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GI & Endocrine questions

GI & Endocrine questions.

I’m working on a nursing discussion question and need an explanation to help me learn.

500 words, APA style, use at least 2 academic sources Gastrointestinal Function: R.H. is a 74-year-old black woman, who presents to the family practice clinic for a scheduled appointment. She complains of feeling bloated and constipated for the past month, sometimes going an entire week with only one bowel movement. Until this episode, she has been very regular all of her life, having a bowel movement every day or every other day. She reports straining most of the time and it often takes her 10 minutes at a minimum to initiate a bowel movement. Stools have been extremely hard. She denies pain during straining. A recent colonoscopy was negative for tumors or other lesions. She has not yet taken any medications to provide relief for her constipation. Furthermore, she reports frequent heartburn (3–4 times each week), most often occuring soon after retiring to bed. She uses three pillows to keep herself in a more upright position during sleep. On a friend’s advice, she purchased a package of over-the-counter aluminum hydroxide tablets to help relieve the heartburn. She has had some improvement since she began taking the medicine. She reports using naproxen as needed for arthritic pain her hands and knees. She states that her hands and knees are extremely stiff when she rises in the morning. Because her arthritis has been getting worse, she has stopped taking her daily walks and now gets very little exercise. Case Study QuestionsIn your own words define constipation and name the risk factors that might lead to develop constipation. List recommendations you would give to a patient who is suffering from constipation. You might use a previous experience you might have.Based on the clinical manifestations on R.H. case study, name and explain signs and symptoms presented that are compatible with the constipation diagnosis. Complement your list with signs and symptoms not present on the case study.Sometimes as an associate diagnosis and a complication, patients with constipation could have anemia. Would you consider that possibility based on the information provided on the case study?Endocrine Function: C.B. is a significantly overweight, 48-year-old woman from the Winnebago Indian tribe who had high blood sugar and cholesterol levels three years ago but did not follow up with a clinical diagnostic work-up. She had participated in the state’s annual health screening program and noticed that her fasting blood sugar was 141 and her cholesterol was 225. However, she felt “perfectly fine at the time” and could not afford any more medications. Except for a number of “female infections,” she has felt fine until recently. Today, she presents to the Indian Hospital general practitioner complaining that her left foot has been weak and numb for nearly three weeks and that the foot is difficult to flex. She denies any other weakness or numbness at this time. However, she reports that she has been very thirsty lately and gets up more often at night to urinate. She has attributed these symptoms to the extremely warm weather and drinking more water to keep hydrated. She has gained a total of 65 pounds since her last pregnancy 14 years ago, 15 pounds in the last 6 months alone. Case Study QuestionsIn which race and ethnic groups is DM more prevalent? Based on C.B. clinical manifestations, please compile the signs and symptoms that she is exhibiting that are compatible with the Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 diagnosis.If C.B. develops a bacterial pneumonia on her right lower lobe, how would you expect her Glycemia values to be? Explain and support your answer.What would be the best initial therapy non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic to be recommended to C.B
GI & Endocrine questions

What is the purpose of the organization?. I’m stuck on a Nursing question and need an explanation.

This week you have read about nursing organizations, political activism and advocacy, and understanding health care systems. Which are all important parts of nursing excellence. For this assignment, you need to select two of the organizations presented in the lecture (PowerPoint) and provide the following information for each organization (in your own words): Two organization ( the joint commission and world health organization).

What is the purpose of the organization?
What impact does the organization have on nursing practice?
How does the organization play a role in nursing education?
How does the organization play a role in nursing research?
What part of Nursing Excellence does the organization provide? Political activism? Advocacy? Resource for Health care system?
Would you provide support to the organization as a nurse? Why or Why not?

Must include introduction and conclusion for the discussion

APA format

Your initial post must be posted before you can view and respond to colleagues, must contain minimum of two (2) references, in addition to examples from your personal experiences to augment the topic. The goal is to make your post interesting and engaging so others will want to read/respond to it. Synthesize and summarize from your resources in order to avoid the use of direct quotes, which can often be dry and boring. No direct quotes are allowed in the discussion board posts.

References:

Initial Post: Minimum of two (2) total references: one (1) from required course materials (Policy and Politics in Nursing and Health Care,Elsevier Saunders, 2015, 7th edition)
and one (1) from peer-reviewed references.

Words Limits

Initial Post: Minimum 200 words excluding references (approximately one (1) page)

What is the purpose of the organization?

The candidate provides a paper regarding the chosen issue of the use of multimedia in an educational application. A narrow focus is drawn from the critiques. A detailed lesson plan that follows best practices is included as an appendix. Issue to discuss: Why do we want to use multimedia for teaching?
Abstract Plenty of people consider it sometimes quite difficult to understand others’ motives, intentions, and behaviors that lead to misunderstanding. The theory of the fundamental attribution asserts that in social situations, the following sequence is noted: a person observes the behavior of another person, makes a logical conclusion about the intentions of this person based on perceived actions and then assigns to him or her some hidden motives that are consistent with this behavior. This paper proposes the study of the attribution theory in relation to suicide, focusing on the qualitative research method and young people as the target population. The random sampling method will be used to ensure that every respondent will have an equal opportunity to be involved in the study. NVivo version 10 will be applied to analyze the collected data. Introduction The fundamental attribution theory considers the effects of perception, through which people assess the behaviors of others. Behavior may be related to either internal causes or external ones, and it is not always clear which motives may drive a person’s actions and reactions. For example, a person may feel sick, and as a result, he or she may behave aggressively in a way that reflects the external cause. In the case where the person’s character lends itself to aggressive behavior, it is an internal cause. This paper will propose the importance of exploring the fundamental attribution theory with regard to suicide, providing a review of key concepts, a literature review, and a methodology for a future study. Literature Review Essentials of Fundamental Attribution Theory The behavior of others and the inability to properly understand and adequately respond can often cause serious psychological problems. Lankford (2013) stated that internal causes are called dispositional attribution, while external ones compose situational attribution. Most often, people attribute the reasons for the behavior of other people to internal traits. The search for the causes of others’ failures and bad behavior is usually attributed to features of their personality. If people are attractive and lucky, the reasons for their success are typically attributed to the favorable circumstances of the external environment (Funder, 2014). This is a fundamental attribution error (FAE). On the other hand, if a person experiences failure, he or she is inclined to align it with circumstances. If a person succeeds, he or she tends to consider it as a merit of his or her personality. This is the motivational error of attribution. Bandura pays attention to the fact that people can also learn in the absence of external reinforcement yet as a result of observation, reading, or receiving information about the behavior of other people (the cognitive component) (Funder, 2014). As noted by Clinkenbeard (2012), the fundamental attribution theory assumes that “people judge situations through making attributions to three dimensions of the cause: locus (the cause is located internal vs. external), stability (if the cause changes during a period of time), and controllability (the level of control of the cause)” (p. 628). Moreover, the author asserted that people differ from each other in the way they assess the role of external and internal factors in their behavior. The internal factors are given more importance by the internalities, and external, by externalities. Suicide and Attribution Suicide is willful self-harm with a fatal outcome that is inherent exclusively in humans and occurs in all cultures, especially as a popular act of performance in some youth subcultures. People who decide to commit suicide usually suffer from severe mental pain and are in a state of stress caused by the impossibility of coping with their problems. According to data provided by the World Health Organization (WHO), suicide is one of the twenty key causes of mortality worldwide, taking the lives of one million people annually. At least one suicide occurs every forty seconds. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Schneidman, an American psychologist who is regarded as the pioneer of the contemporary theory of suicide, describes several of the most serious characteristics of suicide, as noted by Lankford (2013). This includes a feeling of unbearable heartache, a sense of isolation from society, a sense of hopelessness and helplessness, and the view that death is the only way to solve all problems. Studies related to the manner of processing information by a person emphasize the role of so-called inflexible thinking (for example, life is terrible, and a reasonable alternative to it is death), which leads to the ostensible impossibility of working on solutions to problems. Many studies have indicated that suicide symbolizes a cry for help as well as an effort to draw attention to an individual’s problems. Among the primary reasons that lead to suicidal behavior may be an unconstructive way out of a crisis. A lack of basic trust in the world, social pessimism, a negative attitude toward the surrounding world, the perception of the world as hostile, and inadequate perception of one’s relationships with others are the characteristic attributive features of suicide and suicidal ideation. In addition, expressing an extra-punitive style of causal attribution and internal monolog such as “you are all unworthy me” makes it possible to establish a connection between suicide and the fundamental attribution theory. According to the sociological theory of suicide by Durkheim (2013), suicidal thoughts appear primarily as a result of the rupture of the interpersonal connections of an individual and subsequent alienation from the social group to which he or she belongs. According to this view, there are three main types of suicide. The first type reflects that many acts of suicide are selfish, and self-destruction in these cases occurs due to the fact that a person feels alienated and isolated from society: family, friends, or any other group. The second type, anomic suicide, is usually caused by a person’s failure to adapt to changes in society, leading to a disruption of the relationship between the individual and a social group. The above type of suicide greatly increases during socio-economic crises but persists even during periods of social prosperity, when a rapid increase in well-being may cause the need to adapt to the new and the different from previous conditions of life. Durkheim (2013) identifies the last type of suicide as altruistic. This is suicide that is committed by a person in response to the authority of a society or group suppressing his or her own ego-identity, and he sacrifices himself or herself for the good of society or for the sake of some social, religious, or philosophical idea. There is some evidence that the dissemination of facts regarding suicides of famous people can serve as a trigger for the suicides of others, especially among individuals aged between 13 to 21 years. Taking into account that young people have access to the internet and news portals, it becomes easy for them to learn about such suicides. In particular, it is important not to draw attention to news about a celebrity suicide in educational institutions; the alternative is to risk appearing to support suicide as a new, popular trend and an ordinary way to avoid problems. The research questions to be answered in the proposed study are as follows: Research Question 1. What are the key attributive points related to suicide? We will write a custom Proposal on Suicide and Fundamental Attribution Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Research Question 2. How is it possible to identify whether a person is prone to suicide, focusing on the fundamental attributive theory? Based on the research questions, the hypothesis is that the level of awareness of the problem and attitudes of the population can significantly improve the current situation. Methodology The fundamental attribution error (FAE) tendency will be explored to identify suicidal ideation in young people. The study aims to focus on a structural-functional theoretical framework that was elaborated by Durkheim and helps in understanding the social system by explaining its important elements (Funder et al., 2014). Within the above framework, it is possible to describe why a person acts in a certain way or why people engage in certain relations and perform the actions they do. A researcher’s stance is to carefully specify all the concepts and tendencies and to relate the study results to the existing evidence. The true experimental study design will be used for the proposed research. Sample Considering that the proposed study aims at the assessment of the behaviors of young people, participants will include adults between 18 and 26 years who are interested in participating in the project. In particular, the participants are to be invited through a series of advertisements using social networks. Young people of differing gender, ethnicity, and culture will be interviewed regarding their approaches to explaining the so-called bad days. In general, it seems appropriate to interview approximately 60 people and that a smaller number of interviewees would contribute to erroneous findings. The potential respondents will be offered the opportunity to join the study voluntarily. The participants will be asked to participate in individual 30-minute semi-structured video interviews revealing their perceptions regarding the theme. This will be performed via random sampling of online community members with the help of Skype software. The interviews will be digitally recorded using an audio device and then transcribed. The participants will be divided into two groups: control and experimental. Data Collection The data type to be collected to test the hypothesis will focus on demographic questionnaires and video interviews. The proposed study will use the simple random sampling technique for the purpose of identifying the number of interviewees to be included in the sample. The rationale for the choice of the simple random sampling technique is based on the fact that such an approach is suitable for ensuring inclusivity in the study sample. More to the point, Funder et al. (2014) claimed that the use of the random sampling technique is appropriate due to the fact that it provides study units and people with an equal chance of being involved in the study sample. The reliability of the results will be ensured by the adequacy of the methods used, the representativeness of the sample, the mutual verification of the results obtained by different methods, and the statistical processing of the findings of the study. No personal information will be collected, either in written notes or on the audio recordings. Furthermore, no other data such as observations or artifacts will be taken from the participants. No deception of any kind will be used, and the participants will have full knowledge of the purpose of the research in advance. Data Analysis Data will be processed and organized properly to analyze the collected qualitative data. In particular, typical responses will be grouped according to the issues raised in the course of interviews. The data will be coded based on themes stated in the research questions. Data will be processed and organized using NVivo version 10, which helps to analyze qualitative data (Funder et al., 2014) and allows the researcher to group typical responses and discover themes raised in interview data. Not sure if you can write a paper on Suicide and Fundamental Attribution Theory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The data analysis will help to specify possible changes and will either support or refute the anticipated outcomes that can be discussed with a reasonable degree of reliability. The findings of the proposed study will be interpreted and presented to readers, supported by all necessary comments, tables, and diagrams to create visibility and make the research more comprehensible. Expected Results It is expected that the prospective study would contribute to an increased awareness of the problem among the population and attract the attention of social agencies to the problem that, in turn, is likely to lead to the establishment of adequate measures and improvement of the current situation. The research questions are to be clearly answered and are expected to reveal what is being studied in detail. As for limitations, it should be noted that the fact the research includes a part of the online community cannot be overgeneralized to the whole country, yet some appropriate conclusions can be drawn, and some implications can be identified. In other words, the results of the study would be sufficient and credible enough to be generalized to the broader understanding of the problem. References Clinkenbeard, P. R. (2012). Motivation and gifted students: Implications of theory and research. Psychology in the Schools, 49(7), 622-630. Durkheim, E. (2013). The rules of sociological method: Selected texts on sociology and its method. New York, NY: Free Press. Funder, D. C. (2014). Weighing dispositional and situational factors in accounting for suicide terrorism. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 37(4), 367-368. Funder, D. C., Levine, J. M., Mackie, D. M., Morf, C. C., Sansone, C., Vazire, S.,

MBA 705 Managerial Appl Portfolio

MBA 705 Managerial Appl Portfolio. I’m studying for my Business class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study?

MAP Section Headings and Content:
I. Executive Summary (2 – 3 pages): Although this will appear at the start of your MAP, please prepare this at the end as it is a summary of your portfolio’s highlights. Please include an Acknowledgement paragraph in this section.
II. Resume and Career Autobiography (2-3 pages – each part (4-6 total pages)): Include your resume here. Part 2: Auto bio: Also create a career autobiography: a separate narrative version of the employment portion of your resume. If any personal elements were important in your career development note in auto-bio as well. Focus on important professional accomplishments, skills acquisition, leadership roles, and career maturity.
III. Formal Educational Experiences (5 pages): Please include educational experiences you’ve done a) For credit, b) Not for credit and/or c) Employer sponsored. While some of these were not strictly “business related,” they may have contributed to your career and leadership development so please include them here For each of the above educational experiences explored, focus on the learning you experienced, not its “syllabus.” Questions to respond to include:
– What were the key learning moments or activities?
– How have you grown or matured professionally as a result of these activities?
– Are there overall “themes” or directions that emerge from these experiences?
IV. MBA Curriculum Highpoints & Milestones (3-5 pages): Include a ½ to 1 page summary of learning reflections for five important assignments from several different courses in the MBA program which you feel illustrate your increased performance level and/or skills and/or accomplishments. Moreover, in the Appendix,post each paper as written.
Please use this section in part to explain where your “Voice” (from Covey’s Eighth Habit) was at the beginning of this MBA program and where it is now? How has it changed? How and where are you expressing your new voice?

Please also spend a little time looking back on your life and then into your future, and then use your reflections on this to explain how you feel this MBA program (has already or) can be a very valuable bridge between your past and your future?
Note: Please post the edited assignments you reflect on in this section in the MAP Appendix.

V. Leadership-Learning Experiences (3-5 pages): What leadership roles have you had in the past three to five years and what have you learned from these? Describe and then reflect on your experiences in at least one leadership role you’ve had professionally and/or one where you volunteer (or have volunteered—this could be in the community, at your place of worship, etc.). Leadership or participation in events such as those that follow below are evidence of a student’s contribution to their profession and/or community, and in working on the advancement of their career. These opportunities include, but are not limited to:

Attending a national, regional, or state professional conference.
Delivering a formal presentation or (co-)author an article in an area of professional interest.
Organizing an educational or professional meeting, symposium, or colloquium.
Serving on a University policy committee.
Participating on a task force or special purpose committee in a professional setting.
Serving in a leadership position for a professional organization, non-profit board of directors, etc.
Participating in a research project with a college or university faculty member.
Assisting in the teaching of an upper-division course in a content area related to your profession.
Achieving certification in an area of professional interest.

VI. Industry Analysis (IA). Total of 25-30 pp. double-spaced pages in which you can choose which aspects of your industry are the most important to you. To do this, while you’ll want to analyze the history, current state and future of the industry you’ve focused on, you can decide which of these you want to write about. You should scope a particular aspect of the industry that you want to research as well. Your mentor will take your through this scoping in one of the sessions.
Below are possible questions regarding your industry which you can use as a guideline to write up your analysis (pick the ones which are most important to your IA). Note can also develop your IA using another method of your own choosing (there are a couple of alternative ways of structuring this in the literature on IAs). Choose what works best for you. Note: In this section you should weave a story about your analysis of your industry which should be based on the research you have done about it. Also, any information that comes from an outside source needs to be properly cited in APA format! This necessitates a properly APA formatted References page in your MAP.
History:

What are important events in your industry’s history? [My suggestion is you provide a timeline summary of this in your Appendix. Whether you choose to reference this is up to you, but you may want to reference the less commonly known aspects of your Industry.]
What economic, environmental, legal, political, social and/or technological forces have significantly shaped your industry in the past? As part of this, you could possibly identify 2-3 major technological discontinuities your industry has faced.
What were your industry’s past drivers?
What are the present drivers of your industry?
What are 3 key things you learn about your industry from using Porter’s Five Forces Strategy framework?
Who are the key players in your industry?
Which players would you bet on as your industry moves into the future?
What do you think some of the future industry drivers of your IA will be?
My suggestion is you focus on just one or two of the following:

Present:
Future:

Using Scenario Planning, what are 3 possible future scenarios for your industry? (I.e. what do you think will come of this industry as it moves into the future?)
What do you feel is your industry’s current “evolutionary trajectory”?
What are 2-3 of the “Blue Ocean” opportunities for your industry?
Do you want to be a part of this industry – is there a place that would align to your goals in the future.

and/or
and/or
VII. Conclusion: (2-5 pages)

Summary of your FIELD WORK from the Skills Assessment. Take a post SKILLS ASSESSMENT. Compare to your Semester One Skills Assessment. How have you evolved? It is possible you may see a decline based on a better understanding of the material and you position. That is fine since it is about knowing more of yourself and where you add value. Where do you see your next steps?
Include Action Plan development of the skill(s) you enhanced during the field work and sessions with your mentor. (What have you developed over the course of the MBA 705 sessions with your mentor? – your mentor will provide details on the questions to think about for this section) How successful have you been in developing the skill(s)? What will you do to fill the gaps?
Provide some examples of how you have been able to use your enhanced skills.
D.What has this journey meant to you in bridging your pre-MBA past to your reflective post-MBA future? How will it help you to self-management your career and your life?
E.Who helped and supported your efforts through this journey (acknowledge their support)? Who do you wish to thank for supporting your efforts in this demanding effort?

VII. References
VIII. Appendices (as needed)-including the Milestone papers noted in Section IV above
MBA 705 Managerial Appl Portfolio

West Chester University Processing of Welfare Case Study Response

cheap assignment writing service West Chester University Processing of Welfare Case Study Response.

Please watch and respond to the questions posed in the presentation. Read the case assigned this week to have a better understanding of his presentation, which will impact on your response to the presentation questions. Once a semester, students will be required to design a lecture that analyzes the assigned case. This case study analysis should provide an in-depth and a critical review of the problems in the case. The presenter must utilize the assigned readings of the week and provide practical solutions to the case. Presenter should also raise important and thought provoking questions to spark discussion of the case by members within the presenters group. All other students are responsible for watching and responding to the weekly video provided by the case presenter while using the required readings in their response. ObjectivesUnderstanding the relationships among the many groups—public, private, and nonprofit—that drive the effectiveness of public programs and affect the work of the public managerLearning about the federal system of government and the complexities of intergovernmental relations that result from federalismUnderstanding how the relationship and power division between federal and state governments has evolvedExploring the issues associated with privatization and contracting and public-private partnershipsUnderstanding the unique challenges of nonprofit organizationsOther readings:Shafritz, J. M., & Hyde, A. C. (2016). Classics of public administration. New York, NY: Cengage.Bureaucracy, Mark WeberBureaucratic Structure and Personality, Robert K. Merton.Organizations of the Future, Warren Bennis.The Life Cycle of Bureaus, Anthony Downs.Street-Level Bureaucracy: The Critical Role of Street-Level Bureaucrats, Michael Lipsky.Managing State Government Operations: Changing Visions of Staff Agencies, Michael Barzelay & Babak J. Armajani.
West Chester University Processing of Welfare Case Study Response

Should the UK Switch off FM Radio in the next 5 Years and Replace It with DAB?

Should the uk Switch off fm radio in the next 5 years and replace it with DAB: ABSTRACT The United Kingdom (UK) has been one of the leading countries in the development of Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) over the years (Lax, n.d.), however it is still uncertain when radio broadcasting will migrate and go completely digital. When the DAB project began back in 1986 (Lax, n.d.), the major broadcasting companies and policy makers were all voicing their options and promoting DAB as the natural successor to analogue. However, we are in 2019 and DAB still haven’t taken over radio industry like predicted, even with a lot of backing from the UK government and the major broadcaster in the UK, the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). It was anticipated that by 2015 most of the radio stations (commercial and public service) will end their analogue transmission and will broadcast solely on digital platform (Lax, n.d.), and all that will remain on the analogue coverage would be the small community and commercial stations; there are many reasons why digital radio hasn’t taken over yet, but these smaller community broadcasters have their part to play. Over the pass 24 years a lot of time and money have been spent on making DAB happen, however with the development of the internet should of the broadcaster looked here to bring Europe into the broadcasting digital age. INTRODUCTION This assignment will look at why DAB radio was developed and will decide if it is feasible to switch off analogue broadcasting all together and go completely digital. It will look at why the development of digital radio was slow to take off and why it hasn’t hit the anticipated deadline of 2015; also, it will look at what the future of radio broadcasting and is there an alternative to DAB. Eureka 147 (DAB) The Eureka projects was launched by 17 countries and the European commission to ensure that Europe’s hi-tech industries remain competitive in the worlds market (Rudin, 2016), this was because the Japanese and Chinese economies were over shadowing Europe and were the market leaders. Eureka 147 is just the 147 development that was commissioned by the project and it asked the European entertainment electronics industry to saturate the market with new audio broadcasting units, this is how DAB was born. However, at first it didn’t go as planned as only one-third of the organisations who chose to develop this concept, could have been considered to be involved in producing or regulating radio services; one of the first leading companies to taking the Eureka project on was Bosch, and it was the Bosch managing director Dr Hamed Amor, who at a conference in Brussels called ‘Radio in the Digital Era’ revealed the importance of this DAB project, and that it requires political involvement to ensure its success (Rudin, 2016). Dr Amor was saying, that for Europe to remain competitive in this digitalised communications market, DAB needs to be considered in EU politics, this way it can be standardised and successful. The big break though came in the UK when the 1996 broadcasting act was authorised, what this at did was to give large parts of the regulation programme content to the licence’s holders, and the radio authority’s remit lies with who the owners of the licences where and not the content they delivered on their stations. The UK has been and still are one of the leading developers of the DAB system in Europe. DAB (EUREKA 147) v FM (ANALOGUE) RADIO The way in which the AM and FM radio works is that the information being transmitted is in the form of an FM/AM analogue radio wave, the problem with this is that it can only send a certain amount of information though these waves, which means the audio quality isn’t great; back during the 80’s and early 90’s people wouldn’t notice the poor audio sound, however with the audio industry becoming more and more digitalised then people today are becoming accustom to quality audio. The analogue radio waves are very sensitive to noise and other electronic devices and the audio output can be interrupted or distorted; also, the waves can bounce of tall building and hills which again will disrupt the signal giving a poor sound quality see figure 1 (Antonine-education, n.d.). Another problem with AM and FM radio is that the frequency bands they operate on, are becoming very saturated which is leaving little room for additional radio services to broadcast on the existing analogue technology. Figure 1 – AM/FM Radio Waves Shadowing Moving into the digital world, instead of using analogue radio waves, with DAB the radio signal is transmitted digital, this means the information is broken down into ones and zeros. So, at the DAB transmitter drive the information gets broken down into a digital signal, and as the DAB receiver, receives this signal it rearranges so that the zeros and ones make an audio sound see figure 2 (ofcom, 2016). It also sends plenty of extra information over, this will allow the receiver to fill in any missing information which means DAB radio does not suffer from the same signal disruptions as the analogue signals. Also, unlike conventional analogue broadcasting, where only one radio station can transmit on a single frequency channel, with the DAB system several radio programmes can transmit on the same frequency channel, this means that where there was no room for new or additional radio stations to broadcast, with the use of multiplexing more transmissions can happen on the same frequency band which in turn opens up the radio waves for more broadcasters. Figure 2 – Small Scale DAB System Block BENEFITS OF DAB RADIO People in the broadcasting industry believe DAB radio is the biggest advancement in radio broadcasting since the introduction of the FM stereo. However the general consensus is that DAB do have the potential to give listeners an improved listening experience. Even though quality of sound is one of the biggest benefit DAB radio has to offer there are a few more, these are (Bower, 1998): High Quality Digital Radio – Because the way DAB radio transmit and receives its digital signal, the user gets a higher quality sound with less interference. Efficient use of the limited radio frequencies – Because the DAB system can broadcast several different stations over the same frequency band, the limited radio space has now just become less congested. More Listening Choice – Because the use of the multiplexes more stations can be broadcasted which means a greater number of specialist programs. Each multiple can broadcast five or more high quality audio services. Easy Tuning – The DAB system allows for easy to use receivers, this means listeners can tune into stations by name instead of frequency. Added Value Features – The DAB system allows enhancements to existing radio services, and digital radio are able to pause and rewind live radio, it can also added text and still images. THE UK’S EXPERIENCE Back In 1995 when the UK first broadcasted its first DAB services the Eureka system had great potential, not just for the government but for everyone. It had great potential for the government because they were struggling to share out the limited radio spectrum to the mass of conflicting interest; this means that because broadcasters can transmit several programmes on the same frequency using multiplexing, it means the government has a greater network that can be shared out. It also got great potential for broadcaster and manufactures; this is because the DAB system means that broadcasters can offer more services of a greater quality; and for broadcasters to do this, manufactures have to sell large amounts of the DAB receivers. Lastly the system gives the listeners an overall experience by delivering a greater quality of sound. In September 1995 the BBC was awarded a licence for their first multiplex, however take off was slow, this was down to the digital receivers costing in the excess of £800 and the smaller community broadcasters unease of the system. Over the years though, the cost of digital receiver’s are now affordable and the legislation of broadcasters has relaxed, but the community broadcasters are still not happy; this is because they serve a limited amount of people and the DAB multiplexes cover a large geographically area, and it would not be cost effective for these community broadcasters to migrate over. However, the government recognised this and set up a small-scale DAB trails, which turned out to be successful (Ofcom, 2016). The trails were run to potentially provide a low-cost way for these smaller broadcasters to broadcast their stations over a single DAB transmission instead of using a multiplex; this was done using relatively cheap transmission equipment and the use of the freely available ‘open source’ software. Even with these trails the DAB system still comes under criticism, to give the listener the CD sound quality DAB promises it needs to transmit at 192kB/s, however because of the different services be transmitted over a single multiplex, each transmission is limited to between 32 – 128kB/s (Digital Radio Insider, 2013). This is roughly the same quality as analogue transmission, so even though DAB can provide a higher quality sound the listeners are not hearing. Before a decision is made on whether a date is set for a complete digital switchover, the Government has set the following criteria: When 50% of all radio listening is via digital platforms; and When national DAB2 coverage is comparable to FM, and local DAB reaches 90% of the population and all major roads. In 2017 Ofcom published its eighth annual digital progress radio report (Ofcom, 2017), and in it, it shows that the UK has nearly met this criteria, but the results vary from each nation, for instance the coverage is a lot greater in England then in Scotland, this could be because there are a lot more remote towns and villages in Scotland which, like discussed before might not be able to afford the high transmission cost of the DAB services. Also the results vary when it comes to hitting the 50% of the UK population listening via a digital platform, even though the UK has nearly hit this figure in England the overall percentage is 60% compared to Northern Ireland who is only at 31%, again this could be because how much greater coverage England has over the over 3 nations (Ofcom, 2017). Cars are now coming from the manufactures with a DAB receiver already build in, this means as the older cars are being replace due to natural wastage, the number of people who are listening to the radio via a digital platform will increase. THE FUTURE OF RADIO When the Eureka project was first assembled back in 1986 the revelation of the world wide web had not started, however since the birth of the internet by CERN in 1990, it has kept growing from strength to strength. In the early years to access the internet a fixed-point connection was required, so listening to the radio in moving vehicles was a problem and the case for terrestrial transmission was still strong. Over the years as the internet was maturing and the development of Wi-Fi hotspots, 3G and 4G, streaming radio broadcasts into cars have become a reality, soon with the introduction of 5G to the UK and the download speed that comes with that, the requirement for analogue and DAB radio is getting killed off. CONCLUSION The Eureka project was established to ensure that the European electronics industry stayed competitive within the world market as the world was entering the digital age. The UK has always been one of the major countries to take this project and bring it to fruition, however from the first DAB broadcast in 1995 to present, there has been many obstacles in the way. When looking back over the past 24 years the UK is nearly in a position to set a date for turning off FM broadcasting, this is because all the criticism that DAB has faced over the years are being answered; the worry for community broadcasters not being able to afford to migrate over onto a complex and expensive multiplex is being sorted with the trails of the small scale DAB, this then will naturally increase the DAB coverage and hit the 90% criteria set by the government. Also, with natural wastage the FM radios will faze out and be replaced by digital ones, this will ensure that the 50% of the population will be listening via a digital platform. The UK have never been in a better position for a digital switchover, and with 2-years of notice, before an official switch off then yes, the UK should switch off analogue broadcasting within the next 5 years as DAB transmission is meeting the government criteria and will by the time it happens will not effect that many people. However, in the next 5 years it might not just be analogue broadcasting that could go, with the roll out of 5G this year there might not be a requirement for DAB radio. At the time the Eureka project was put together a requirement was there for DAB, but meanwhile the internet have developed more rapidly in a shorter amount time and this is where the future of radio lies. BIBLIOGRAPHY Antonine-education, n.d. Physics GCSE. [Online] Available at: https://www.antonine-education.co.uk/pages/physics_GCSE/unit_1/core_09_waves/core_9.htm[Accessed 08 08 2019]. Arthur, C., 2006. Is digital radio really better than analogue. The Guardian, 17 Jan. Bower, A. J., 1998. Digital Radio – The Eureka 147 DAB System. Electronic Engineering, 04.pp. 55 – 56. Digital Radio Insider, 2013. DAB Radio Sound Quality Inferior to FM. [Online] Available at: https://digitalradioinsider.blogspot.com/2013/11/dab-radio-sound-quality-inferior-to-fm.html[Accessed 14 08 2019]. Jauert, P., n.d. The future of radio revisited , s.l.: white rose online. Kozamernik, F., 1995. DAB – Radio now and for the future, s.l.: s.n. Lax, S., n.d. DAB the future of radio, s.l.: white rose online. Lax, S., n.d. Digital switchover: the Uk expirience, s.l.: white rose online. ofcom, 2016. Small scale DAB trails. [Online] Available at: www.ofcom.org.uk/_data/assets/pdf_file/0024/91374/annex-2-tech-backround.pdf[Accessed 08 08 2019]. Ofcom, 2016. Small scale DAB trials, UK: UK Goverment. Ofcom, 2017. The Digital Radio Report, UK: The UK Goverment. Rudin, R., 2016. The development of DAB digital radio in the UK. Convergence, 18 Feb, 12(2), pp. 163 – 178. REFERENCES Antonine-education, n.d. Physics GCSE. [Online] Available at: https://www.antonine-education.co.uk/pages/physics_GCSE/unit_1/core_09_waves/core_9.htm[Accessed 08 08 2019]. Arthur, C., 2006. Is digital radio really better than analogue. The Guardian, 17 Jan. Bower, A. J., 1998. Digital Radio – The Eureka 147 DAB System. Electronic Engineering, 04.pp. 55 – 56. Digital Radio Insider, 2013. DAB Radio Sound Quality Inferior to FM. [Online] Available at: https://digitalradioinsider.blogspot.com/2013/11/dab-radio-sound-quality-inferior-to-fm.html[Accessed 14 08 2019]. Jauert, P., n.d. The future of radio revisited , s.l.: white rose online. Kozamernik, F., 1995. DAB – Radio now and for the future, s.l.: s.n. Lax, S., n.d. DAB the future of radio, s.l.: white rose online. Lax, S., n.d. Digital switchover: the Uk expirience, s.l.: white rose online. ofcom, 2016. Small scale DAB trails. [Online] Available at: www.ofcom.org.uk/_data/assets/pdf_file/0024/91374/annex-2-tech-backround.pdf[Accessed 08 08 2019]. Ofcom, 2016. Small scale DAB trials, UK: UK Goverment. Ofcom, 2017. The Digital Radio Report, UK: The UK Goverment. Rudin, R., 2016. The development of DAB digital radio in the UK. Convergence, 18 Feb, 12(2), pp. 163 – 178.

For this week’s response, consider chapters three through five as crucial moments in the novel’s structure, as much as

For this week’s response, consider chapters three through five as crucial moments in the novel’s structure, as much as these chapters introduce the main characters of the novel as well as foreshadow the relationships that will develop as the novel’s story unfolds. What do you notice about Miles’ first impressions of Silas, Zenobia, Hollingsworth, and Priscilla? What opinions does he seem have about these characters? Which of these characters seemed interesting to you? How, in his recollections, does Miles’ prejudices, proclivities, and personality traits become evident in the way he expresses his initial thoughts about these characters? Why, for instance, do you think he has such reservations about Hollingsworth, looks down upon Silas’ rustic person, and seems intimidated by Zenobia’s femininity? Mine you remember not an summary