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Global Production of Unleaded Gasoline Research Paper

Table of Contents Producer-trader-manufacturer-trader-consumer Shares of wealth generated by the product Major producers and major consumers Environmental consequence References Unleaded gasoline is one of the products of crude oil. It is the most commonly used fuel type for automobiles globally. As the name suggests, it is gasoline that has not been treated with any lead compound. It is made up of a mixture of hydrocarbons that include heptanes, octane and hexane. This end product goes through various processes and tests before it can be sold for use. Various chemicals and additives are also incorporated in order to produce the quality that is desired. Producer-trader-manufacturer-trader-consumer This product changes hands from oil extractors, to refineries, to exporters, retailers and finally to the consumers. Oil extraction occurs at oil fields where oil wells are created by drilling holes into the earth’s crust where oilrigs are present (Hubbert, 1956). Steel pipes are placed inside the holes to provide rigidity of the structure and to allow oil to be pumped. There are three methods employed for oil extraction and recovery. They include the primary recovery method (stage), the secondary recovery methods and the tertiary recovery methods. After the oil has been extracted, it is taken to the oil refineries. For unleaded gasoline be produced, crude oil must go through the refineries. This is where crude oil undergoes distillation. This leads to the production of virgin or straight-run gasoline. However, this product does not have the specific characteristics required in the running of modern engines. Therefore, it only forms part of the blend that is used in the production of unleaded gasoline. The product is made up of hydrocarbon. These hydrocarbons may be made of four to twelve carbons in every bond. The different products resulting from the different numbers of carbon atoms produce products having varying characteristics. They may be classified into straight-run gasoline, reformate, cat cracked gasoline, hydrocrackate (light, mid and heavy), alkylate and isomerate. These are the most commonly used terms but they vary. From the refineries, the oil product (unleaded gasoline) may be sold to retailers who would transport the commodity to all the areas of the country in order to be accessed by its citizens or may be sold to exporters who would take the product to other nations around the globe. The producer countries mainly export oil products to countries that do not produce it (consumers). If exported, the commodity is left in the hands of the retailers who would be responsible for the distribution of the product and the selling of the same to the consumer. Shares of wealth generated by the product The shares of the wealth generated by the product are distributed among the various persons where the product is handed down from the oil extraction sites to the consumers. These include the profits received by the global traders, the salaries or wages of persons trading the commodity, the profits received by the final product manufacturer and the price paid by the consumer. The price of unleaded gasoline varies from country to country. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, its price in Europe is actually more than twice that in the United States. In the US, the price per gallon is about $ 5. In Italy, the price per gallon is $ 8.72. The pump price (price paid by the consumers) of the commodity per liter is about € 1.82. The average salary of a service station attendant servicing automobiles with gasoline, water and oil in the U.S. is $ 20,050. This statistic was provided using the Certified Compensation Professionals’ analysis. Major producers and major consumers The major producers of oil worldwide from highest producer include Saudi Arabia, Russia, United States, Iran, Mexico, China, Canada, United Arab Emirates, Venezuela, Norway, Kuwait and Nigeria. The major consumers of gasoline include United States, China, Japan, Russia, Germany, India, Canada, Brazil, South Korea, Saudi Arabia, Mexico and France. The U.S. is one of the major consumers of gasoline. It accounts for about 44% of gasoline consumption worldwide. In 2003, it consumed over 470 gigaliters of gasoline. The countries from the west are the greatest consumers of the product. The consumption of the product is also highest when the individual consumption is considered. Environmental consequence The production of gasoline (unleaded gasoline) is followed by the emission of carbon dioxide, which is a greenhouse gas that has been determined to cause global warming (Hansen et al., 2000). Carbon dioxide has a blanketing effect on the atmosphere and it traps and reflects heat back to the surface. This translates to the increase in temperature of the oceans and atmosphere. This can generally cause climatic changes that may be unsuitable. One of the effects is the change in the precipitation patterns. This is due to the changes in sea temperatures. This might also have an effect on the level of the sea as it rises. There is also a possibility of the subtropical deserts expanding. This explains why various governments have implemented the Carbon Tax, which is levied on the amount of carbon emitted during the burning of fuel (hydrocarbon fuel). It is an environmental tax that puts a price on the amount of carbon produced in order to reduce the impact it has on the environment. When fuel burns, the carbon in the fuel mixes with air and forms carbon dioxide that is released in the atmosphere as a waste product. This type of greenhouse gas has the ability to trap heat within the atmosphere and cause climatic changes. Governments have thought it wise to put in place measures to try to reduce the negative effects of carbon by using the carbon tax. We will write a custom Research Paper on Global Production of Unleaded Gasoline specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This product of crude oil is very volatile. This causes the unused product to emit fumes in the air. When the sunlight hits it, it forms smog. Various additives also increase the effect. Such additives include ethanol. This is because it increases the volatility of the unleaded gasoline. Various other environmental consequences of gasoline include the emission of toxic gases and substances. These include benzene, toluene, trimethylbenzene and other related toxic chemicals. These substances may cause health complications including cancers of the blood. The increase in the level of lead in people’s bloodstreams contributed to the consideration of producing unleaded gasoline (Pino, Walter, Oyarzun, Burden,
Philosophy homework help. What are the most effective solutions to the obesity crisis? Further, What foods cause obesity? Also, What can be done to combat obesity locally and nationally?,What are the most effective solutions to the obesity crisis?,Obesity Epidemic “Astronomical” But while obesity may not be the Black Death, it is a severe public health crisis. Experts ,agree, that as more and more obese children become obese adults, the diseases associated with obesity, such as heart disease, cancer, and especially diabetes will surge.,Which foods cause obesity?,eating processed or fast food high in fat. not eating fruit, vegetables and unrefined carbohydrates, such as wholemeal bread and brown rice. drinking too much alcohol – alcohol contains a lot of calories, and heavy drinkers are often overweight.,How can we prevent and treat obesity?,Prevention,Firstly, Exercise regularly. You need to get 150 to 300 minutes of moderate-intensity activity a week to prevent weight gain.,Secondly, Follow a healthy-eating plan.,Thirdly, Know and avoid the food traps that cause you to eat.,Also, Monitor your weight regularly.,Lastly, Be consistent., ,What are some solutions to childhood obesity?,In an effort to combat and prevent childhood obesity, we have compiled a list of fun ways to encourage kids to eat healthy and get active.,Make a Favourite Dish Healthier.,Drink Water.,Incorporate Healthy Snacks.,Teach Kids about Serving Size.,Make a Favourite Dish Healthier.,Drink Water.,Incorporate Healthy Snacks.,How can be done to combat obesity locally and nationally?,Ensure that the available food and beverage options are healthy and help youth eat food that meets dietary recommendations for fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and nonfat or low-fat dairy products. Create a Local School Wellness Policy to promote student health and reduce childhood obesity.,How can you best advice an obese person on healthy living goals?,The best way to achieve this is by eating a well balanced diet with a wide variety of nutritious foods. A successful weight loss program may include cutting fats and sugars from your diet while ensuring you eat lots of healthy foods such as wholegrain, fruits and vegetables.Philosophy homework help

SEU Leadership Critical Thinking Situational Leadership Essay

SEU Leadership Critical Thinking Situational Leadership Essay.

0% palagrisem — ApA STYLE 7th edition — 5 referencesLeadership Critical Thinking:The Vice President of operations recently promoted you to branch manager and moved you to a new branch office where the morale among employees is low and performance is poor. Of the five employees, Amani has the most tenure with six years. Amani seems to have the lowest morale and is not motivated to do the work, although he is quite capable of doing it successfully. Bassmah has been with the company for four years but has not mastered the new software and is performing at a low level even three months after being trained on the software. Hadeel also has four years with the company and Rawan has two years. Hadeel and Rawan are responsible for client contact, and while in the past they worked well together on reaching out to clients, now there are conflicts and low morale. Samah has been with the company just three months and does not understand what is expected on the job and is contemplating leaving the company.Approach the case as the branch manager well versed in situational leadership.Explain situational leadership to your Vice President.Determine the readiness level of each employee and explain your reasoning.Determine the appropriate leader behavior to match the employee level and explain your reasoning.Develop a plan of action as to how you will lead each person to higher performance and morale and explain it to your Vice President.Directions:Write an essay that includes an introduction paragraph, the essay’s body, and a conclusion paragraph to address the assignment’s guide questions. Do not address the questions using a question-and-answer format.Your well-written paper should meet the following requirements:Be 3-5 pages in length, which does not include the title and reference pages, which are never a part of the content minimum requirements.Use Saudi Electronic University academic writing standards and APA style guidelines.Support your submission with course material concepts, principles, and theories from the textbook and at least two current, scholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles. Current articles are those published in the last five years.It is strongly encouraged that you submit all assignments to the Turnitin Originality Check prior to submitting it to your instructor for grading. If you are unsure how to submit an assignment to the Originality Check tool, review the Turnitin Originality Check–Student Guide for step-by-step instructions.In advance of submission, review the grading rubric to see how you will be graded for this assignment.
SEU Leadership Critical Thinking Situational Leadership Essay

Demand/Supply for Business, calculus homework help

write my term paper Demand/Supply for Business, calculus homework help.

Hello,I am seeking help on my final calculus problem. I don’t know what I am doing wrong, since I keep getting -/+ $483360. Here is the question:Suppose the demand function for a product is given by the function: D(q)=−0.012q+45.6Find the Consumer’s Surplus corresponding to q = 150.Do not round the results until the very end of your calculations. At that point, round to the nearest tenth, if necessary. It may help you to sketch the demand curve, which crosses the horizontal at q = 3, 800. Please note the “3, 800” are two different numbers. Thank you!
Demand/Supply for Business, calculus homework help

Saudi Electronic ?Determinants of Individual Health Status in KSA Discussion

Saudi Electronic ?Determinants of Individual Health Status in KSA Discussion.

I’m working on a health & medical discussion question and need guidance to help me study.

Describe two major determinants of individual health status in Saudi Arabia. Which determinant do you think presents the biggest challenge to the overall health of the population and why?In developing your initial response, be sure to draw from, explore, and cite credible reference materials, including at least one scholarly peer-reviewed reference. In responding to your classmates’ posts, you are encouraged to examine their opinions, offering supporting and/or opposing views.APA style on word and also avoid plagrism
Saudi Electronic ?Determinants of Individual Health Status in KSA Discussion

Economic Analysis of Phillip Morris International

Introduction Marlboro is a cigarette brand owned by the Altria Group in USA and by Philip Morris International outside USA. Hence, in Singapore the company is under Philip Morris International (PMI). The company emerged in England in 1847 and targeted female customers. Later in 1920, it emerged in US markets targeting mainly women smokers. During 1950’s it targeted the health conscious people by introducing filtered cigarettes and also targeted men. The brand is well-known for its advertisements like ‘Marlboro man’, slogans like ‘Mild as May’ and for sponsoring various motor-sports events. The brand has shown its presence and has been closely related to sports specially racing. During 1972 it became one of the most admired brands in the world (Marlboro Cigarettes). In 2012, Marlboro brand was rated 53 amongst the top 500 global firms of the world with a brand value of $15,171 million and a venture value of $180,739 million. (studymode, 2012)” Executive Summary The company PMI plans to begin a new reformed cigarette in the markets of Singapore where they already enjoy a market share of 50%. The product is being called ‘Marlboro Switch’. This cigarette contains less harmful ingredients which will reduce odor and smoke. It will give a different experience to smokers by providing them three distinct flavors. Along with this it will give the smokers pleasure of enjoying two flavors in one cigarette by pressing a switch and changing the flavor from regular to menthol. The product will be sold in an attractive and convenient packaging which will have a slot for the lighter. It will give the consumers luxury of carrying the lighter along with the packaging hence making the product unique, stylish and have less harmful effects (studymode, 2012).” (studymode, 2012) (studymode, 2012) The company wants to release this product by the year end and gain a competitive edge over their competitors. The product will not be overpriced but will be competitive with other brands. By providing less harmful cigarette it will target the health conscious people and thereby tend to increase its market share by 10% by 2015 (studymode, 2012). MICROECONOMIC ANALYSIS Tobacco Industry Overview The tobacco industry is made up of a small number of companies that grow, distribute and sell tobacco and related products throughout the world. Barriers to entry to this market are high due to the size of distribution networks required and government restrictions on marketing and promotions. These restrictions stem from health warnings, which will limit the room for future growth in this already mature market. Companies often use mergers and acquisitions to expand abroad and bring down their costs by taking advantage of economies of scale. They often integrate vertically, meaning they have control over every aspects of the supply chain from production to distribution. Due to these factors, the market can be described as an oligopoly. The industry is constantly having to deal with tightening regulations as governments look to discourage the use of their products due to health concerns. This is playing a role in decreasing the demand in the developed world, but as of now is not affecting the developing world, in fact the opposite as demand is growing in these countries. Market Structure The tobacco industry in Singapore is earning supernormal profits no matter long-run or short-run. This is because the barriers for new companies to enter are huge and it almost blocks the new entrants from entering the market. In oligopoly, the key feature of earning supernormal profits is that a firm must consider the reaction of other firms to its own actions. As a result, when PMI Singapore increased their price in 2013 by 3%, BAT and JTI was bound to take proper action towards this. An oligopoly is the market structure of a few large firms dominating the industry. The number of seller or firm in an oligopoly market is very few but there are numerous buyers in the market. Some industry produces differentiated products or homogeneous products.Homogeneous products are goods that are with no preferences; differentiated products are goods with a lot of variety.In short homogeneous are products that are close substitute to each other and are an identical produce. The example of homogeneous products including cement and steel. The example of differentiated products including automobiles, cigarettes and soft drinks. Tobacco industry has an oligopoly market structure. There are 3 major companies dominant the tobacco market in Singapore, they are British American Tobacco (BAT), JT International (JTI) and Philip Morris International (PMI). The total market share of the above three major companies is about 91%.With PMI Singapore holding the highest market share (The Star, 2008). Although they are selling the same products, cigarette, but with different taste, feeling and smoke from different brand names. So cigarette is a differentiated product. Most of the firms under oligopoly have almost blocked the entry for new entrants. This is due to three reasons, economics of scale, government legal barriers and substantial investment. The barrier to enter the tobacco industry in Singapore is very high. PMI has been around over the times, therefore it makes difficulty for the new entrant to survive in the tobacco industry in Singapore. Therefore, PMI Singapore is taking the advantages of economics of scale. They have the advanced technologies over the year. Economics of scale is about when increasing the scale of production leads to a lower long-run cost per unit of output. (Curran, 2007). Fixed Costs and Variable Costs Fixed costs refer to the costs that do not depend upon the level of output. They remain constant throughout. Its graph is a horizontal straight line. Some of the examples of fixed cost are rent of building machinery etc. On the other hand, variable costs refer to the costs that change with the level of output. It is generally seen that variable cost increases at a constant rate with an increase in the level of output. Its graph is an upward sloping curve. Some of the examples of variable costs are wages, utilities, raw material used, etc. Some of the fixed costs incurred by Marlboro are salaries to the employees, taxes payable to the government, property tax, interest payable, etc. Variable cost for the company includes the cost for raw material and packaging. The raw materials are purchased from different suppliers. No single supplier provides a majority of portion of the raw material required by the company. In order for new suppliers to supply the raw material, the suppliers have to qualify under PMI and also the government standards. Some example of raw material required in production of cigarettes is firstly being tobacco, paper, synthetic cotton, seed flax etc. Economies of scale Besides that, the tobacco industry in Singapore is under the interventions of government. Although most of the oligopoly differentiated their products with strong investment in advertisements, but in case of cigarette the Singapore government has strict laws. So advertisements no longer work in the tobacco industry. Apart from that, the barriers to enter the tobacco industry locally is initially low. The tobacco industries in Singapore are non-collusive oligopoly or non-price competition. This is because each tobacco company perceives that its rivals will easily and quickly match any price reduction. in addition to that, the government tax of cigarette is always increasing. in order for government to reduce the demand of cigarette, the most effective ways is to increase the tax (The Star, 2011). Inelastic Demand The demand for cigarettes is inelastic. This is because no matter how much the price of the cigarettes increase, there will still be buyers in the market. Due to the fact that cigarettes can make the consumer addicted, buyers can’t stop purchasing cigarettes till they can’t get rid of the addiction. On an average of price rise by 10%, the demand is expected to be reduce by 4% in high income countries and 8% in low and middle countries. In Singapore, the estimated cigarette price elasticity is about 0.38. This means that when 10% increase in the price of cigarette, the demand tends to decline by 3.8%. This means that changes in the price brings about lower effect or no effect to the changes in the quantity demanded and thus resulting in a steep curve. For instance, the increase of the cost of raw materials in PMI Singapore had pushed the marginal cost from MC1 to MC2. From the diagram, we can see that this change may not necessarily lead to a higher price of the cigarette that MC2 cuts the MR curve at the same output (Q1). The gap between a and b where MR=MC the profit is maximum. If the price MC of Marlboro Singapore lies between the point a and b, the profit maximizing price and output will be P1 and Q1.The price will stick to the market price and the firms will concentrate more on non-price competition to earn revenues . MACROECONOMIC ANALYSIS General Economy The economy of a country is calculated or determined by the GDP or GDP per capita of the country, GDP is the indicator of the recession or inflation of the economy. The Singaporean economy has been growing rapidly since the time Singapore achieved independence, as a result the Singapore has the highest GDP per capita in the world. (taborda, 2013) The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Singapore expanded 1.30 percent in the third quarter of 2013 over the previous quarter. GDP Growth Rate in Singapore is reported by the Statistics Singapore. From 2007 until 2013, Singapore GDP Growth Rate averaged 5.5 Percent reaching an all time high of 36.4 Percent in March of 2010 and a record low of -13.0 Percent in September of 2010. The economy depends heavily on foreign trade; both from port activities and from exports of electronic components and refined oil. The country is a leading foreign direct investment recipient due to its status of one of the freest, most competitive and most business-friendly economies in the world. (taborda, 2013) (Source: The above figure describes the changes in quarterly GDP (in percentage) of Singapore within the latest years. Unemployment The unemployment is proportional to tobacco use, as studies show that as unemployment increases so does tobacco use. People tend to smoke more if they are tensed or under pressure. Hence, the employment rate effects the consumption of tobacco in form of cigarettes in the economy. The unemployment rate of Singapore has decreased from 2.10% from second quarter to 1.80% in the third quarter. The unemployment rate of Singapore is averaged between 2.51% from 1886 to 2013. (taborda, 2013) The governments has taken radical steps to reduce unemployment in the country by bringing in measure and laws that limit foreign workers in working in Singapore and making it compulsory for companies operating in Singapore to hire Singaporeans or PR’s. Since the unemployment rate is going down in Singapore it can have a negative effect on the sale of cigarette’s in the Singaporean economy. Inflation Inflation is the percentage change in the level of prices (as measured by the CPI) from one period to another. The inflation rate of alcoholic beverages and tobacco was recorded at 16.2% , The rise of 16.2% was mainly attributable to price increases of cigarettes ( 15.6%) and alcoholic beverages ( 16.7%). (Pothegadoo, 2013) The inflation rate is one of the main discouraging factors that affect the sale of tobacco in the country but studies show that irrespective of the high inflation rates the number of young smokers is increasing in the country. The most recent figures from the National Health Survey conducted last year indicate an alarming increase in the percentage of Singaporeans smoking cigarettes. 14.3% of adults are now smokers compared with 12.6% in 2004. (Tobacco free singapore, 2011) Government Policies Smoking in Singapore was first banned in few places and the law was eventually added to areas that must be smoke free, now the smoke free zones in Singapore include the bus interchanges, shelters, public washrooms, swimming complexes and entertainment outlets. Cigarette butt littering is also one of the greatest high rise problem, Singaporeans found breaking the rules are fined minimum of SGD 200 to SGD 1000 if found guilty in court. The policies in Singapore are very strict and anti smoking, they have impose high taxes and inflation rates on the sale of tobacco and cigarettes, to discourage the sale or use of cigarette, but even after all the rules and regulations the sale of cigarettes has gone up or increased. Up to March 2003, excise duty on cigarettes was by weight per kilogram of tobacco. From July 2003, excise duty on cigarettes was revised to a unit-based (per stick) system. This change to a unit-based system was in response to the emergence in 2000 of low-priced cigarettes that had less tobacco content and less weight per cigarette and which, due to their price, were attracting young people to smoke and encouraging smokers to smoke more, as evidenced in a shift in consumer behavior pattern (sales of low-priced cigarettes increased from 6% in 2000 to 25% in (2003). CONCLUSION Recommendation The comprehensive prohibition on advertising does not prevent the companies from advertising cigarettes to Singaporeans. Other strategies can be used to advertise such as use of Malaysian television to advertise into Singapore. To launch a new brand of cigarettes under PMI, a non-tobacco product, such as beverage or coolers can be used. Other creative strategies such as innovative packaging and vivid obvious in the face display units at retail outlets can be explored to overcome the restrictions. Philip Morris experimented with developing a prototype cigarette using aroma and sweetened tipping paper to target the young and health conscious. This idea could be implemented in the next few years. Future of the company Looking ahead, the company expects the growth prospect to continue in the year 2014 as well. The company being able to face the macroeconomic challenges of changing currency values and strict government laws and taxes, will continue its workings in the same way in order to keep up with the changing world scenarios. The company further expects development of some new and innovative products in the coming years and continue their worldwide restructuring program. Philip Morris International plans next year to enter the electronic cigarettebusiness, a $2 billion-plus global market recognized by the maker of Marlboro cigarettes as its “greatest growth opportunity”. The world’s largest listedtobaccocompany will launch a varied range of products, called “Reduced-Risk”. Year 2014 will be a key investment year behind the concept of Reduced-Risk products. Profit margins have gone up since the last 20 years because the company is able to reduce its cost and use the savings for further reinvestment in order to increase the sales. Looking at the current trend the sales of the company are expected to increase at a rate of 8% annually in the next 5 years. PMI is able to grow tremendously in the emerging markets combining it with a package of new innovative, different and consumer appealing products, implementation of cost reconstruction with new ideas, the market share of the company can boom further in the upcoming years. Conclusion Singapore has one of the strongest tobacco control legislation in the world. In In Singapore Philip Morris has the largest share with 60% of the cigarette market. British American Tobacco (BAT) has 21%, Japan Tobacco International (Thong Haut) 17%, with other small companies having 2%.Land devoted to tobacco cultivation in Singapore dwindled over the years from 365 hectares in 1970 to nil today. Singapore’s cigarette exports have increased from 1550 million sticks in 1970 to 27 562 million sticks in 2010, indicating Singapore’s role as a cigarette processing, production, and export centre for the Asia Pacific region. The industry was concerned that “Singapore has become the world’s most hostile environment for our industryhaving one of the world’s most restricted markets”. Having said that Singapore’s cigarette industry, especially Phillip Morris International is booming in economic terms. And one of the major reasons for this progress is that an aggressive industry pricing has also made Singapore the most profitable market in the world. The company have a committed team of people concentrating on keeping the brand image, innovating the products, and maintaining efficiency and effectiveness. In order to become stronger on the ground the company have undertaken activities such as shared service centres which led to an improved cost structure leading to a reduction of redundancies. Bibliography Ministry of Trade and Industry. (2011, february 17). Retrieved from Inflation in Singapore.aspx studymode. (2012, december). Retrieved from studymode. (2013, january 01). Retrieved from Towards tobacco-free Singapore. (2011, february 26). Retrieved from tobaccofreesingapore: Trading Economics. (2013, february 17). Retrieved from 1

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