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Global Public Health in the face of Climate Change

“Climate change” is the buzz-word of the decade. More and more research is being done, more information is being disseminated, and more public health programs are being put into place. Climate change is an international challenge, it has implications for humanity, ecosystems, and environments at large. Climate is the interaction of solar radiation and the five Earth-based components of climate- atmosphere, biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and cryosphere (1). There are natural shifts in climate as well as external factors that can cause change. The changes caused by humans are called anthropogenic changes (1). Anthropogenic changes include atmospheric changes through gas emissions, changes in land use (deforestation), and urbanization to name a few (1). Therefore, climate change can be defined as any change of the five Earth-based components of climate that persists for decades or longer and can be accredited to human activity directly or indirectly (1). In the following, I will discuss anthropogenic changes that cause climate change, the effect of climate change on public health, and interventions that can be implemented to help decrease the health risks of global warming. Anthropogenic Sources of Climate Change Greenhouse gases naturally warm the Earth, humans have been increasing the concentration of greenhouses gases in the atmosphere causing the average temperature of the Earth to warm more than normal (1). The main greenhouses gases are carbon dioxide, methane gas, and nitrous oxide (1). Carbon dioxide comes from burning oil, coal, and gas to produce heat, electricity, and energy for transportation(1). Carbon dioxide is also emitted through burning trees and other industrial manufacturing processes like cement production (1). Methane gas is common with raising livestock, the breakdown of garbage in landfills, and coal mining (1). Lastly, nitrous oxide is a greenhouse gas that is emitted from sewage treatments, farming practices, and industrial manufacturing processes(1). All of these human practices that contribute to climate change are concerns that need to be addressed on a global scale in order to mitigate future problems. Relative Emissions of Countries Greenhouse gases have decade to century long half-lives in the atmosphere causing exponential build up in the air (2). Carbon dioxide, for instance, has increased by 31% from pre-historic times to today, and half of that increase has been since 1965 (2). The continued acceleration of climate change predicts an increase in a mean global temperature of 1.7-4.9C by the end of the century (2) . Research has found that in the past, global warming caused heat waves, weather disasters, malaria, dengue fever, and diarrheal diseases (3). Present concerns include enteric infections (seasonal food poisoning), vector-borne disease patterns, and extreme events (heat waves, floods, cyclones) (3). Anticipated effects in the future entail concerns with grain yields, malaria, and dengue fever (3). Research conducted by Mendelsohn and colleagues finds that climate change damages increase with income (4). Therefore, it can be concluded that higher income countries create disproportionately more emissions through their process than their lower income counterparts. They found that poorer nations would suffer more damages from climate change even though the rich countries caused majority of the problem, this is because poorer countries are located in low latitudes with hot temperatures (4). The wealthiest quarter of the world’s population includes 52 countries in North America, Europe, and the Middle East; most of these countries are in the mid-high latitudes and have cooler climates (4). Three Ways Climate Change Impacts Public Health Global warming is a global concern which automatically categorizes it as a public health matter. The three most concerning public health issues due to climate change are infectious disease, food insecurity, and sea level rise (5). Above, we saw predictions for greater risk for malaria and dengue fever, but there seems to be evidence for increased viral encephalitis, trypanosomiasis, and schistosomiasis as well (5). The theory is that increased temperatures and changes in rainfall will affect the behavior of vector organisms and hosts, thus changing the viability and maturation of infectious agents (5). There have already been reports of malaria and dengue fever moving upwards from malaria prone areas as the glaciers retreat (5). Currently, about 45% of the world lives in areas of potential malaria transmission, by the end of the next century it will be closer to 60% (5). Low temperatures and low rainfall can create an ecological imbalance in certain areas that can trigger epidemics of vector-borne diseases (6). Salmonella and cholera bacteria grow more rapidly in high temperatures (6). Cholera outbreaks have been seen in Bangladesh due to the changing climate (6). Recent reports have shown tick-borne (viral) encephalitis in Sweden has increased due to successive warm winters over two decades (6). These examples depict the global burden of disease caused by climate change. For decades, food supply has been a concern, questioning whether we will be able to meet the global demand for food in the future. This question has now been complicated by issues posed by global warming. Developing countries may fare worse, as changes in climate may cause worsening conditions such as prolonged dry periods, limited water for irrigation, increased pests and diseases on livestock, all symptoms of environmental degradation (7). A study considered the possibility of heart disease and cancer becoming more prevalent in developed countries due to the change in food consumption patterns (8). Changes in temperature, fertilization, soil moisture, and pest and pathogen activity will change traditional agriculture practices and have a negative net impact (5). The population in developing countries will have reduced agricultural yields leading to hunger and malnutrition, in turn, increasing the risk of infant/child mortality and lowering life expectancy (5). Asia and Africa are likely to be hit hard because they do not have the means to provide nutritious food to their immensely large population (8). If we look more locally, it seems rural populations that do not have the means to obtain food in an alternative manner will also be negatively affected. Food insecurity can lead to numerous public health consequences including mental health impairment and civil strife (5). This shows that regardless of where you live, the consequences of global warming are real. Lastly, as the ocean takes up heat and ice starts to melt, the sea level begins to rise. The sea level has risen approximately 3.4 millimeters/year per C, this estimate projects an increase of 0.5 to 1.4 meters above the 1990 level by 2100 (9). This is of importance as over half of the world’s population lives within 60km of the sea (5). This rise has the power to displace coastal habitants and island dwellers and wipe out resources. This population would be disproportionately at risk for impacts of global warming. A rise in sea level, warming of the oceans, and changes in the currents will also alter marine ecosystems resulting in concerns with algal blooms (aiding in the transmission of cholera) and production of toxins in seafood (5). Sea level rise will cause inundation, erosion, flooding, salt water intrusion, and wetland loss (10). In the end, resulting in land loss which will take a toll on agriculture with higher prices and lower production. The loss of land then causes a trickle effect to the rest of the economy, lowering prices for oil, gas, coal, and electricity (10). The shrinking land mass, infectious disease prevalence, and food insecurity will, therefore, have a global effect on health and economy but will disproportionately affect certain populations. Informing Public of Risks of Climate Change Considering the enormous effect climate change will have on humanity, it is necessary for the public to be informed of what climate change means for them and for future generations. At present, it seems people have a general idea about climate change and the negative connotation that comes with it, however, the general public does not have much of an understanding of the possible health effects and the changes it will bring to every aspect of life. Surveys completed in Canada, the United States, and Malta show that very few people can describe what climate change is and fewer are able to state health effects on humans (11). If information is not disseminated in a timely fashion, it may be too late to affect change, considering damage has already been done and continues to be done as we speak. It is necessary to inform the public of key messages for limiting effects of global warming such as using cleaner and more efficient energy sources and means of transportation (11). Increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables and reducing intake of meat is another way in which individuals can help (11). If people are not aware of the concerns, how can they be expected to aid in mitigating the ramifications of climate change? For this reason, the public should be completely informed about future issues that will arise due to climate change. Since anthropogenic sources are causing excessive warming of the Earth, humans must be the ones to reduce greenhouse gas emissions any way possible. The goal is to get people to the self-mobilization stage where they are able to take initiative to make a difference, independently of external agencies (12). It has been shown that bottom up decision making is more successful than top-down styles (12) . Empowering stakeholders and allowing them to participate in action, results in much more success than outside agencies enforcing action. Public Health Interventions In order to get the global populous to aid in minimizing the anthropogenic sources of climate change we must prove to enough people that global warming is a serious concern and that they must act to help mitigate the effects. To address this concern, public health practitioners must inform, educate, and empower people about health issues related to climate change on a local level. Health communications will be used to inform the public and policymakers of possible health effects and what actions should be taken for risk reduction. Communications should be tailored to specific populations to ensure comprehension. Possible topics would include lessening domestic energy/water usage, decreasing waste through recycling and composting, changing diets, using energy efficient vehicles, and reducing use of fossil-burning vehicles(13). Public health campaigns can include resources such as the “What You Can Do” Webpage by the Environmental Protection Agency which provides tips for small changes that you can make to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as well as, a calculator to calculate your household’s carbon footprint. Health Canada regularly puts out a publication entitled “Your Health and a Changing Climate,” which provides up-to-date knowledge of how Canadians are affected by the climate and what lies ahead with global warming. If these resources were better utilized and information and was communicated appropriately to different sub-populations, perhaps change would begin from within small communities. Looking at the national level, we consider changes that can be made country-wide to help mitigate global warming outcomes. Presently, there are many initiatives for recycling, conserving water, conserving energy, and reducing emissions. Nationally, these initiatives to “Go Green,” should become the norm, and not an option. It will not be an overnight change, but the government should foster a green environment, and not allow people to choose the role of environmentalist. For example, energy reducing and water saving residential items should be mandatory, there should only be LED lights and eco-toilets and water-saving shower heads available for purchase on the market; production/import of non-eco-friendly products should be banned. All new buildings and homes should be built in every eco-friendly manner possible. Hybrid and electric vehicles should become the norm and not a rare vision. If the government enforced “green living” it would reduce society’s carbon dependence and create a pro-environmentalist self-identity for the nation (13) . A green nation would have to make public transportation more affordable and create more options for not using vehicles such as bike lanes, accessible transit, and more. The key is to be creative, in 2014, Beijing started taking plastic bottles as credit for train fare; though it may not make a significant difference in the amount of recycling, it raises awareness and gives people an opportunity to recycle (14). If governments take the initiative to not only encourage a greener lifestyle, but also ban products that increase our carbon footprint, industry will have to follow suite. It is the technological revolution, anything is possible. Globally, countries are already working towards to cutting down emissions and combating climate change through the Paris Climate Agreement. The agreement is aimed at diminishing effects of global warming and cutting down the global carbon footprint. This may be a step in the right direction, however, damage has already been done. As a global populous, we must address problems that will be of concern regardless of climate change efforts being made now. Food insecurity is one of these concerns. Global warming will cause food insecurity on account of changing yields due to changing temperatures and rainfall amounts, access to fruits, vegetables, and protein, as well as, access to clean drinking water. There may also be reduced water available for irrigation, conditions promoting pests and disease on crops and livestock, soil erosion, and desertification (7). Sustainable development goals were integrated into the millennium development goals (MDG) at the Rio 20 summit in 2012, including a food security goal. The difficulty is finding opportunities and solutions for global food security. It begins with education, investment in people to enhance the ability for farmers to adopt more advanced technologies and crop-management techniques to obtain higher return on their land (7). Education and research on water harvesting and conservation can also aid in increasing crop productivity (7). An increases of 2 to 3 times in crop yields for water harvesting trials in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Niger, Sudan, and Tanzania was seen, compared to dryland farming techniques (7). These innovative farming techniques not only aid in increasing food yields, they also reduce pollution and ensure habitat quality through proper management of soil, water, and natural vegetation (7). We can see the benefits of implementing new farming practices around the world, however, funding is not necessarily available. Whether it is monetary support or better trade policies, international leaders and agencies must come together to support one another to ensure global food security. References (1) Chadwick AE. Climate change, health, and communication: A primer. Health Commun 2016;31(6):782-785. (2) Karl TR, Trenberth KE. Modern global climate change. Science 2003 December 05;302(5651):1719-1723. (3) Haines A, Kovats RS, Campbell-Lendrum D, Corvalán C. Climate change and human health: impacts, vulnerability and public health. Public Health 2006;120(7):585-596. (4) Mendelsohn R, Dinar A, Williams L. The distributional impact of climate change on rich and poor countries. Environ Dev Econ 2006;11(2):159-178. (5) McMichael AJ, Haines A. Global climate change: the potential effects on health. BMJ 1997 September 27;315(7111):805-809. (6) McMichael AJ, Woodruff RE, Hales S. Climate change and human health: present and future risks. The Lancet 2006;367(9513):859-869. (7) Rosegrant MW, Cline SA. Global food security: challenges and policies. Science 2003 December 12;302(5652):1917-1919. (8) Akhtar K. Climate change could cause food access, public health decline by 2050: report. CBC News 2016 March 15,:http://www.cbc.ca/news/health/climate-change-could-cause-food-access-public-health-decline-by-2050-report-1.3490939. (9) Rahmstorf S. A semi-empirical approach to projecting future sea-level rise. Science 2007 January 19;315(5810):368-370. (10) Bosello F, Roson R, Tol RS. Economy-wide estimates of the implications of climate change: Sea level rise. Environmental and Resource Economics 2007;37(3):549-571. (11) Maibach EW, Nisbet M, Baldwin P, Akerlof K, Diao G. Reframing climate change as a public health issue: an exploratory study of public reactions. BMC Public Health 2010;10(1):299. (12) Few R, Brown K, Tompkins EL. Public participation and climate change adaptation: avoiding the illusion of inclusion. Climate policy 2007;7(1):46-59. (13) Whitmarsh L, O’Neill S. Green identity, green living? The role of pro-environmental self-identity in determining consistency across diverse pro-environmental behaviours. J Environ Psychol 2010;30(3):305-314. (14) Perry F. No cash for train fare? Beijing takes plastic….bottles. The Guardian 2014 August 29,:https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2014/aug/29/no-cash-train-fare-beijing-plastic-bottles-recycling.
RESEACRH PAPER ON THE TOPIC ‘The New Suburbia” BY FOLLOWING THE DESCRIPTION.

I WANT A RESEACRH PAPER ON THE TOPIC ‘The New Suburbia” BY FOLLOWING THE REQUIREMENTS.RESEARCH PAPER GUIDE(Your Subject Here)HISTORY 1302(The Course You are Taking) (Your Name) Your Research Paper heading should be presented as this paper is set up, the research title, class section and your name, centered on separate single spaced lines. There is no need for a cover sheet or folder cover for this effort. Unlike this guide your paper should be double spaced between lines. This paper must be typed or word-processed to be accepted. Students will employ fonts no smaller than 8 (elite) or larger than 12 (pica) for the type size of the presentation. This assignment is a minimum of 1000 words. The first paragraph will define the Who, What, When and Where of the assigned subject in no less than two or more than four sentences. I want sharp, clear concise sentences and proper grammar structure. Try to keep the sentence length at less than a maximum of fifteen words. Please refrain from employing endless sentences and incorrect grammar. Employ spell check and grammar check and try to utilize the Writing Center to assist in structure and editing of the effort. Paragraph two should cite and explain the reason Why of the subject according to the textbook. In citing sources for this effort I want the title, author, copyright date and publishing house named. This paragraph should run no more than four sentences of direct material or less. Paragraph three should present the methods of How the effort or action was undertaken according to the text source. Each of these sentences describing How the effort is undertaken should be like the lead sentence of a new paragraph. You must have a minimum of three how’s and more if available. Paragraph four should define the Result according to the textbook. Limit this to three sentences. Paragraph five should employ the same format as paragraph two to cite and describe the Why from the Second College Level Primary Source. Paragraph six needs to define the methods How from the Second Source in the order the author provides. Often the same reasons are given for how a structure or event took place but the order is different and this affects the context of the paper and the result. Paragraph seven needs to explain the Result as defined from the second source. Paragraph eight defines the Why from your third primary source. Again employ the structure of the second and fifth paragraph to cite this source and define it. Paragraph nine defines the How of the third source in the order and context presented. Paragraph ten explains the result according to the third source as structured in paragraphs four and seven. Paragraph eleven defines your interpretation of the resources. “According to my evaluation of the data and reflection X Source correctly defines the material assigned to my satisfaction. Therefore this is my defense of my selection” if you have selected one source. If no one source defines the assignment employ “According to my evaluation of the data and reflection no one source correctly defines the materials assigned to my satisfaction. Therefore this is my interpretation of the assigned materials.” Paragraph twelve presents either your defense of the selection of your interpretation according to your research. A DEFENSE Three defined reasons in three separate sentences why you selected the material defining the subject assigned. Two reasons for why each of the other resources was not able to explain the subject properly. Or AN INTERPRETATION (not exact) Your why, how’s in the order you find them relevant and the most important result you have discovered from the subject assigned as you see them using the filter of rational thought. Generally you will find that you cannot meet the requirements of the paper in less than five pages of work and certainly need no more than ten pages to complete the effort. Stay concise and define specific reasons for your selections and define each how in a declarative sentence. Don’t through data at the effort. Provide direct and simple interpretations so that a clear summation is achieved. Good luck and maintain this goal, if you cannot explain it you cannot employ it. This is a critical thinking effort that requires you make determinations according to your research and what you have determined from the resources you have gathered. Generally you will find that you cannot meet the requirements of the paper in less than five pages of work and certainly need no more than ten pages to complete the effort. Stay concise and define specific reasons for your selections and define each how in a declarative sentence. Don’t through data at the effort. Provide direct and simple interpretations so that a clear summation is achieved. Good luck and maintain this goal; if you cannot explain it you cannot employ it. This is a critical thinking effort that requires you make determinations according to your research and what you have determined from the resources you have gathered. There is no right answer, only a conclusion based upon employing the structures of rational thought to determine the truth from the effort.
RESEACRH PAPER ON THE TOPIC ‘The New Suburbia” BY FOLLOWING THE DESCRIPTION

Nature Of Science Explanatory Narrative

Nature Of Science Explanatory Narrative. Can you help me understand this Biology question?

In this assignment you are given four questions on the nature of science and four student answers. The student answers contain errors and misconceptions. For each of the four questions you will provide two short paragraphs. In the first short paragraph (Critique), you will briefly describe the errors in the student answer. In the second short paragraph (Correct Answer) you will write a correct answer to the question that does not contain the errors or misconceptions. Your answer for each Critique or Correct Answer should be about the same length as the given student answers and should not exceed 100 words.
Question #1: What role does experimentation play in the biological sciences?
Student answer #1: “Biology, like all sciences, is only able to create new knowledge and understanding through experimentation. A scientific study without experimentation is not considered rigorous enough for publication and cannot be taken seriously. Experiments make science objective by removing creativity and subjectivity. As a result, scientists are able to be completely objective when they report their results.”
Question #2: What are the relationships between biological facts, hypotheses, theories, and laws?
Student answer #2: “Hypothesis testing is an important part of biology. Hypotheses, which can be defined as “educated guesses,” will eventually become theories when they have been confirmed multiple times by different scientists. When theories have become proven, they will become known as laws. Laws, given their important status in science, can be considered absolute truths that cannot be violated.”
Question #3: Can biological information be proven?
Student answer #3: “Biologists use a standardized scientific method to test hypotheses in order to prove that they are correct or incorrect. Once a hypothesis is proven to be correct, it should be treated as a fact and it would be a waste of resources for people to continue to study that question because the answer is already known. It is a scientist’s job to prove that their hypotheses are correct.”
Question #4: What are biological models and why are they developed?
Student answer #4: “Many biologists study things that are very small and sometimes these things cannot be seen with the naked eye, such as a cell. As a result, sometimes, biologists create models, which are physical replicas used to show other people what small things look like. It’s important that biologists create these replicas because it’s impossible to make hypotheses about something that cannot be seen with our own eyes.”
Nature Of Science Explanatory Narrative

De Anza College Artificial Selection of Plants Through Selective Breeding Discussion

help writing De Anza College Artificial Selection of Plants Through Selective Breeding Discussion.

I’m working on a anthropology discussion question and need an explanation to help me study.

We covered a lot of ground this week and this Forum is a chance to revisit one of these topics. For this Forum, I would like you to find an example of artificial selection. This might be an example from around your house – feel free to include a picture! This might be an example from your neighborhood, someplace you have visited, or even something that you wondered about and decided to look up on the Internet. My hope is that taking a look around you will encourage you to think about all of the ways that humans have bred plants and animals for our needs. This assignment will take some work to look up your choice of artificial selection. For full points you must:Pick an item that is the result of artificial selection and that has not already been posted by another studentIdentify the item that you believe to be the product of artificial selection (deliberate breeding for human use). Do not just say, “plant”. Please attempt to identify the plant, giving a Genus and species name when possible. Similar for those that pick animals. Dogs and cats are NOT eligible for this assignment – they are a little too easy!Make every effort to identify when the species you have picked was domesticated – this may not be possible, but ballpark figures are acceptable. Remember to give us links to your sources so that we can check them out!In at least a couple sentences, please tell us why you picked this particular item. What it something about the color, fragrance, utility, etc that you found interesting?
De Anza College Artificial Selection of Plants Through Selective Breeding Discussion

PSYC 160 UCI Listening to Music While Studying Make You a Better Student Discussion

PSYC 160 UCI Listening to Music While Studying Make You a Better Student Discussion.

I’m working on a psychology project and need support to help me study.

Revise a psychology paper as requiredIntroductionVygotskian theory asserts that children and adolescents active constructors of knowledge and their cognitivedevelopment is naturally embedded in a cultural context. Culture provides both symbols and tools and these areused as children and adults actively engage in daily interactions. Think about skills that you could help transmitto a child or adolescent. Considering the zone of proximal development, identify three skills and present yourteaching strategies within the zone of proximal development. For the purposes of this thought paper, identifythree separate teachable skills and your role as a more skilled teacher using specific examples.Writing GuidelinesThought papers should be three pages in length and include concepts from lecture and textbook reading. Each thought paper should be written as an essay with adequate paragraph structure.Your essay should contain an introduction, body, and conclusion.Each thought paper is worth 50 points.Thought papers must be turned in on the due date. Late thought papers will be deducted 50%. It is expected that you will follow the guidelines below so that your essay conforms to APA (American Psychological Association) format and style.APA Format 1 inch margins all around 12 point Times New Roman font Double-space everything Left alignment Use first and last name as header in the top-right corner of all pages APA Writing StyleUse correct grammar Use correct spellingUse appropriate paragraph structureNo contractionsNo abbreviationsNo use of symbolsNo quotationsNo informal language (slang, obscenities)
PSYC 160 UCI Listening to Music While Studying Make You a Better Student Discussion

Impacts of the Regular Exercise on the Human Life Quality Research Paper

Introduction Inasmuch as many people find it difficult to maintain little physical activity, engaging in regular physical exercises such as aerobics and less intense physical activities such as jogging, walking, and dancing often play a vital role in reducing frequencies of contracting diseases such as cancer, heart problems, and other chronic health problems. In the developed world, the most popular causes of death include cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Some of the risk factors associated with such diseases include lifestyle characteristics such as smoking, hypertension in the arteries, obesity, and high blood sugar levels. Such conditions or a combination of such conditions compromises the body’s immune system from fighting back, hence increasing vulnerability. In order to reduce blood sugar level, fats, and calories in the body, health care practitioners and nutritionists encourage healthy eating habits and regular physical activities to regulate the blood sugar levels and the control storage of calories. Exercise lowers the risk of suffering from diseases Weight control Weight and obesity traits present ample body conditions for chronic and lifestyles. Heart condition, hypertension, kidney failures, and cancer are prevalent in people with high body masses. Controlling weight, therefore, translates to reduced chances of contracting unhealthy conditions. Both dieting and engaging in physical activities help in controlling body weight. Human physiology dictates that the rates at which people add weight has a direct correlation with the rate at which such persons burn their calories they take in foods. Physical activities such as jogging, running, and walking up the staircases help the body systems in burning calories (Reimers, Knapp, and Reimers 111). Strengthening bones and muscles Human bones and muscles grow fragile with age. People with less body activity suffer risks of osteoporosis more than individual with physical body activity. Even though care remains necessary in physical activities at old age, research indicates that walking, jogging, and other moderate physical activities help in strengthening the muscles and bones. Likewise, aerobics with moderate intensities slow the rate of bone loss, leading to reduction in cases of brittleness and weakness in the bones. Keeping bones and muscles active help in ensuring fitness of body joints, thus reducing cases of hip and wrist fractures associated with osteoporosis (Reimers, Knapp, and Reimers 115). Improving mental health, physical stability, and mood Body inactivity reduces thinking, learning, and judgment skills. Similarly, it increases vulnerability to depression and stress disorders that reduces life expectancy. On the other hand, physical activities help in enhancing mental health and mood. Engaging in aerobics like dance and jog enhance happiness and control stress levels. Likewise, effective activity ensures adequate physical fitness that reduces vulnerability to falls in cases of emergency. Reduced fall frequencies helps in regulating fall related conditions such as bone fractures. Even the data above show close relationship between physical activity and improved health situations; the research indicates that physical activity requires complimentary use with other factors to help in improving health status. For example, engagement in less intensive physical activity requires sanity in eating and dieting habits to control weight gains. On the same note, physical activities require regulation to control the level of calories content in the body. Similarly, different body structure and physiological characteristics inform the level of human physical activity. Hereditary weak bone syndrome, gender, racial orientation, and other factor inform the ability of individual to engage in physical activities. For example, women at thirty years in the US add 2.19 years into their lifespan if they engage in a 15-minute vigorous physical activity for at least three times a week. Women in the same country add 3.4 years at the age of sixty-five. Factors that reduce the lifespan in the second age group include smoking habits, blood pressure levels, diabetes tendencies, body mass index, and hormone replacement level among others (Schuna, Johnson, and Tudor-Locke 116). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Developing concrete estimates on the value of intensity of physical activities also compromises the argument that engagement in physical activities increase health status. Developing a standard unit for measuring these attributes has to consider the age, body physiological characteristics, and physique among other factors. Use of ambiguous groups such as “physical activity”, “less intense”, and “vigorous” as units of measuring activity levels lacks proper assessment and valuation measures. As a result, the measure often fails to present the actual level of body activity. This implies that scholars in the physical education and health fraternity lack an ideal measurement for the actual value of physical activities levels in the body immune system (Schuna, Johnson, and Tudor-Locke 116). Conclusion Physical activities reduce major risks and hazards responsible for human illness. Chances of an individual suffering from hypertension, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, heart diseases, kidney failures, stroke, and cancer reduce with increases in body physical engagements. With statistics showing an average of 32.5 per cent decrease in mortality with increase in physical activity, there is need to integrate physical activities into individual diaries. Despite the fact that physical activity requires support from behavior changes such as dieting and healthy living, quitting smoking, avoiding junk foods, and alcohol, it is important to note that physical activity strengthens the human system, reduces stress levels, improves mood, boosts bones, and enhances body muscles. All these factors improve the health standards of human beings. Works Cited Reimers, Carl, Guido Knapp, and Anne Reimers. “Does physical activity increase life expectancy? A review of the literature.” Journal of Aging Research 1.1 (2012): 108-117. Print. Schuna, John, William Johnson, and Catrine Tudor-Locke. “Adult self-reported and objectively monitored physical activity and sedentary behavior: NHANES 2005–2006.” International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 10.126 (2013): 413-119. Print