has been a key driver behind the global success of the GSM Platform. The GSMA’s GSM Coverage Maps are a unique resource containing information supplied and approved by the members of the Association. The network, services and roaming information are continually updated to reflect the evolving situation worldwide. Interactive coverage maps, updated quarterly, allow you to navigate to see where exactly you can use your phone. What is GRAN? GRANis an abbreviation of GSMRadio Access Network. It consists of Base Transceiver Stations (BTS) and Base Station Controllers (BSC). Its purpose is to manage the radio link between mobile phones and a telecommunicationcore network. This access network provides access to both Circuit switched (CS) and Packet switched (PS) core networks. Aradio access network(RAN) is part of a mobile telecommunication system. It implements a radio access technology. Conceptually, it resides between devices like a mobile phone, a computer, or any remotely controlled machine and provides connection with its core network (CN). Depending on the standard, mobile phones and other wireless connected devices are varyingly known as user equipment (UE), terminal equipment, mobile station (MS), etc. RAN functionality is typically provided by a silicon chip residing in both the core network as well as the user equipment. Network Management Subsystem (NMS) The Network Management Subsystem (NMS) is the third subsystem of the GSM network in addition to the Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) and Base Station Subsystem (BSS). The purpose of the NMS is to monitor various functions and elements of the network. The operator workstations are connected to the database and communication servers via a Local Area Network (LAN). The database server stores the management information about the network. The communications server takes care of the data communications between the NMS and the equipment in the GSM network known as “network elements”. These communications are carried over a Data Communications Network (DCN), which connects to the NMS via a router. The functions of the NMS can be divided into three categories: Fault management Configuration management Performance management These functions cover the whole of the GSM network elements from the level of individual BTSs, up to MSCs and HLRs. Fault management The aim of fault management to detect different type of problems then solve them rapidly. Fault management provides the network operator with information about the current status of alarm events and maintains a history database of alarms. The alarms are stored in the NMS database and this database can be searched according to criteria specified by the network operator. Configuration management The purpose of configuration management is to maintain up-to-date information about the operation and configuration status of network elements. Specific configuration functions include the management of the radio network, software and hardware management of the network elements, time synchronization, and security operations. Performance management In performance management, the NMS collects measurement data from individual network elements and stores it in a database. On the basis of these data, the network operator is able to compare the actual performance of the network with the planned performance and detect both good and bad performance areas within the network. Requirement need for building GSM Hardware and software A typical GSM base station, can’t do anything without a suite of components that maintain databases, perform call-­switching functions, and so forth. This infrastructure is expensive (typically around $250,000) and complicated to configure, and it needs to be stored in an air-conditioned room. Obviously, that’s impractical in the kinds of places ­OpenBTS is designed for. As a result, the system replaces much of the physical infrastructure of the core network with VoIP software–in this case, an open-source program called Asterisk that can be installed on any off-the-shelf PC. IP Connection Cell-phone users on an OpenBTS network can reach each other even if the system isn’t connected to the Internet, but reaching someone outside the network requires an Internet connection. On Niue, the group used five-gigahertz IP radios to link the BTS unit to Telecom Niue’s wired Internet infrastructure, four kilometers away. Burgess says that response time can get a bit sluggish if the Internet connection isn’t very good, but it doesn’t take much bandwidth to make the system functional. Power supply The system deployed on Niue draws about 60 watts of power, supplied by three marine batteries of the type that many locals use on their boats. Because the system’s power requirements are so low, Burgess says, a base station could also run on solar or wind power. GSM handset OpenBTS re-creates the technology behind GSM (the global system for mobile communications), which is used by the majority of mobile phones in the world. Any GSM phone will “see” an OpenBTS network as a standard cell network and interact with it normally. Antenna Like any cell network, an OpenBTS system requires an antenna to facilitate signaling. Different types of antennas can be used, according to the range the operator wants the network to have. Generation of GSM First generation technology(1G) First-generation mobile systemsused analog transmission for speech services. It offered handover and roaming capabilities, but it was unable to interoperate between countries. So, this is disadvantage of first-generation. Second generation technology(2G) Second generation mobile system used digital transmission. It able to use handover and roaming capabilities. It uses FDMA, TDMA, and CDMA. Third generation technology(3G) Third generation technology has fast data transfer rate. It enables to add services like mobile television, GPS, and video conferencing. Services include a wide area wireless voice telephony, video call, and broadband wireless data, all in mobile environment. Fourth generation technology(4G) Fourth generation technologyhas more bandwidth and services than 3G. The expectation for the 4G technology is the high quality audio/video streaming overend to end Internet Protocol, and work at 100 Mbps for mobile users and upto 1 Gbps over fixed stations. The word “MAGIC” also refers to 4G wireless technology which stands for Mobile multimedia, Any-where, Global mobility solutions over, integrated wireless and Customized services. Fifth generation technology (5G) Fifth generation technology has changed the means to use cell phones within very high bandwidth, high connectivity, and has extraordinary data capabilities. User never experienced ever before such a high value technology. The 5G technologies include alltype of advanced features which makes5G technology most powerful and in huge demand in near future. 5G technology including camera, MP3 recording, video player, largephone memory ,dialing speed, audio player and much more you never imagine. 5G technology going to be a new mobile revolution in mobile market, so may be incoming days 5G technology takes over the world market. Conclusion Year by year, the GSM system improves and its subscribers increases around the world. It divides into three main parts that are OSS, SS, and BSS. These parts include some important department that manages the system, stores information of users, and another tasks. GSM has ability to roam worldwide and has roaming agreements in place with foreign operators globally. So, users can easily use their same SIM in another cities or countries. GSM network facilitate easier access to cellular and satellite platforms across international lines. Using digital technology, it employs both speech and data channels in its system. In addition, GSM has network management subsystem that detects problems and solves them, maintains information up to date, and detects good and bad performance of a network. References

Conflicts of Sects, Cults and Religious Movements Essay

Church-sect Theory Scholars have tried to classify religious movements by coming up with ways through which religious movements form. The most extensively employed categorization is the church-sect typology. The church-sect theory states that churches, sects, and cults form a continuum with declining effect on society. Groups that decide to break away from the mainstream religious organizations form sects. Therefore, sects are never in good terms with other members of society because their members are perceived as perverts. This explains why sects tend to be in constant conflicts with society. Sects are different from cults and religious movements because they do not have new teachings but instead deviates from the teachings of the mainstream church. Scholars utilize the attitudes of sect members and their level of involvement in society to determine their culture. The church-sect theory is mostly used to differentiate sects from denominations and churches. The theory originated from the writings of Max Weber. As previously observed, the church-sect theory suggests that categorization of religions is a gamut that ranges from a protest-like sects to the symmetry preserving religion. The church represents the religious norms and standards of society. In other words, churches are the custodians of religion in a certain society. In this regard, religious competition is not tolerated in such societies because it may bring about tension and mistrust. A perfect example of a church is the Islamic religion, which does give room for religious freedoms. Unlike sects, churches claim universality meaning that each member of society should be included. Moreover, churches enjoy monopolies implying that they always try to eliminate all forms of competitions. In fact, the church has the endorsement of the state. State organs, such as the military, the judiciary, and the executive support it. During state functions, churches will always be invited to offer prayers and spiritual guidance. Denominations are also different from sects but almost similar to churches. Just like churches, denominations are always in good terms with the state and may even influence the government to implement its policies. Unlike churches, denominations tolerate theological diversity. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This means that members are free to criticize the beliefs of a particular denomination. Unlike sects, members are not involved so much in its affairs. However, the level of involvement is intent as compared to churches. Sects are new religious groups that are established by disgruntled individuals. They always come up with new teachings, claiming that the mainstream church does not provide freedoms and openness. Sects are differentiated from denominations because low class individuals form them. For instance, sects can discourage their members from wearing jewelry and expensive ornaments that are often associated with the reach. After their establishment, sects take three major paths. One of them is dissolution path. This happens when members come to the realization that they cannot achieve their objectives by following the teachings of the sect. Another path is institutionalization. This happens when the sect is forced to embrace the features of the denomination in order to comply with the law. The third path is the development into a denomination. This happens when a sect finally becomes a denomination. Religious Conflict Conflicts in the church are evident in all parts of the world. It is noted that all religious groups experience conflicts. For instance, Hindu, Islam, Christianity, and other traditional religions have been faced with serious conflicts. A number of factors cause these conflicts. If some individuals tend to control the affairs of the church, conflicts would be inevitable. In India, the Hindu religion experienced conflicts because the son of the rajah tended to control the affairs of the mainstream religion. The leader was accused of favoring his relatives in the appointment of priests. In China, a different religious belief referred to as Taoism emerged to oppose Confucianism mainly because of personal differences. In the bible, the apostles differed over some issues. For instance, the apostles of Jesus differed from the apostles of John over baptism. The apostles of Jesus believed that baptism would convince the followers to embrace the teachings of the bible. We will write a custom Essay on Conflicts of Sects, Cults and Religious Movements specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For the apostles of John, they believed that an individual had to repent before being baptized. The apostles of Jesus believed that an individual had to believe before being baptized. This means that repentance and belief were the causes of disagreement. In the modern religion, there is an existing conflict between Roman Catholic and Protestantism. Catholic believes that people should be loyal to the church because the pope is the representative of Jesus Christ on earth. The central act of worship for Catholics is the Mass. Grace is provided through the seven sacraments. Even though Protestantism concurs with Catholic over a number of teachings, the main conflict centers on the bible. Protestants believe in the New Testament and have four major convictions. One of the beliefs is that an individual should relate directly with God as opposed to using priests. Moreover, the bible should be perceived as the word of God. Protestants observe that God works through miracles.

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You have been hired to assume an important management position within the company. (You are using the same position and company that you created in the Module 01 Written Assignment.) Your immediate supervisor has told you it is crucial that, as quickly as possible, you learn about this position and its significance to the business. You decide to take that advice and do some research. Be sure to discuss the points below: Tell us the title of your position and why you chose this position as your career. If you need help with this, please go to and use the Occupational Outlook Handbook (OOH) to research possible careers and positions within your field of study.What is your role within the company? Which one of the four functions of management is performed most in your role and why (Leading, Planning, Controlling, Organizing)?Discuss the types of planning that you perform on a frequent basis and why (Strategic, Tactical, Operational, Contingency).Which of the six management skills do you use most often in your position? Explain how you use these skills.Now that you are at your new job, your employer is contemplating making a major change to the company and is trying to determine the potential impact this change could have, and whether or not it would be beneficial to the company’s overall success. Some examples of possible changes might be:Production of a new product or serviceChange in production processChange in organizational structure or departmental structure of the businessChange in software or other technology used by the businessYou have been asked by your employer to create a SWOT Analysis and hierarchical chart to determine the effects this change would have on the company, and to offer your recommendations for the best course of action to implement this change. You can use the following SWOT Template to get started.Please be sure to include the following:Explain the change the company is contemplating.Be sure to include at least three points in each section of the SWOT table.Create a hierarchical chart to show the framework of which positions would be involved in this change and who would report to whom.Based on your findings of the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats, write your detailed recommendations for the best way to implement the change. Be sure to discuss how the company might use its strengths to bolster its weaknesses, and then discuss how the opportunities might help to offset the threats.
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The Strategies To Maintain Building Efficiently Construction Essay

Introduction Building maintenance management has always been seen as the ‘Cinderella’ activity in the construction industry where we shall be continuously done the maintenance work. The maintenance work has always been seen and carried out by the architects, surveyors, engineers or facilities managers in term of function or discipline (Allen, 1993). The maintenance has been required starting from the construction work at the first stage, where the significance of maintenance was not recognized because most early structures were massive, overdesigned, made from natural materials, in an unpolluted atmosphere and wore out very slowly (Allen, 1993). When the maintenance was required, the individual owner was carried out and the maintenance was executed but in term of management is not properly done. The maintenance management was necessary when the advent of landlord-tenant relationships and together with the growth and spread of the population (Allen, 1993). Normally, property owners always endeavor to keep their building maintenance expenditure in the minimum cost but the building must be in good condition and well-maintained (Seeley, 1976). The building maintenance is highly desired but hardly achievable to produce where the maintenance-free, although many work can be done during design stage to minimize the cost of maintenance work. According to the Building Maintenance by Seeley, the building deteriorates at a greater or lesser rate depending on the materials and methods of construction, environments and the use of the building (Seeley, 1976). 2.0 Definition of efficiency and building maintenance The word of efficiency can be defined as an important quality because all ideas are scarce such as time, money and raw material, so they try to keep them while maintaining an acceptable level of output or a general production level. The efficiency would be reducing the amount of waste inputs (n.n. 2012). There many definition of maintenance can be defined. British Standard (BS 3811: 1964) defines maintenance as “work undertaken to keep or reinstate every facility that is every part of a site, building and contents to an acceptable standard” (British Standards Institution 1964) . Besides that, maintenance can be defined as the improvement of any facilities including every part of a building, services and surrounding according to an adequate standard in order to sustain the value of building facility (Allen, 1993). 3.0 Types of maintenance According to British Standard Institution, maintenance divided into planned and unplanned maintenance where there have preventive and corrective in planned maintenance and unplanned same as an ad-hoc basis because uses when necessary. Planned preventive maintenance is working direct in order to prevent the failure of facility where the maintenance done within the expected life of facility to ensure the facility can be operation continuously (Seeley, 1976) . Planned corrective maintenance where the work performs in order to restore any facility to operation or acceptable standard and unplanned maintenance where we were unpredicted the unforeseen breakdowns or damage occurred by external causes (Seeley, 1976). 4.0 Strategies to maintain building efficiently Building maintenance is an important thing where to preserve the building in its initial stage of the construction. Furthermore, the execution of building maintenance allows the building to operate effectively. The building shall be maintain in order to make sure the building can be retain investment value, an acceptable condition and required standard, looking good appearance of building, generate income for building owner and conserve historical and architectural values of building (Ali et al. 2010). There are some strategies to ensuring the efficiency in building maintenance practices which is; Work schedule Computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) Involvement of Building Maintenance Profession during Design Stage Outsourcing 4.1 Work Schedule In future, more people are demanding in term of building care where they are wants their building facility always in good condition and well-maintain. For more efficiency in building maintenance, any property management shall be having work schedule for contractor to maintain each of equipment or building facility. In the building maintenance management process, every organization has their objective in order to success in maintenance work and they were determines the effectiveness of implementation in term of maintenance plans, schedules, controls and improvements (Márquez et al. 2009) Besides that, any organization also can produced checklist for building maintenance such as checklist for air-conditioner, mechanical and electrical, water supply and others. So, when there have several checklists at the particular area, the maintenance workers are easy to do their job where they were just going to the particular area and check any equipment through the checklist whether there have equipment breakdown or not. With have a checklist, the maintenance workers will know when the next checking for that building to do maintenance. Checklist schedule can be done in daily, weekly and monthly based on type of maintenance facility or equipment. It will be more efficiently to the maintenance workers to do their job. 4.2 Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) Next, strategies to maintain the building efficiently is using the computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) where this system is software that contains the information about company’s maintenance operations. This system is useful to the company because it will help their maintenance worker to handle the maintenance job become more efficiently (Herbert W. Stanford III, 2010). Other than that, CMMS also can help them to saving the data about maintenance operations where the maintenance worker will alert on the schedule for their inspection on the building maintenance area such as mechanical and electrical equipment, air conditioner, water supply and others. They are also will know when there have some equipment were breakdown or who the maintenance worker was responsible for the job (Ruud, 2009). Normally, CMMS used by companies which have high standard for their maintenance work. In CMMS, there have some package offer included which are a work orders, preventive maintenance, asset management and inventory control. All programs will be easily for maintenance workers to do their job such as scheduling maintenance procedures, tracking relevant information, keeping track of preventive maintenance components and procedures, recording data about equipment, management of tools, materials and others (Herbert W. Stanford III, 2010). 4.3 Involvement of Building Maintenance Profession during Design Stage The design of building structures is an important thing because at initial stage of the construction, the building maintenance profession shall be involved in order to make sure the suitable building design to be designed by architect. The building maintenance profession is not only involved during the construction completed but they shall be involved before the construction start. So, they can consult with the architect to do the suitable design in term of long-term planning and a long-term maintenance on which are predicted by them (Allen, 1993). After the construction is completed, the building maintenance profession is easily to do their maintenance works because the architect are design the building structure according to their planning. When the design of structure is an efficiently, it’s required to be understands the way how to be used and maintained the building structure. 4.4 Outsourcing Any organizations in the world try looking for new approaches in outsourcing to maintain the building facility or equipment or develop competitive advantage (Campbell, 1995). By outsourcing a particular area of building maintenance to other organization, the in-house organization can maximize their return because their management will be more efficient. Outsourcing also will be an effective way in order to reduce costs, free-up capital and improve quality and service, but outsourcing cannot be seen as an automatic way to be success (Campbell, 1995). Outsourcing also known as contract maintenance where there have a survey done by FM Link, the contracting for unskilled or semi-skilled services such as landscape services and housekeeping was very high which is 65-75%, the use of outsourcing for preventative maintenance was much lower which is 50% or less and for public owners, public schools, universities and others the use preventive maintenance was below 20% (Herbert W. Stanford III, 2010). There are some benefits of outsourcing because these benefits are related to the quality of the products and services provided to the customers (Campbell, 1995). There are some benefits enjoy by organizations which are: Contractors will be performed a good services where they were might be has more specialized the equipment and allowed the contractor to provide a good quality and service at a lower price. When do the outsourcing, the organization may provide a greater flexibility because the outsourced organization are able to operate their maintenance works according to their own plan. The supplier will enjoy personnel depth and sophistication in technical knowledge in particular area and support more specialized proficiencies. When the outsourcing strategy in well-planned, the approaches which can deliver a competitive advantage by allowed company to focus its resources on their business. 5.0 Conclusion As a conclusion, to ensuring the efficiency in building maintenance practices, the approaches will be used in this building maintenance management is expected to reduce the building maintenance costs, to improve the health, safety and satisfaction by the users. All strategy or approaches in building maintenance are easily to the maintenance workers do their job and become more efficiently. When they are doing their maintenance works according to the schedule, then the works become more save the time, the equipment always in good condition, the checklists will be done by the maintenance workers and others. Other than that, the strategy will be used in building maintenance management to ensure the performance of the maintenance works is well-maintained. The maintenance works must be effective and the most important thing is efficient.

1. During an investigation, profilers may be called upon to create a criminal profile of a suspect. Discuss information that may be included in a criminal profile. 2. Psychologists are often called as defense experts with regard to the reliability of eye

1. During an investigation, profilers may be called upon to create a criminal profile of a suspect. Discuss information that may be included in a criminal profile. 2. Psychologists are often called as defense experts with regard to the reliability of eye. I need support with this Psychology question so I can learn better.

1. During an investigation, profilers may be called upon to create a criminal profile of a suspect. Discuss information that may be included in a criminal profile.
2. Psychologists are often called as defense experts with regard to the reliability of eyewitness testimony. Explain why eyewitness testimony may be inaccurate
3. Describe the research psychologists have found with regard victims of sexual assault and Rape Trauma Syndrome. How has this affected the way victims are treated in the court system?
4. Illustrate the three (3) general duties of police officers.
5. Explain how psychological studies have served to educate law enforcement officers about domestic violence.
6. Compare and contrast the adversarial system and inquisitorial approach to justice.
7. Using a commonsense justice approach, evaluate the following scenario:
Billy Jones punches Chad Keller at a local bar after Chad makes a comment about Billy’s clothing. Because Billy and Chad have always disliked each other, the incident soon escalated into a brawl. During the fight, both parties were injured and several pieces of furniture were broken. How should the situation be resolved?
8. The biological theory of crime states that people may be predisposed to certain criminal behavior due to genetic factors. Social-psychological theories see crime as learned behaviors gained through social interactions. Using an example of your own, illustrate how these two theories may work together.
9. Discuss four (4) ways in which law enforcement may employ interrogation techniques to elicit a confession.
1. During an investigation, profilers may be called upon to create a criminal profile of a suspect. Discuss information that may be included in a criminal profile. 2. Psychologists are often called as defense experts with regard to the reliability of eye