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GEOL 106 Skyline College Signs of Coral Bleaching Questions

GEOL 106 Skyline College Signs of Coral Bleaching Questions.

I’m working on a science question and need guidance to help me learn.

For Lab 3 you will be given a sequence of Google Earth Voyager stories to help provide a visual narrative on some of the various concepts that we have covered throughout the course of the quarter and asked to answer questions associated with each story. Please make sure that you use Google Chrome as the browser. Coral Reefs:,117.9738634,-5822.69373474a,13059052.748d,35y,359.15407744h,0t,0r/data=CkoSSBIgY2EwYzk0ZGNhN2I4MTFlN2I1ZDBiNzRhMWFlNGU2MDMiJGVmZWVkX29jZWFuX2FnZW5jeV9jb3JhbF9ibGVhY2hpbmdfMA (Links to an external site.)According to NOAA are the first signs of coral bleaching subtle?How is coral bleaching affecting the Indian Ocean?What caused the death of the coral reefs in New Caledonia? What is the Ocean Agency proposing to help save the coral reefs?Climate Change:,32.778075,397.09402971a,14700805.006446d,35y,0h,0t,0r/data=CjASLhIgZDJkMzVhNTk2ZTQ3MTFlOGJhM2Y0ZGJhNDk1NmM3YjQiCnZveV9zcGxhc2g (Links to an external site.)What causes Palm Oil to be unsustainable?Looking at the three images of the Chilean Glaciers what stands out the most?How is Permafrost being impacted by Climate Change?How is concrete (Green Spaces) being used in order to combat Climate Change?Create your own Lab:For the last part of Lab 5, I want you all to create a 5 question lab for me to follow. It can be anything from an ESRI or Google Earth Story map with questions or one that you create from scratch. Please make sure your lab is professional and covers one of the topics we covered during the course of the quarter. Creativity is key so have fun!PreviousNext
GEOL 106 Skyline College Signs of Coral Bleaching Questions

Professional roles and values. Paper details INTRODUCTION The purpose of this task is to explore how nursing ethics, self-advocacy, and professional accountability can be applied in clinical practice. Using the provided case scenario, you will be required to think about how ethical concepts can be used to make clinical decisions and explore the differences in personal and professional beliefs. You will develop personalized stress management plans that rely on the use of adaptive coping strategies to ensure personal health and well-being. SCENARIO You have been working as a nurse in the adult oncology unit for the past year. You have developed a close relationship with many of your patients, but Mr. Newcomb has a special place in your heart. He has been diagnosed with stage 4 pancreatic cancer and has undergone aggressive chemotherapy. Each day his wife has come to the unit to be with her husband. They have been married for over 40 years and share a deep love. Mr. and Mrs. Newcomb have made the decision to no longer continue with treatment and have decided that hospice care is needed. Over the past few days, you have watched Mr. Newcomb’s health decline, and you can tell from your experience that he does not have much time left to live. Mr. Newcomb has been very open about discussing his death, and you have had the opportunity to learn about his life and the legacy he will leave behind. While you are completing your rounds, you stop in Mr. Newcomb’s room to see how he is doing. You ask, “Is there anything else I can do for you?” Mr. Newcomb has rarely asked for anything, but today he has one request. Mr. Newcomb states, “Before I die, I would like to see my mistress one more time. Mrs. Newcomb is always here. Do you think you could tell her that I will be busy for a few hours tomorrow so I can make arrangements to see my mistress one more time?” Reflect on the following questions before you begin working on this task: • What would you do in this scenario? • How can your knowledge of ethical principles be utilized to determine your response to Mr. Newcomb? • How would this affect you as a nurse and direct provider of care for Mr. Newcomb? REQUIREMENTS Your submission must be your original work. No more than a combined total of 30% of the submission and no more than a 10% match to any one individual source can be directly quoted or closely paraphrased from sources, even if cited correctly. An originality report is provided when you submit your task that can be used as a guide. You must use the rubric to direct the creation of your submission because it provides detailed criteria that will be used to evaluate your work. Each requirement below may be evaluated by more than one rubric aspect. The rubric aspect titles may contain hyperlinks to relevant portions of the course. A. Summarize how the principles of beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy, and justice apply to the scenario by doing the following: 1. Describe how you would respond to Mr. Newcomb’s request. 2. Evaluate how you applied the principles of beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy, and justice to the scenario. 3. Examine how personal beliefs and values influenced your response to the scenario. 4. Describe three strategies to promote self-care. B. Acknowledge sources, using in-text citations and references, for content that is quoted, paraphrased, or summarized. C. Demonstrate professional communication in the content and presentation of your submission. RUBRIC A1: COMPETENT The description of how the candidate would respond to Mr. Newcomb’s request is relevant. A2: APPLICATION OF PATIENT PRINCIPLES COMPETENT The evaluation accurately addresses how the candidate applied the given principles to the scenario and is supported. A3: PERSONAL BELIEFS AND VALUES COMPETENT The examination of how personal beliefs and values influenced the candidate’s response to the clinical scenario is relevant and supported. A4: PROMOTING SELF-CARE STRATEGIES COMPETENT The description of three strategies to promote self-care is relevant. B: SOURCES COMPETENT The submission includes in-text citations for sources that are properly quoted, paraphrased, or summarized and a reference list that accurately identifies the author, date, title, and source location as available. C: PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION COMPETENT Content reflects attention to detail, is organized, and focuses on the main ideas as prescribed in the task or chosen by the candidate. Terminology is pertinent, is used correctly, and effectively conveys the intended meaning. Mechanics, usage, and grammar promote accurate interpretation and understanding. Professional roles and values
Table of Contents Abstract Prescription Painkiller Abuse Recommendations References Abstract In the recent past, statistics have shown that as the government increases efforts to curb the use of various illegal drugs, people have turned to prescription drugs, which are increasingly becoming the new forms of drug abuse. Among the most commonly abused prescription drugs are prescription painkillers since they are readily available through various illegitimate online drug stores with or without a formal prescription. But owing to the increase in the number of people visiting emergency departments with complications related to prescription painkiller abuse or overdoses, there is the imperative need for the government and other key stakeholders to address this public health problem speedily. This can be achieved through law enforcement and public education about the correct uses of such medications, which can cause fatal complications if misused. As policy-makers move to curb the use of street drugs such as cocaine, marijuana, and heroin, shocking statistics show that there has been a sharp increase in the misuse of prescription drugs in the United States. According to McCarthy (2007), the number of cases related to the misuse of prescription drugs increased by 21% in 2004-2005. More specifically, the number of visits to the emergency departments as a result of non-medical use of prescription drugs rose from 495,732 in 2004 to about 598,542 cases in 2005. Moreover, the Drug Abuse Warning Network reported that there were more than 1.4 million emergency department visits in 2005 that were related to the misuse of drugs (McCarthy, 2007). Out of these cases, about 27% were related to the misuse of prescription drugs. Among the most commonly abused drugs in 2004-2005 were benzodiazepines (19%), opiates and opioids (24%), and methadone (29%). Studies attribute the recent increase in the misuse of prescription drugs to an increase in the use of the Internet, which facilitates the growth of illegitimate online drug stores and uncontrolled online prescription drug sales. One study has examined the effect of growth in the use of high-speed Internet on the availability of commonly misused prescription drugs in the United States. The study findings demonstrate that for each 10% increase in the use of high-speed Internet in different parts of the United States, the number of emergency department visits related to misuse of prescription drugs increases by 1%. Based on these results, the researchers recommend that the government should monitor the possible threat posed by the rising number of illegitimate online drug stores that could be encouraging the misuse of prescription drugs (Jena

The History And Background Of Suicide Nursing Essay

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Suicide is the third leading cause of death among young people; however the incidence of attempted suicide is much more. It has been observed that after puberty, rate of suicide increases with age until it stabilizes in young adulthood. This increase in suicide may be associated with the onset and increase in depressive and other disorders during adolescents as compared to childhood. Suicide ideation, gestures and attempts are frequently but not always associated with depressive disorders, reports indicate that as many as half of suicidal individuals express suicidal intention to a friend or a relative within 24 hours before enactive suicidal behavior. It is a time proven fact that all the living organisms on this earth fight for survival and existence. What then makes the man to risk his own life? The tragedy of self – inflicted death has always attracted the attention of the medical as well as the legal fraternity. People who have committed suicide or have been thinking about committing suicide probably feel overwhelmed by their problems. They might not be able to handle that kind of pressure and feel that death would be the only way to escape it.( Alonso J,2008). Although suicide was condemned in the Dharmashastras, yet, there is also a chapter on allowed suicides. But the earlier scriptures, of Manu’s and Kautilya’s were against suicide. These sentiments were echoed for ages in India. Even though today, attempted suicide is also a crime in India under the Indian Penal Code system. The neighbouring country Sri Lanka has removed attempted suicide as a punishable offence. In India, even the assisting and abetting suicide is also a punishable offence. The striking aspect of Indian data is the large variation in different parts of India in relation to attempted/committed suicide. The states and cities with rapid social change are associated with higher suicide rates in the year 2010, such as the states of Tamilnadu (5470) and Andhra Pradesh (5675),Maharashtra (6289), West Bengal (5302).(NCRBI 2007). Adolescence is a stressful developmental period filled with major changes: body changes, changes in thoughts, and changes in feelings. Strong feelings of stress, confusion, fear, and uncertainty, as well as pressure to succeed, and the ability to think about things in new ways influence a teenager’s problem solving and decision making abilities. For some teenagers, normal developmental changes, when compounded by other events or changes in their families such as parental divorce or moving to a new community, changes in friendships, difficulties in school, or other losses can be very upsetting and become overwhelming. Problems may appear too difficult or embarrassing to overcome. For some, suicide may seem like a perfect solution. The adolescent suicide rate has greatly increased in recent years. Suicides in those ages 15 to 24 years once accounted for 5% of all suicides but now it is increased to 14%. This makes suicide the third leading cause of death among adolescents. Suicide rates for males within the age group of 10 – 14 years have tripled, whereas rates for males aged 15 to 19 years have quadrupled. Rates for females have doubled. Males aged 15 to 19 years are nearly 5 times more likely to kill themselves than females in the same age group. Although female adolescents attempt suicide 2 to 3 times more often than their male counterparts. Recorded suicide attempts peak between the ages of 15 and 19years.(WHO 2008). 1.1 NEED FOR STUDY: The numbers of suicides are increasing in India. India accounts for 10% of world’s suicides. According to the latest national crime record bureau report, there are over 1.2 lakh suicides in 2006 and 1.3 lakh in 2007. It also states that Bangalore has the highest rate of suicides in India. Till June 2007 there have been around 900 cases of suicide reported from Bangalore city alone. In 2005, 1,480 persons have committed suicide, while in the year 2006, the number was over 2,000, and among all states, Karnataka stands second after Kerala, followed by Maharashtra and West Bengal (Gururaj G.2008). According to WHO’s estimation, in the year 2004, approximately one million people died from suicide, and 10 – 20 times more people attempted suicide worldwide. This represents one death every 40 seconds and one attempt every 3 seconds, on average (WHO,2004). The adolescent suicide rate has greatly increased in recent years. Suicides in those ages 15 to 24 years once accounted for 5% of all suicides but now it is increased to 14%. This makes suicide the third leading cause of death among adolescents. Suicide rates for males within the age group of 10 – 14 years have tripled, whereas rates for males aged 15 to 19 years have quadrupled. Rates for females have doubled. Males aged 15 to 19 years are nearly 5 times more likely to kill themselves than females in the same age group. Although female adolescents attempt suicide 2 to 3 times more often than their male counterparts. Recorded suicide attempts peak between the ages of 15 and 19years (Marlow,2002). 1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: STRUCTURED TEACHING PROGRAMME ON THE PREVENTIVE MEASURES OF SUICIDAL IDEATION AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN PRIYADARSHINI SCHOOL,PITHAPURAM,ANDHRA PRADESH. 1.3 OBJECTIVES: 1.3.1 To assess the knowledge regarding preventive measures of suicidal ideation among adolescents. To evaluate the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on Preventive measures of Suicidal ideation among adolescents. 1.3.3 To associate the preventive measures for suicidal ideation among adolescents with the various demographic variables. 1.4 ASSUMPTIONS: The adolescents are prone for suicidal thoughts. 1.5 HYPOTHESIS: There will be a significant difference between the preventive measures for suicidal ideation before and after administration of structured teaching programme. There will be a significant association between the preventive measures for suicidal ideation with various demographic variables 1.6 Operational Definition: 1.6.1 Suicide: is the act of intentionally taking one’s own life in a culturally no endorsed manner. 1.6.2. Preventive measures: refer to the risk factors, warning signs, suicidal behavior, misconceptions of suicide, how to communicate and monitoring safety needs in the environment. 1.7 Conceptual Framework: Modified general systems theory of learning: General systems theory is useful in breaking process into sequential operations or tasks to ensure goal realization. Purpose, goal or aim is necessary for any process or system. The aim of the study is to increase the knowledge of preventive measures for suicidal ideation. Input: The first function is the input which is the information, energy or matter that enters the system. For a system to work well the input should concentrate in achieving the purpose of the system. In the present study the information, energy or matter which enters the system is the introduction of structured teaching programme regarding the preventive measures for suicidal ideation. In the present study input is the existing knowledge regarding preventive measures for suicidal ideation. Throughput: According to the theorist, throughput refers to the process used by the system to convert raw material or energy into products that are usable by the system itself or by the environment. In this active phase, teacher converts the information from structured teaching programme regarding preventive measures for suicidal ideation. Output: According to theorist, it refers to the product or service which results from the systems through put. Output in this study refers to the end product of the system. This is evidenced by adolescents gaining knowledge regarding the preventive measures for suicidal ideation. Evaluation: Evaluation is the information about some aspects of data or energy processing that can be used, to evaluate and monitor the system and to guide it to more effective performance. In the present study, evaluation measures the success or failure of output. I t is done by measuring the performance and it is graded as adequate knowledge (>75% scores), moderately adequate knowledge (50%-75% scores) and inadequate knowledge (< 50% scores) Feedback: The final function is feedback which is the process of communicating what is found in evaluation of the system. It is the information given back to the system to determine whether or not the purpose or end result of the system has been achieved. The final part of feed back communicates what is found in the evaluation and it tells whether the structured teaching programme was effective in enhancing the knowledge of adolescents regarding the preventive measures for suicidal ideation. 1.8 Projected Outcome: Structured teaching program helps to improve the knowledge on preventive measures for suicidal ideation among adolescents. Fig: 1.1 MODIFIED SYSTEM MODEL TO ASSESS THE KNOWLEDGE OF ADOLESCENTS REGARDING PREVENTIVE MEASURES OF SUICIDAL IDEATION OUTPUT THROUGH PUT INPUT Assessment of demographic variables of adolescents such as age, sex, family income, religion, parents education. Pre assessment of knowledge of adolescents regarding preventive measures of suicidal ideation Post assessment of knowledge of adolescents regarding preventive measures of suicidal ideation Adequate Inadequate Structured teaching Programme on Preventive measures of suicidal ideation Inadequate Moderately adequate REASSESSMENT CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE Review of Literature is a key step in research process. Nursing research may be considered as a continuing process in which knowledge gained from earlier studies is an integral part of research in general. In review of literature a researcher analyses existing knowledge before delving into a new study and when making judgement about application of new knowledge in nursing practice. The literature review is an extensive, systematic, and critical review of the most important published scholarly literature on a particular topic. 2.1 Literatures related to Suicide risk factors 2.2 Literatures related to Prevention of suicidal ideation 2.1 Literatures related to Suicide risk factors A case – control study was conducted to identify and quantify risk factors for completed suicides in Bangalore, India. The study was conducted with the families of 269 completed suicides and 269 living controls within the broader population of the city using psychological autopsy methods. The results showed that, the significant risk factors for completed suicides were the presence of previous suicidal attempt in self [odds ratio (OR) = 42.62], interpersonal conflicts and marital disharmony with spouse [OR = 27.98], alcoholism [OR = 23.38], presence of mental illness [OR = 11.07], sudden economic bankruptcy [OR =7.1], domestic violence [OR = 6.82], and unemployment [OR = 6.15]. Individuals completing suicides did not have a positive outlook towards life, problem solving approaches and coping skills. The study concluded that, the intervention strategies should include prioritized macro and micro level efforts aimed at individual, family and society. (Gururaj G 2007) A study conducted involving 1205 adolescent students of two schools from New Delhi reported, one year suicidal ideation was 11.7%. they also found that physical abuse by parents, feelings neglected by parents, history of running away from school, history of suicide by a friend and death wish were found to be associated with non-fatal suicidal behavior. (Siddhartha and Jena,2006). A study conducted on bullying and risk of suicidal behaviour among adolescents in New York. Total 2341 adolescents aged 13-19 years who were enrolled in grades 9 through 12 in suburban school was selected for study. Researchers used Beck Depression Inventory to assess depression and suicide Ideation Questionnaire. Suicide attempt history included any attempt, regardless extend of injury. With regard bullying behaviour, students were asked how often they had been bullied or had bullied others in and out of school during the past 4 weeks. “Being bullied” was defined as having the student say or do unpleasant thing or being teased repeatedly in a way the person does not like. Result shows about 20% student reported that they were victims of bullying in school and about 10% reported that they were victims of bullying outside the school. With regard to bullying behavior, about 25% students reported that they bullied other students in school and 15% reported that they were bullied others outside school .The risk of depression, suicidal ideation and suicidal attempt was significantly higher for students who were considered either a victim or a bully compared with students who were not. The more frequent the bullying behaviour the greater risk of depression, suicidal ideation or suicidal attempt. (Wagnar KD,2007). A study conducted on rates and factors associated with suicide in Kaniymbadi block, Tamil Nadu, South India. The setting for the study was a comprehensive community health programme in a development block in rural South India. The main outcome measure was death by suicide diagnosed by detailed verbal autopsy and census and birth and death data to identify population base. Result shows the average suicide rate was 92.1 per 1,00.000. The ratio of male to female suicide was 1:0.66. The age specific suicide rate for women showed two peaks: 15-24 year and over 65 years of age. Hanging (49%) and poisoning with organo-phosphorus compound (40.5%) were commonest method of suicide. Acute or chronic stress was elicited for nearly all subjects. More men suffered from chronic stress while more women had acute precipitating events (x2= 4.58; p<0.04). People less than 44 age had more acute precipitating events before death while older subjects reported more chronic stress (x2=17.38;p<0.001). Conclusion of study is there is need for sentinel centers in India and in developing countries to monitor trends and to develop innovative strategies to reduce death by suicide (Prasad J, Abraham VJ and Minz S, Joseph A, 2006). A study conducted on risk factors for completed suicide in Banglore, India. A case control study conducted with families of 269 completed suicides and 269 living control within the broader population of city, using psychological autopsy method. Result shows that several factor in the areas of family, marriage, education, occupation, general health, mental health and absence of protective factors contribute significantly for suicides .The significance factor were presence of previous suicidal attempt in self (odds ratio OR = 42.62), interpersonal conflicts and marital disharmony with spouse (O =27.98), alcoholism in self (OR=23.38), presence of mental illness (OR=11.07), sudden economic bankruptcy (OR=7.1), domestic violence (OR=6.82) and unemployment(OR= 6.15). Individual completing suicide did not have a positive outlook towards life, problem solving approaches and coping scale (Gururaj G and Isaac MK, 2007). A study was conducted on psychosocial risk factors associated with suicide attempts among psychiatric inpatient and this study examine how suicide attempts and violent behavior associated with various psychosocial problems. This study included 216 inpatient who had physically assaulted another patient and a comparison group of 81 inpatient who had not assaulted any one. The result was suicide attempts were associated with a history of head trauma harsh parental discipline and parental psychopathology (Menhem.I and Krakowski, 2004). A study conducted on psychosocial stressors may be strongly associated with suicide attempts; the aim of the study was to clarify the importance of psychosocial stressors in suicidal behavior and 250 suicide attempts seen at general hospital emergence room. Acute and chronic life events were assessed with the St. Paul Ramsey life experience scale Holmes and Rahes social adjustment scale respectively, life long adverse experience were also assessed. The logistic regression with dependent variable included psychosocial stressor (Odds ratio (OR)=33.6) And other interpersonal conflicts (OR =10.5) modification of life habits (OR = 14.6)

Research: Data Collection Techniques

professional essay writers Research: Data Collection Techniques. I’m trying to study for my Computer Science course and I need some help to understand this question.

Background: As noted by Kirk (2016), working with data is one of the four stages of the visualization workflow. According to Kirk (2016), “A dataset is a collection of data values upon which a visualization is based.” In this course, we will be using datasets that have already been collected for us. Data can be collected by various collection techniques.
Reference: Kirk, Andy. Data Visualisation: A Handbook for Data Driven Design (p. 50). SAGE Publications.
Assignment: Summarize 3 data collection techniques (Interviews, Surveys, Observations, Focus Groups, etc.). Compare and contrast the 3 data collection techniques you selected. Lastly, what collection techniques do you prefer and why?
Your research paper should be at least 3 pages (800 words), double-spaced, have at least 4 APA references, and typed in an easy-to-read font in MS Word (other word processors are fine to use but save it in MS Word format). Your cover page should contain the following: Title, Student’s name, University’s name, Course name, Course number, Professor’s name, and Date.
Research: Data Collection Techniques

SIOP plan for ELL students

SIOP plan for ELL students.

Please use the SIOP template provided in the upload and the early_primary_reading_lesson_siop.doc in the upload I would like you to use as the lesson plan and the class profile i the upload.Create a SIOP
arts lesson plan that integrates students’
reading levels, cultural background, language objectives, content
objectives, and best instructional practices for ELLs, as well as
authentic assessment for a grade level and content area of your choice.
Use the SIOP lesson plan template
attached in the next post
, located on the
College of Education site in the Student Success Center,
and the “Class Profile”
also attached in the next
post to complete this assignment.
From the “Class
Profile,” (the
class profile tells you what cultures/languages are represented in
your class, but you determine the grade level)
specify a grade-level of your students
(choose a grade level that fits
within your program of study). Choose a
performance objective
standard from
the ELA Common Core State Standards to create the content objective
for your lesson.
Select the English language
proficiency standards based on the needs of your students. Consider
applicable language acquisition stages of development in designing
your lesson plan.
This is a single lesson plan that takes place
during 1 class period (20-50 minutes in length depending upon the
grade-level of your students). DO NOT include multiple days in the
“Delivery” portion of your lesson as you will have
summarized a unit instead of a specific lesson.
Utilize strategies and classroom
assessment techniques that are appropriate for all ELLs including
ELLs with special needs and gifted ELLs.
Integrate the following:
Lesson Preparation
– think about what you need to do to prepare
students for the content in this lesson (preteach, prep certain
materials, etc.)
Building Background
– this should be appropriate for and specific
to the students represented in the Class
Comprehensible Input
– a bulleted list of a variety of ways to
ensure the information you provide is comprehensible to THIS
group of ELLs.
– think about including
strategies from your Graphic Organizer assignment of 12
strategies in Week 6.

– describe both numbers in
groups and method of grouping (think about
homogenous/heterogeneous from Week 3).

Practice & Application
– 3 different activities (not passive) during
the lesson to practice the skills in the objectives; not to be
used for formal assessment.
Lesson Delivery
– an itemized list of the steps to implement
this lesson – CLEAR ENOUGH for a substitute to implement without
you for guidance.
Review & Assessment
– a brief summary how
objectives will be reviewed; a brief description of informal
assessment throughout the lesson; and specific details on formal
assessment of objectives after the lesson… be sure to describe
how EACH of the objectives will be evaluated and the evidence
you will obtain.

APA format is not required, but solid
academic writing is expected.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please
review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become
familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
You are required to submit this
assignment to Turnitin.
Remember to change the settings when you review
your report to include quoted material to ensure you receive an
accurate report of the amount of similar material.
no more than 20% of your assignment can be from other
material that comes from use of the template or list of references
will NOT count in the overall percentage.
are responsible for checking this.
instructors are required to review TII reports and require
revision if it does not meet the guidelines. Typically, a 20%
reassignment penalty will apply,
SIOP plan for ELL students

Ashworth Risk Factors High Blood Pressure High Cholesterol Diabetes & BMI Reply

Ashworth Risk Factors High Blood Pressure High Cholesterol Diabetes & BMI Reply.

Guided Response: Respond substantially to two classmates by Day 7. Compare and contrast your recommendations for Carmen with your classmates. Are your classmate’s recommendations specific enough? Are your recommendations specific enough? If not, what information can you provide to improve clarity? If they are specific, what other suggestions can you provide for Carmen to improve her health?Mine — he cardiovascular system and can lead to conditions such as stroke, partial paralysis, and in some cases, death. Such attributes make this disease quite fatal and mostly get connected to lifestyle. Heart attack mainly occurs if blood flow to a particular part of the heart gets blocked by the blood clot. Should the clot impede the blood flow, ultimately, the specific section of the heart muscle that gets supply from the blocked artery tends to die, leading to this condition (Alexander and Wang, 2017). People who get this attack for the first time in most cases tend to survive and consequently lead productive lives after that if the attack is not severe. Adjusting the lifestyle and regular exercises to ensure constant blood flow in the heart system works to put this condition at bay.Heart attack symptoms may vary from person to person since it may even strike when one is sound asleep. Also, some signs vary from men to women. Uncomfortable pressure and pain in the chest center form part of the most common symptoms of this disease. In some cases, the pain appears to strike the arms, back, and also the stomach. Other patients complain of neck and jaw pains before the disease hitting (Benjamin et al. 2019). Shortness of breath is also associated with this condition. Some discomfort may accompany it in the chest and, in some cases, without these discomforts.A heart attack is not completely treatable and curable though it can be controlled and managed, especially if noticed early. CPR can be performed on the patient or also take some aspirin. Genetic factors play a role in this condition as a family with a heart condition history remains more susceptible to attack (Benjamin et al., .2019). Though I do not have a personal problem with the condition, I chose it because it poses a significant risk to a large population.ReferencesAlexander, C. A., & Wang, L. (2017). Big data analytics in heart attack prediction. J Nurs Care, 6(393), 2167-1168.Benjamin, E. J., Muntner, P., Alonso, A., Bittencourt, M. S., Callaway, C. W., Carson, A. P., … & Delling, F. N. (2019). Heart disease and stroke Statistics-2019 update a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation.Kathryn- Carmen has several controllable risk factors. Carmen’s major controllable risk factors include her high blood pressure, high cholesterol, sedentary lifestyle, diabetes, and BMI. Carmen also has a contributory risk factor that can be controlled which is her fast food diet and lack of proper nutrition. There is also a non-controllable risk factor in her increasing age. Two of Carmen’s lifestyle factors, poor diet and sedentary behavior, are major contributors to risk associated with heart disease. According to Sharifi et al. (2020), “a sedentary lifestyle increases insulin resistance, induces obesity, increases blood glucose levels, plasma lipids and prothrombotic factors” (p.4). Additionally a diet high in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) contributes to the risk of heart disease by promoting fatty plaque buildup in the arteries (Powers & Dodd, 2017). Both of these risk factors lead to additional health problems such as diabetes and high blood pressure. These additional health issues also increase Carmen’s risks of heart disease.The American Heart Association (AHA) has published a set of healthy recommendations for reducing risks of heart disease for people that already have diabetes. The AHA (2015) recommends maintaining a BMI between 18.6 and 24.9 and blood pressure lower than 130/80 mm Hg. The AHA (2018) also recommends “at least 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity aerobic activity or 75 minutes per week of vigorous aerobic activity, or a combination of both, preferably spread throughout the week” (para. 3). Cholesterol levels should be monitored as well. Powers and Dodd (2017) suggests that healthy cholesterol levels include LDL levels below 100 mg/dl and HDL levels greater than 60 mg/dl. Considering Carmen’s high consumption of LDL rich fast food and total cholesterol of 230 mg/dl, it can be assumed that Carmen’s LDL levels are much higher than recommended. For Carmen to reduce her risk factors, it is important that she adopt a healthier diet and begin an exercise prescription that will work for her. Taking into consideration that Carmen is 58 years old and has already developed cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes, she should first consult her doctor before beginning an exercise regimen. Once Carmen has consulted her doctor, she can begin setting goals that take into account her physical limitations. Carmen should work to incorporate a safe form of moderate intensity exercise, for at least 30 minutes a day, three or four days a week. Since Carmen has been sedentary for so long, a lower intensity workout will still benefit her. Aspects of her diet should also be changed. Carmen’s BMI falls into the overweight category. Do determine her caloric needs, she should first determine her current needs. For this calculation, we will assume that Carmen weighs 160 lbs. To maintain her current weight with a sedentary lifestyle, she would need to consume approximately 2080 kcals a day. Since her current lifestyle is contributing to her poor health, Carmen needs to adjust her caloric intake. To loose one pound per week, Carmen would need to reduce her caloric intake to 1580 kcals a day. If Carmen achieves a moderate level of physical activity, then her daily caloric expenditure could increase to 2400 kcals a day and a reduction to 1900 to lose a pound a week. To maintain balance in her diet, Carmen needs to pay attention to how her caloric needs are consumed. Powers and Dodd (2017) explains that 58% should be in the form of carbohydrates, 30% should be from fat, and 12% should be from protein. Carmen should avoid saturated and trans fat and consume less than 300mg of cholesterol. A simple guideline that Powers and Dodd (2017) offer is to fill half of your plate with fruits and vegetables. American Heart Association. (2015). Know your health numbers.–treatment-of-diabetes/know-your-health-numbersAmerican Heart Association. (2018). American Heart Association Recommendations for Physical Activity in Adults and Kids., S. K., & Dodd, S. L. (2017). Total fitness & wellness, the Mastering Health edition (7th ed.). Retrieved from https://redshelf.comSharifi-Rad, J., Rodrigues, C. F., Sharopov, F., Docea, A. O., Can Karaca, A., Sharifi-Rad, M., Kahveci Karıncaoglu, D., Gülseren, G., Şenol, E., Demircan, E., Taheri, Y., Suleria, H. A. R., Özçelik, B., Nur Kasapoğlu, K., Gültekin-Özgüven, M., Daşkaya-Dikmen, C., Cho, W. C., Martins, N., & Calina, D. (2020). Diet, Lifestyle and Cardiovascular Diseases: Linking Pathophysiology to Cardioprotective Effects of Natural Bioactive Compounds. International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health, 17(7), 2326Amber- Summarize Carmen’s controllable risk factors for heart disease.Carmen has control over high blood pressure, high cholesterol, sedentary lifestyle, overweight/obesity, diabetes, stress diet/nutrition, and alcohol consumption (Powers & Dodd, 2017, p.230).Discuss the relationship between the lifestyle factors of poor diet and sedentary behavior to heart disease (particularly discuss the formation of plaque within the arteries). Use a reference to support your explanation.When exercise and diet are neglected, one of the consequences is heart disease. When a person’s diet consists only of processed, low nutrient dense, and salty foods, plaque begins to develop in the arteries around the heart. Eventually, this can stop blood flow to the heart causing a heart attack or could cause a blockage of arteries to the brain causing a stroke. Hypertension is another form of cardiovascular disease. “Chronic high blood pressure increases the workload on the heart, which may eventually damage heart muscle and reduce the heart’s ability to pump blood effectively throughout the body. It damages the lining of arteries, resulting in atherosclerosis” (Powers & Dodd, 2017, p. 279). Physical exercise can help prevent CVD because it helps to maintain healthy body weight and blood pressure, is part of stress management, and overall is great for the heart and lungs. “A lack of physical activity and inadequate nutrition act synergistically and in part additively, and they operate largely through the same pathways”(Ignarro, 2007, para. 4).Explain the current recommendations for healthy levels of BMI, cholesterol, blood pressure, and physical activity.For Carmen’s age range, she needs to have a BMI of at least 24 or less (she will need to lose at least 20 lbs), she needs to have blood pressure of 120/80 mm Hg. It is recommended that Carmen have a total cholesterol level of 200 mg/dL, and not the 230 she currently has. Lastly, Carmen needs to be including low impact physical exercise at least 3-4 days per week.Devise a plan for Carmen to reduce her risk factors. The plan should include detailed dietary guidelines (recommendations for specific amounts of fat, cholesterol, caloric intake, etc.) and physical activity guidelines to include each of the FITT principles.First Carmen will need to fill out the PAR-Q to determine if she can begin an exercise program of if she will need to consult her Physician first (Powers & Dodd, 2017,pg. 30). Due to her age and lack of physical activity I would start Carmen off doing low impact activities like swimming or biking for 20-30 mins, 3-5 times per week. I would ensure she is equipped with proper warm up and cool down exercises and stretches to prevent injury. I would also recommend strength training exercises that would include high resistance and low repetitions. After about five weeks of consistency, Carmen would be reevaluated to see if she needs to keep to her current program or if she is ready to progress. Some guidelines that I would recommend to Carmen is to first set up an account at or to monitor her food and beverage intake as well as macro and micronutrients. That will let her see specifically in real time what is entering her body and keep goals more attainable. I would encourage her to replace soda and juices with flavored or seltzer water and consider adding fruit as a replacement for desserts after a meal. I think it is the gradual changes that make a big difference, one step at a time. The goal would be to reach a well balanced diet, to include fruits and vegetables, protein, carbohydrates, and healthy fats. As stated by Powers & Dodd, Carmen should consume less than 300 mg of cholesterol per day, 58% carbs, 30% fat, and 12% protein (pg.222).Louis J. Ignarro, Maria Luisa Balestrieri, Claudio Napoli, Nutrition, physical activity, and cardiovascular disease: An update, Cardiovascular Research, Volume 73, Issue 2, January 2007, Pages 326–340,, S. K., & Dodd, S. L. (2017). Total fitness & wellness, the Mastering Health edition (7th ed.). Retrieved from https://redshelf.comDanielle Belfon- Summarize Carmen’s controllable risk factors for heart disease. Carmen cannot control her age or her race/ethnicity, but she can control her diet and weight. Her blood pressure is 152/80 mmHg. Her high blood pressure has put her at risk for heart disease. I am concerned because with a blood pressure this high, she could have a stroke. This is mentioned in the journal, Journal ofCerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism,Hypertension has numerous effects upon the brain, notably, compromise of blood-brain barrier, distributed damage to the white matter, and post-stroke edema. Such physiologic changes create a different milieu for the ischemia-challenged brain. With the high prevalence of hypertension as both a risk factor and sequelae of stroke, it is an important consideration in acute stroke management. (O’Collins, 2017, p. 1146).Carmen should cut out fast food out of her life and her kids’ lives. They will model after her because she is their mother. Fast food has a high concentration of salt and sugar. This is a risk factor for heart disease. Fast food also has a lot of saturated fats. Her body mass index shows that she is overweight and awfully close to being obese. Her gaining weight, has put her at risk for CVD and Type 2 diabetes. According to Powers and Dodd (2017),”Obesity increases the risk of developing at least 26 diseases. Cardiovascular disease, colon cancer, hypertension (high blood pressure), kidney disease, arthritis, and diabetes among the most serious” (p. 161). She could have controlled her weight, blood pressure, and cholesterol by exercising and eating healthy meals.Discuss the relationship between the lifestyle factors of poor diet and sedentary behavior to heart disease (particularly discuss the formation of plaque within the arteries). Use a reference to support your explanation. A poor diet and not being physically active, can lead to heart disease. The body needs to move and get rid of unnecessary fat. Essential fat is good because it cushions the organs. It is needed when a woman is pregnant and when she is giving birth. However, storage fat can lead to clogged blood vessels. “Hypertension follows closely behind lipids on a list of classical risk factors for atherosclerosis” and “Angiotensin II (AII), in addition to its vasoconstrictor properties, can instigate intimal inflammation” (Riccioni et al., 2003, p. 27). Plague builds up in the blood vessels which then reduces proper blood flow. (Lechner et al., 2020, p. 395-400).Explain the current recommendations for healthy levels of BMI, cholesterol, blood pressure, and physical activity. The current recommendation for physical activity is 150 minutes per week. A person should exercise five days out of the week for 30 minutes. A normal blood pressure should be around 120/80 mmHg. The upper number (systolic) should always be higher than the lower number (diastolic). A person’s HDL cholesterol should be between 40 and 60 mg/dL. The LDL cholesterol should be less than 100 mg/dL. The triglyceride level should be less than 150 mg/dL. The non-HDL cholesterol level should be less than 130 mg/dL. The cholesterol level should be less than 200 mg/dL. A normal BMI is 18-25.Devise a plan for Carmen to reduce her risk factors. The plan should include detailed dietary guidelines (recommendations for specific amounts of fat, cholesterol, caloric intake, etc.) and physical activity guidelines to include each of the FITT principles. Carmen should consume more vegetables and fruits. However, she has to remember that fruits have sugar in them, so it is best to not eat too much at a time. She should watch her dietary intake as well. Her diet should consist of carbohydrates such as complex sugars. Because she is diabetic, she must watch her carbohydrate and fat intake. If she is going to consume bread or pasta, it should be wheat pasta and multigrain bread. Multigrain bread is also great for fiber. She also must watch her portion and serving size. She should cut back on red meat such as burgers and steaks because those tend to have a high amount of saturated fats. She should cut back on the meat and poultry for now until she can get her cholesterol levels and A1C down. Fish is a great alternative because it is rich in omega-3 fatty acids. She should cut out most, if not all, simple sugars. Her calorie intake should be around 2,000 calories a day. Her carbohydrate intake should be 325 grams a day. Her fat intake should be 50 grams a day. Her fiber intake should be 25 grams a day. Her cholesterol intake should be less than 200 grams a day. Her protein intake should be 46 grams a day. Carmen needs to exercise, but she has to engage in a physical activity that makes her feel good physically and emotionally. For now, Carmen should exercise for about 30 minutes a day for 2-3 days. It is best to start out slow. She should warm up and cool down every time. She also has a heart condition which means that she should not over do it when it comes to her exercise regimen. She should start walking or she can go on a treadmill. She can also go bike riding with her daughters which would be a fun and healthy activity for all of them to enjoy.ReferencesLechner, K, von Schacky, C., McKenzie, A. L., Worm, N., Nixdorff, U., Lechner, B., Kränkel, N., Halle, M., Krauss, R. M., & Scherr, J. Lifestyle factors and high risk atherosclerosis: Pathways and mechanisms beyond traditional risk factors. European Journal of PreventiveCardiology, 27(4), 394 – 406.’Collins, V. E., Donnan, G. A., Macleod, M. R., & Howells, D. W. (2013). Hypertension and experimental stroke therapies. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, 33(8), 1141-1147., S. K., & Dodd, S. L. (2017). Total fitness & wellness, the mastering health edition (7th edition). Pearson. Retrieved from https://redshelf.comRiccioni, G., De Santis A., Cerasa, V., Menna, C., Di llio, C., Schiavone, C., Ballone, E., & D’Orazio, N. (2003). Atherosclerotic plaque formation and risk factors. International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology, 25-31.
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