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George Orwell’s “Why I Write” Critical Essay

George Orwell’s “Why I Write” Critical Essay. In his essay “Why I Write” (1946), George Orwell presents the discussion of his development as a writer. The essay is autobiographical. It can be divided into three parts. The author’s childhood is described in the first part of the essay. The author pays attention to his first experiences as a writer and notes that he always knew about his future as a writer. Orwell discusses his early writing experiences in detail and accentuates the progress which led him to the profession of writer. It is important to pay attention to the fact that Orwell always had the creative imagination, and he was sure that the other persons also could imagine their lives in vivid pictures and stories. The second part is the discussion of the writer’s attributes or motives. Orwell states that there are four great motives for writing which are typical for any writer. Orwell discusses sheer egoism, the writer’s aesthetic enthusiasm, pays attention to the historical impulse, and focuses on the political purpose. In spite of the fact these motives can be presented in different proportions, all of them can be used to characterize a writer. The third part of the essay reflects Orwell’s personal motives in writing and the development of his style which is rather “public-spirited” because Orwell wanted to reflect the social issues in writing (Orwell par. 15). Following Orwell’s motives, it is possible to state that all writing is political to some extent because the political purpose is always present in writing. According to Orwell, “no book is genuinely free from political bias” (Orwell par. 9). That is why, writing can be discussed as political in general sense because accentuating definite social aspects, the author always refer to the political background in detail or generally, with references to the purpose of writing. Orwell states that writers intend to “alter other peoples’ idea of the kind of society” (Orwell par. 9). Thus, it is possible to conclude with references to Orwell’s ideas that writers also have the intentions which can be discussed as political ones. In his essay, Orwell uses rhetorical appeals to persuade the audience and realize the purpose of writing to present the story of becoming a writer with pointing the reasons. Ethos is realized with references to the fact that George Orwell is the famous writer that is why his discussion about the writer’s motives can be considered as credible. Moreover, Orwell distinguishes between “serious writers” and their motives and journalists in order to support the reliability of his statement (Orwell par. 6). Pathos is presented in vivid descriptions of the author’s first writing experiences, and the emotional appeal is obvious from the first lines of the essay when Orwell stresses, “from a very early age … I knew that when I grew up I should be a writer” (Orwell par. 1). Furthermore, the author accentuates that writing is a kind of challenge and draws the audience’s attention to the fact that writing is a “horrible” and “exhausting” struggle which resembles the “painful illness” (Orwell par. 15). Moreover, Orwell uses logos in order to provide his considerations with necessary reasoning and states that the background information is helpful for presenting the complex picture of the writer’s development (Orwell par. 5). The next method is the depiction of autobiographical situations which contributed to Orwell’s writing on democratic socialism (Orwell par. 11). Works Cited Orwell, George. Why I Write. 27 Nov. 2012. Web.. George Orwell’s “Why I Write” Critical Essay
WGU Communication Strategies and Leadership Styles Project.

For this task, you will select communication strategies and leadership styles and evaluate how effective they are in managing communication, conflict, and cultural issues within an organization. Throughout your career, you will be using these leadership skills within an organization to resolve challenges that you will encounter. You will have the knowledge to apply your talent, manage people, and deliver results for the company you will work for.
You have recently been hired as the manager for the Global Network Administrators Group to enhance operational functionality. Part of your team works in the U.S. office; the other part of your team works in India. The administrators in the U.S. office have been allowed to do their jobs without direct supervision. Some employees in the U.S. office do not adhere to the following company policies: Network connectivity issues should be responded to within 4 hours; resolution of network connectivity issues should occur within 24 hours; and all issues should be documented, categorized, and put into a web-accessible frequently asked questions (FAQs) document for future troubleshooting purposes.
The company network has been breached several times and runs slowly, and it is difficult to get a response from the U.S. office related to network connectivity issues. The office in India has been overloaded with requests to check connection issues at the U.S. office, making it impossible for the India office to respond in a timely fashion to the international issues for which they are responsible.
In order to enhance operational functionality, you must consider the ideas you wish to implement and formulate a strategy or approach. You must also consider the impact on the stakeholders of the business, including the shareholders, the customers, and the employees. Equally satisfying these three groups can lead to a well-balanced, successful organization.
Your submission must be your original work. No more than a combined total of 30% of a submission can be directly quoted or closely paraphrased from sources, even if cited correctly. Use the report provided when submitting your task as a guide.  
You must use the rubric to direct the creation of your submission because it provides detailed criteria that will be used to evaluate your work. Each requirement below may be evaluated by more than one rubric aspect. The rubric aspect titles may contain hyperlinks to relevant portions of the course.
A. Summarize a leadership style or strategic approach that is effective for influencing the desired change at Global Network Administrators Group, using examples from the scenario or external research.
B. Describe how the organizational culture at Global Network Administrators Group is impacting employee adherence to company policy. Use details from the scenario to support your claims.
C. Identify conflict management strategies or approaches that you will implement to address the conflict at Global Network Administrators Group. Use details from the scenario to justify the strategies or approaches you have selected.
D. Summarize communication strategies or approaches that Global Network Administrators Group will implement in order to foster engagement and collaboration between internal stakeholders in this scenario.

WGU Communication Strategies and Leadership Styles Project

Grand Canyon Connection Between Sleep Disturbance & Cardiac Arrhythmias Discussion.

I’m working on a nursing discussion question and need support to help me learn.

***Make a comment ***Biostatistics, according to Wikipedia, is the development and application of statistical methods to a wide range of topics in biology. It encompasses the design of biological experiments, the collection and analysis of data from those experiments and the interpretation of the results (Wikimedia Foundation, 2021).One population health problem that is prevalent is sleep apnea. Sleep apnea if untreated can cause cardiac arrythmias. Biostatistics can be used to look at just how prevalent sleep apnea is and the prevalence of cardiac issues due to this as well. The Department of Medicine at St. Michael’s Hospital in Toronto, Canada published an article in the American College of CHEST Physicians journal discussing this investigation on sleep disturbances and their relation to cardiac arrhythmias. The biological experiment was done by nocturnal polysomnography. While patients were sleeping, they were hooked up to an electrocardiogram and pulse oximeter. The administers of the experiment also measured noise levels of those who snore and gauged them as heavy to light snorers. The experiment was done with 458 volunteers.The results of this biological experiment were as follows: There was a 58% prevalence of cardiac arrythmias in those with sleep apnea versus the 42% in non-apneic controls. Patients with arrhythmias had more severe apnea and nocturnal hypoxemia, but not snoring, than patients without arrhythmias. To examine separately the relationship between the prevalence of arrhythmias and snoring, nocturnal oxygenation, and apnea, they selected subgroups of patients “at the opposite ends of the spectrum” with respect to the severity of snoring, hypoxemia, and apnea. They found that 38% of light snorers had arrhythmias verses 39% of heavy snorers, 82% of patients with mean nocturnal oxygen saturation <90% had arrhythmias verses 40% of patients with mean nocturnal oxygen saturation >90%. The conclusion of the experiment was that patients with sleep apnea as a group have higher prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias than non-apneic patients and that snoring alone, without concomitant sleep apnea, is not associated with increased frequency of cardiac arrhythmias (Hoffstein & Mateika, 2016).
Grand Canyon Connection Between Sleep Disturbance & Cardiac Arrhythmias Discussion

create two opposing Tableaus.

Embodied Reading Response: Using Tableau to represent YummyFor this assignment, you will read Yummy and create two opposing Tableaus. A tableau is a “living picture” created when actors use their bodies to represent a scene, moment, or concept. However, in tableau, the actors are frozen in a scene, creating a still image. The ideas are conveyed through a combination of poses, expressions, gestures, background, props, etc… rather than spoken words or movement.Read Yummy. Takes notes, What do you notice? What social and political issues stand out to you? Choose a significant moment from Yummy and follow the steps to portray that moment through a tableauIf necessary, recruit some friends, family, colleagues to help you create a tableau, or frozen scene, of your “illustration” or representation from the book. You can also work alone. Remember, the images will be posted on a discussion board for grading and to engage peers in a conversation about the text.Create First image: Illustrate the moment using your body. In other words, think about how you can situate your body to “act out” the scene. Freeze into position (That’s the tableau). Consider setting, facial expressions, body language, actor interactions… Capture: Have someone take a photograph of the tableau. Second image: Now reimagine that moment and create an “ideal image” or what you would like the reality to be. This a “projected possibility” of that moment from the book. Have someone take a second photograph of the tableau.Post the pictures on the discussion board, labeling each.Discuss your tableaus- see submission criteria and rubric below.Note 1: Click here for more information on tableau. (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.Note 2: Make sure your actors are aware that you are posting this picture in an online class. Others will see it. If your actors don’t want their faces to appear, there are clever ways to take the photos to hide identities. (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.SubmissionPost both pictures as jpgs. Make sure they are visible in the post.Give both of your scenes a title (creative, thought-provoking, original)Discuss. What did you choose to highlight with your tableau (content, character, theme, other)How did you situate your body/bodies to represent your focus? Did you attend to facial expression, gesture, costume, etc?Compare your creation of the tableau to your first reading of Yummy. What does it make you think about? How does representing a moment with your body help you think differently about the text? What did the second image or “projected possibility” make you think about?Add your final thoughts about Yummy overall.
create two opposing Tableaus

Using the OPT model, what are some key identifiers that you use to transition your client from one phase to another? Please explain.

Using the OPT model, what are some key identifiers that you use to transition your client from one phase to another? Please explain.. Can you help me understand this Health & Medical question?

Optimal Sports Performance
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Using the OPT model, what are some key identifiers that you use to transition your client from one phase to another? Please explain.

Chapters 11 & 12 Clark & Lucett NASM Essentials of Sports Performance Training. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins 2010. ISBN: 0-7817-6803-9
Using the OPT model, what are some key identifiers that you use to transition your client from one phase to another? Please explain.

Nationalism and its Negative Effects in the Modern World Essay

professional essay writers Introduction In the study entailing nationalism, one stumbles upon four major debates that scholars tend to engage in. The first one centers on how “nation” and “nationalism” should be defined. Secondly, there is a question of the time during which nations are thought to have first occurred. The third debate tends to explore how nations and nationalism actualized. Finally, most classic works emphasize on European nationalism raising a debate as to whether nationalism began in Europe and spread to other non-western parts of the world or whether it developed on its own in non-western countries (Eschenhagen 2 ). This work will not attempt to exhaust all these debates but will rather concentrate on the various definitions of nationalism and its negative effects in the modern world. Definition of Nationalism Nationalism can be understood in diverse perspectives depending on the context. Sociologically, nationalism can first be understood from the word nation, from which it is derived. The nation is Latin in origin – nation whose meaning during the medieval era was devoid of any political connotation. It has a similar meaning with Greek word ethnos that stands for “people, nation, and country” (Norbu 25). It was until the Middle Ages that the nation began attaining a political interpretation, which was vividly outspoken especially in France and Germany. In these two places, the term nation was used to refer to the ruling cadre in contrast with the word volk, which is synonymous to the common people or populace (Norbu 25). In view of this meaning, the word nation and the nationality concept were closely attributed to both sovereignty and power to imply that this concept was only common among those who were in rulership. Rather than belong to the people who embody it, the word nation rather referred to those in political power that had more say over state related concerns and held the key to the means of production. During the absolute monarchy, the nation was closely associated with the monarch’s state. If for that matter political power’s place of residence is the epitome the nation, then the French revolution was a major protest against the aristocratic class. With the increase in social communication and mass awareness, the idea of nationalism ceased from being cocooned within the aristocrats. It spilled down to the common people as well. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Rousseau (1770 -1850) who refused equating nation to the higher political class and instead equating it with the populace (Norbu 25) agitated for the new concept of the nation. The meaning of nationality and that of nationalism are closely related in that they designate a people rather than a nation per se. Nationalism is therefore a unique type of politically motivated social awareness that is people-derived and people oriented (Norbu 25). Another perspective of understanding nationalism is to look at it from the different kinds of nationalism and then elucidating that one of them can be defended and the other kinds cannot. In this light, the western form of nationality can be contrasted against the eastern form (Miller, 1995). For instance, western nationalization has been perceived as perspicacious and favorable to progress or reform. On the other hand, eastern nationalization has been perceived as unprogressive and cryptic, based on a seeming tribal perspective of nationality (Kohn, 1944, cited in Miller 8). The second contrast suggests that western nationalism was for people with outstanding cultural marks, able to measure up with those of known nation states such as Germany and Italy during the nineteenth century. On the other hand, Eastern nationalism was for people whose ancient culture was primitive and hence they had to curve an identity for themselves to able to fit competently in the modern world (Arnold 1976, cited in Miller 8). Another difference suggests that in Eastern nationalism, people who within the same territory are governed by common laws and take part in similar civic culture while Eastern nationalism is genealogically- based suggesting the notion of individuals bound together by shared ancestry. In each case, the contrast is used to draw the fact that Western nationalism is friendly to a liberal state whereas eastern nationalism tends towards dictatorship and cultural constraint (Miller 9). Another way of understanding nationality is looking at it from the standpoint of political philosophy. This is the difference between a nationalism of a nation that interferes with the rights of other nations as it strives to uphold its own objectives and a nationalism that is sensitive to the rights of other nations and aims at enhancing equality among all nations. For example, MacCormick differentiates between acknowledging moral tussles while striving for national concerns from an egocentric drive of desiring that one’s nation should outdo others (Nathanson, 1993, cited in Miller 9). We will write a custom Essay on Nationalism and its Negative Effects in the Modern World specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, succinctly put, nationalism can be termed as opposition to foreign control, consciousness of being part of a certain nation and pride in the nation’s culture, norms, infrastructure, and achievements, awareness of shared political roles and a demand for self –motivated national governance (Okoth 1). How nationalism has been a negative force in our modern world The 1962 Indian border war Although the Indian border war in 1962 was not directly influenced by a western power, it elicited a rise in Chinese various nationalistic elements such as the sovereignty and legitimacy of China. When the raw over the border emerged within the mid nineteenth century, Apart from fear of losing its territorial loss, China hardened its position due to two other reasons. This was both the Tibet question and India’s non-negotiable attitude towards the borderline. Despite the known fact that Tibet has been within the Chinese territory since 1950, the Indian prime minister negated the fact that China had sovereignty over the territory. This really soured the relationship between India and China. China interpreted the Indian prime minister’s challenge of their own sovereignty over Tibet as purely imperialistic. China then resolved to respond to this through a strike of equal magnitude. The borderline war between India and China was not only fueled by India’s imperialistic approach, but also by India’s hard-line attitude regarding the McMahon line. Due to collective opinion from the Chinese republic and Taiwanian support, China finally got victory. Although the Chinese government had achieved its objectives, the war tainted China’s international position and was a major cause of a deadlock in bilateral associations for many years thereafter (Eschenhagen 6). The eight islands dispute Besides the past borderline dispute between India and China, there is also a recent nationalistic dispute between Japan, China, and Taiwan regarding the ownership of eight islands found in the East Asia Sea. Although none of the three parties would like the issue to cripple their bilateral agreements, the conflict is motivated by both domestic and international politics. Although ownership of resources found in the islands is the major cause of dispute, nationalistic claims have blown out of proportion. Although conflict among the three parties was improbable, resolution and shared exploitation of the resources was also elusive (Huang, 1997, cited in Eschenhagen 6). A series of international conflicts then arose leading to protests from Chinese students. This was after a bomb attack in China that was thought to have been of western origin. The students’ protests led not only to the bombing of an American officer’s residents but also to the vandalism of other U.S related premises within the Chinese streets. The protests moved from street-based to online-based and with this, the Chinese national leadership had to intervene since the move would have jeopardized the relations between China and the U.S. The western world was greatly baffled by the protests and the U.S media apportioned blame to the Chinese government for fueling the mayhem by misleading the masses with incorrect nationalistic information (Eschenhagen 8). Not sure if you can write a paper on Nationalism and its Negative Effects in the Modern World by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The U.S surveillance plane incident In a separate incidence, an American spy plane collided with a Chinese jet over the sea located in the southern part of China. This was after the American plane penetrating into the Chinese airspace without verbal clearance. This came at a time when other issues like human rights and support of Taiwan by the U.S had strained the relationship between Beijing and Washington. Although the U.S ambassador to China brought a message of apology to the Chinese people after a long impasse, the Chinese jet had been destroyed and its pilot killed in the collision. Extreme Right wing voting The reasons behind the popularity of extreme right wing in some countries of the European Union and their absence and low influence in other parts have been of much debate (Gijsberts 157). However, they have been attributed to a diversity of country-specific features. Factors leading to these variances in the extreme rightwing voting are three-fold: sociological, economic, and political (Gijsberts 157). Sociologically, variances in the population of different countries affect the voter turnout in the extreme right wing voting. This is determined by both the public opinion and social structure of country. Economically, the economic doldrums and rivalry between the country’s main group and the immigrants could also explain the differences in extreme right wing voting. Politically, specific factors that characterize a party and the system of its operation influences voter turnout (Gijsberts 157). Nationalism as a cause of major world conflicts and genocide Xenophobia and chauvinism are both regarded as products of extreme nationalism (Auer 19). This is perceived in the sense that xenophobic nationalism being the fear and rejection of a stranger is an extension of any aspect of national identity. Additionally, even though patriotism is closely related to nationalism, critics of nationalism find it quite detrimental in its extreme manifestation (Kegley 408). Extreme patriots tend to gauge their patriotism via the level of hatred and protest extended towards alien nations. Patriotism also makes them to blindly endorse all policies and practices of their own nation. In this vein, nationalism negates the aspect of universal values that elevates the values of all above those of individual nations. This is seen as an impediment to human rights and the harmony that exists among all nations in a world without borders. Nationalism further contradicts Christian, Islamic, and Judaistic teachings that love should be manifested even towards one’s enemies. Looked at from this perspective, nationalism is therefore perceived as a cause for armed world conflicts. Nationalism’s double-faced character is believed to be the main cause armed conflict. First, it is a common force that bonds nations with similar nationalities together and secondly, it does not only bring divisions among but it also divides nationalities and this is what justifies armed conflicts with other nations (Kegley 408). Genocide is normally explained as state organized killings that targets a given political, religious, national, or ethical group (Scherrer 69). The Bosnia genocide is believed to have its causes embedded in nationalism. Although the concentration camps were used to carry out genocidal activities, other acts entailed not just mass rape but also destruction of both Islamic and Croatian symbols (Delanty and Kumar 327). Such acts partly involve death but also involve annihilation either fully or partly, of a given national group. For instance, the mass rape psychologically torments and destroys the reproductive potential of all the groups (Delanty and Kumar 327). Apart from the Bosnia genocide, both world wars were direct full-scale genocides. For example during the Second World War, Hitler ordered mass murder against many ethnic groups such as the European Jews and Russians among others (Scherrer, p. 76). There were also organized killings against millions of prisoners and slave workers. The Nazi terror took away of 50 million the lives and Fascist Germany war eliminated the lives of millions of the Roma and Sinti, Russian civilians, Serbs among others (Scherrer 76). Conclusion Nationalism is the social consciousness of the people in a particular nation that causes them to protest alien control as they pride in their own national traditions, achievements and political rights. The extreme manifestations of nationalism have had negative impacts in the world especially manifested through armed conflicts and genocides. Works Cited Auer, Stefan. Liberalism in Central Europe. London, Routledge. 2004. Web. Delanty, Gerard and Kumar, Krishan. The SAGE handbook of nations and nationalism. London, Routledge. 2006. Web. Eschenhagen, Paul. Nationalism in China: Implications for Chinese International Relations. Norderstedt, GRIN Verlag. 2006. Web. Gijsberts, Merove I. Nationalism and exclusion of migrants: cross national comparisons. VT, Ashgate Publishing. 2004. Web. Kegley, Charles. World Politics: Trend and Transformation. CA, Cengage Learning. 2009. Web. Norbu, Dawa. Culture, and the Politics of Third World Nationalism. London, SAGE Publications Ltd. 1992. Web. Okoth. Assa. A History of Africa. Kampala, East African Publishers Ltd. 2006. Web. Scherrer, Christian. Ethnicity, nationalism, and violence. London, Ashgate Publishing Limited. 2003. Web.

Racism in African American Studies and History Essay

Why is the aspect of African American history rarely discussed? One of the key factors that led to a scanty discussion of African American history is racism. This vice caused a lot of socio-economic and political harm in the wider history of African Americans. In any case, this segment of the population in American society was largely held in low esteem. Therefore, their history was not favored at all by most of the prolific white scholars. The slavery years, coupled with a slow social cohesion and reconstruction of the African American society, also contributed towards poor education standards among this group. It took several decades before the African American society could produce scholars who could deeply explore the history of the group. Besides, it is crucial to mention that African American society is a rather small segment of the entire American population. As a minority group, their history has been overshadowed by other dominant populations in the north. These weaknesses attempt to explain why there is a rare discussion of African American history. Why did so many free blacks stay in the south? The southern free blacks were comprised of two categories, namely those residing in the northern part of the region and the southern portion. For a long time, historians wondered why quite a large number of free slaves still resided in the inhospitable southern states of the United States of America. Historical records indicate that manumission fever was the main factor that increased a large number of free blacks in the southern states. However, it is crucial to mention that this fever was largely experienced in the upper south of the region. This implied that most of the freed African American slaves who had no masters found it easier to sojourn in the lower south than traverse the long distance to the slave-free states in the north. Since manumission fever was never embraced in the lower south, the free slaves found this region more hospitable than the upper south. Nonetheless, it is still prudent to mention that some slaves opted to remain in the upper south in spite of the tough life. Historians argue that such slaves were already used to their lifestyles for a very long time, and as a result, they found no need to seek an alternative place of residence. In other words, slavery was a typically embraced lifestyle that most individuals found to be normal. Second, the geographical landscape and distance to be covered from the south to northern states were believed by historians as a major hurdle in the migration of freed slaves. As much as some of them wished to run away from the slavery south, geographical disadvantage did not permit them. It is also believed that their movements were curtailed by the colonial masters to the extent that they could not move for long distances without being caught up. The rails and roads connecting the northern and southern states were closed under the watch and dominance of slave masters. Hence, it was yet another risk to travel from south to north, even after being freed. Needless to say, free slaves could still be captured and enrolled back to forced labor. In addition, the antebellum period witnessed a major growth of freed slaves in the southern states. It can be recalled that a large number of enslaved African Americans lacked proper papers or certifications to confirm that they had been truly freed. Although there were quasi-free blacks who were equally counted as free slaves, the number of freed slaves in the south increased substantially.

The National Service Framework for Older People

The National Service Framework for Older People. The United Kingdom is ageing fast. In common with much of the rest of the world the population of older people is increasing (HM Government (HMG), 2010; Nolan, 2001, Improvement and Development Agency (IDeA), 2009) and their prevalence in the population is predicted to rise to 29% by 2031 (Association of Director of Social Services (ADSS), 2003). For the first time, the number of pensioners will outweigh numbers of those under age sixteen. In 1980 it was suggested that men aged 65 could expect to reach 78, however, predicted life expectancy today would extend to 85 and by 2050 it is expected to stretch to around 89 years. This should no longer be looked upon as exceptional as older people can now expect to live over a third of their lives above pensionable age (HMG, 2009) and the advance in life expectancy can be seen as a major accomplishment for public health (Gillam et al, 2007) though it is also a major challenge. In 2001 the Department of Health (DH) launched an ambitious policy aiming to set standards for older people’s care in all health and social care settings. The National Service Framework for Older People (NSFOP) was established to set national standards that would improve services, drive up quality and eradicate disparities in care. It was, state Williams and Webster (2002), a “key vehicle for ensuring that the needs of older people were at the heart of health and social services reform.” This essay will discuss the development of the NSFOP, and it’s progression since 2001, in a political context with particular reference to the inequalities experienced by older people associated with social exclusion. Discussion Life expectancy in 1856 was only 40 years and early reports recognised how the inequality of socioeconomic conditions impacted hugely on health (DH, 2008). The historical association between age and ill health is widely acknowledged. Under the Elizabethan Poor Law of 1601 the elderly were cared for in poor houses, often referred to as the feared ‘workhouses’ (Donaldson and Scully, 2009). The responsibility of the Poor Law transferred to local government and was then replaced by the National Assistance Act in 1948, just as the National Health Service launched. Recognising the link between poverty and inequalities The Black Report (1980), commissioned by the previous Labour government in late 1970’s, saw social isolation coming under close scrutiny for the first time. It was published as the Conservatives claimed power in 1979 despite their attempts to restrain its completion, then not endorsing its findings as it disclosed a noticeable gradient between social class and disease prevalence implying the association between income and health (Lewis et al, 2008). Black et al (1980) also noted that any health improvements on the part of the impoverished could not match those experienced by the more affluent in society. On re-election of the Labour party in 1997, a further report reaffirmed the existence of the inequalities previously reported on by Black, adding that those gaps between the poor and the affluent had, if anything, widened (Acheson, 1998). The fact that some individuals are more or less susceptible to poor health has notable ramifications for public health (Donaldson and Scally, 2009) and health inequalities experienced earlier in life have been found to continue in later life (Acheson, 1998). The term ‘health inequality’ refers to the difference in health experienced by one group above another due to one group’s advantage of the other, with the difference being noted as avoidable and unfair (Flowers, 2006). Marmot notes that this reflects New Labour’s ideology that any health inequalities which could be avoided are unjust (Marmot, 2010). Such differences may be economical, demographical (age, gender, ethnicity), social (class) or geographical (Acheson, 1998; Gillam et al, 2007; Lewis et al, 2008). Historically, older people experience more ill-health, relying on health and social care services more so than other groups in society yet often falling foul of ‘The Inverse Care Law’ which states that those in greatest need are least likely to receive support services (Tudor- Hart, 1971). This is generally due to factors such as pre-disposition to certain disease, poverty-related illness and death, the common treatment of older people and their social isolation (Lewis et al, 2008). There is substantial evidence showing that social isolation and loneliness can be detrimental to older people’s health, well-being and quality and life (Abbott and Freeth 2008) affecting one in seven people over age 65 (Greaves and Farbys, 2006). Social isolation (and exclusion) causes inequality since it prevents people from participating in normal activities within their society as a result of factors outwith their control (Le Grand, 2003). Marmot (2010) declares that the social characteristics of a community and how healthy behaviours are promoted and facilitated habitually can contribute to social inequalities in health. He describes the link that connects and binds older people to each other, their families and friends within and outwith their communities, as having a major impact on the effects of such inequalities as “social capital”. Muntaner et al (2000) describe social capital as “all types and levels of connections among individuals, within families, friendship networks, business and communities” and, since the 1990s, it has been widely considered to have an influence on health (Almedon, 2005; de Silva et al, 2005; Pearce and Davey Smith, 2003;Coulthard, Walker and Morgan, 2002 ). Thus, Wainwright (1996) promotes the possibilities that social capital may offer a public health policy alternative to “large scale government redistribution” such as diminishing the welfare state post World War 2. The social networks that build social capital create civic participation, trust and “reciprocity” (Gillam et al, 2007; Pearce and Davey Smith, 2003). These indicators of social capital have been strongly related to rates of mortality (Pearce and Davey Smith, 2003) as social networks are affected as people age. Losing spouses, partners and friends reduces social capital, leading to depression, loneliness and a loss of community participation (Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (ODPM), 2006). Putnam (1993) declared the following on his findings on social capital:- “Of all the domains in which I have traced the consequences of social capital, in none is the importance of social connectedness so well established as in the case of health and well-being.” (Putnam, 1993) The fact that health is generally dependent of factors such as diet and lifestyle make it somewhat beyond Government control. Increasing social capital to reduce inequalities such as social exclusion may, therefore, be an easier target for governments as they consider it to be something they can have greater control over. Hence, in 1989 Thatcher’s Government published the White Paper ‘Caring for People’. Deemed to be the starting point for considering the community care strand of policy around social exclusion it set principles to assist with social integration in later life. When New Labour came to power in 1997 with their ‘Third Way’ policies based on “rhetoric of community, partnershipThe National Service Framework for Older People

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