GEO 101 CSUGC Earth Sciences ON Weather Change Lab Report.
QUESTION 1: Weather and ClimatePart 1: Collecting Local Weather DataFor the first part of this week’s lab, you will need to collect at least five consecutive days’ worth of local weather data. Using measurements from your homemade weather instruments, complete the table below. For those instruments you did not build, use data from a weather website such as weather.com or wunderground.com. Collect your data once each day, keeping as close to the same time of day as possible. For sky conditions, note the approximate percent of the sky that is overcast, and identify the cloud types present if you can. Here is a simple web guide to cloud identification. (Links to an external site.)Weather Station DataDate and TimeHigh Temp. (ºF)Wind Speed (mi/h)Wind DirectionAir Pressure (height of water column, in cm)Precip. (inches)Sky Conditions1234567Weather Station DataIn a couple of well-crafted paragraphs, reflect on your results. What happened over the course of the week? What is the general story of the recent weather where you live? What patterns do you see in your data? For instance, one means of forecasting stormy weather is through monitoring changes in barometric pressure. What do you wonder about?Part 2: Local Impacts of Global Climate ChangeImagine collecting more weather data—indeed, imagine gathering weather data for 2,190 times as long as you did. At that point, you would have 30 years’ worth of weather measurements, and only then could a picture of your local climate emerge. Climate is defined as the weather conditions for a particular region, averaged over 30 years. To detect change in climate due to global warming, then, much more than 30 years’ worth of weather data are necessary. Let’s consider the past 60 years where you live. For this analysis, go to this web page: https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/cag/county/time-series (Links to an external site.) and follow the steps below. (Note: In case of a government shutdown or other event that makes this site unavailable, contact your instructor for data sets.)Let’s begin by comparing one month’s high temperatures over 60 years. From the drop-down menus, choose Maximum Temperature for Parameter. Leave the Time Scale as 1- month. Choose a month you would like to compare—as long as you keep the month specification the same, which month you select does not matter. For Start Year, select 1958. End Year should be 2018. Select your State and County from the drop-down menus. Click on the rectangle labeled “Plot”. A graph of the high temperature values for each year should appear. Take a screen shot of the graph to include with you report. (If you are not certain how to do this, check out this helpful resource (Links to an external site.).) What trend do you notice in the overall trajectory of the graph, as you go from left to right? Is it going up, going down, or staying relatively level?Next, compare the same month’s low temperatures over the same time range. Leave all of your selections the same, except change Parameter to Minimum Temperature. What does the plot reveal this time? Are low temperatures for your chosen month generally rising, falling, or staying the same in your county? Again, be sure to take a screen shot of the graph.Finally, compare precipitation for the same month over the past 60 years. Leave all other selections the same except change Parameter to Precipitation. What does the plot show? Is precipitation rising where you live, dropping, or staying approximately the same? Be sure to take a screen shot of the graph for your report.Part Three: Global Climate ChangeFinally, view the animation at http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap130731.html (Links to an external site.). (Note: In case of a government shut down or other event that makes this site unavailable, contact your instructor for data sets.) Assess the differences from 1884 to 2011. What particular regions of the Earth have changed the most over that time, and how have they changed? Why might those regions be particularly sensitive to climate change? (This question may require some research in the text or using a credible online resource.)Lab ReportFor your lab report this week, submit an APA formatted paper, according to the CSU-Global Guide to Writing and APA Requirements (Links to an external site.) for all three parts of this lab. Include your screen shots of all three of the graphs that you viewed. QUESTION 2:LAB 2:Water on Mars & Light from the StarsIntroductionWelcome to the final lab activity of GEO 101C! In the first part of this week’s lab, we will leave Earth behind and venture to our neighboring planet of Mars. Using Google Mars, we will explore the terrain of the Red Planet, looking at evidence of past water flow across its surface. In the second part of the lab, you will build a spectrometer, a device for observing the spectra of different light sources. Spectrometers enable astronomers to determine the composition of distant stars, as well as how far away they are from us. Before beginning this lab, take a few minutes to review the list of materials required to complete Part 2, on page 6. Your final product for this lab will be a lab report. It is not necessary to submit this worksheet. Your report should cover all of the questions you have answered here (in paragraph essay form, not question and answer format). It should discuss how these two tools – Google Mars and spectrometers – can be used to study distant places (planets and stars). Part 1: Water on MarsBegin by clicking here (Links to an external site.) to open the website containing the location files you will use this week. Under “Other Materials”, click on “Placemarks – Mars Fluvial Features” to download the file to your computer. Once it is downloaded, open it, and it should open automatically in Google Earth Pro. Once Mars appears, you’ll have a different set of layers from Google Earth to explore. The Global Mapslayer can be used to change the surface layer (you may have to expand this folder to see these options): use the radio button to choose the layer and click the blue layer name to bring up a brief description of that dataset. The “Visible Imagery” contains the highest quality images, but the Viking Color Imagery layer is more uniform and may be easier to use in some places. The Daytime Infrared, Nighttime Infrared, and Colorized Terrain are interesting to explore but will not be used here.Locate the volcano Apollinaris Mons (also called Apollinaris Patera). The placemark is located on one side of the caldera: zoom out so you can see the flanks of the volcano as well.Describe the linear features that surround Apollinaris: if these were stream channels, what type of drainage would this be? To answer that question, click here (Links to an external site.) to view a number of different drainage patterns; which one fits the features around Apollinaris the best? Include a simple sketch of the drainage below; take a digital photograph of your sketch to include in your lab report.Consider the material that makes up Apollinaris: what does the presence of these linear channels suggest about the strength (ability to resist erosion) of the underlying material? Suggest an appropriate composition for this material as part of your answer (note the brief description given of Apollinaris in the instructions above.)Locate the feature Warrego Valles. This question is best answered using a “eye alt” of about 200 km/120 miles – set your zoom level so the eye alt value in the lower right corner of the window is about 200 km or 120 miles.In the space below, sketch the general shape of Warrego Valles. Take a digital photograph of your sketch to include in your lab report. What type of drainage does this appear to be – and what implications does this have for how Warrego Valles might have formed? Again, use this resource (Links to an external site.) to help identify the type of drainage pattern present.Locate the crater Orson Welles and examine the valley that starts at the crater’s NE rim (Shalbatana Valles). Briefly describe the valley below. Include a simple sketch of the valley; take a digital photograph of your sketch to include in your lab report. Identify any evidence of erosion/deposition in the valley floor and suggest a process by which this valley may have formed.Locate Noctis Labyrinthus (this feature is on the western edge of Vallis Marineris, the “Grand Canyon of Mars”).Assume that water has flowed through this area: what type of drainage pattern is present here? Include a simple sketch of the drainage; take a digital photograph of your sketch to include in your lab report. Again, use this resource (Links to an external site.) to help identify the type of drainage pattern present.What does this type of drainage pattern suggest about the underlying bedrock?Locate the “Feature in Eberswalde”, and zoom to an “eye alt” of 11 miles / 18 km with the placemark in the center of the window.Sketch the feature below and suggest how it may have formed (this is very much a mystery, with no right answer). Take a digital photograph of your sketch to include in your lab report.Part 2: Light from the Stars (Building a Spectrometer)The instructions below describe how to build a spectrometer. Here is a link if you wish to view the site where the instructions are from: Lab, Camera, Action: Make your own CD spectrometer (Links to an external site.).Materials needed:A CD or DVD that can be sacrificed to this project. Old software CDROMs work great.A cereal box. Any size that can hold a CD or DVD disk will do.A sharp knife or razor blade to cut into the cereal box.Our spectroscope has three main parts. There is a slit made from a razor blade to make a path for the light, a diffraction grating made from a CD disk, and a viewing port.To construct your spectroscope, you need to put a slice in one side of the box at roughly a 30-degree angle. This will hold the CD. Place the CD in the slot to determine where to place the other two cuts. On the top of the box, cut a hole about half an inch to an inch square above the CD. On the side opposite the CD, make a very narrow slit opposite the CD. Alternatively, you can cut a larger slit, and cover it with 2 pieces of foil to control the size of the slit. Spectroscope complete!Photograph your finished spectrometer and include the photo in your lab report.Once you have assembled your spectroscope with the instructions in the lecture and above, use it to examine the spectra of three different light sources. Make sure that at least one of them is the sun or moon, but the others can be incandescent lights, compact fluorescent bulbs, LED lights, halogen or xenon bulbs, televisions, computer screens, candles, fireplaces, etc. Aim the slit towards the light source you are investigating, then look through the viewing hole to see the spectrum on the disk.Answer the following questions: Identify each light source you viewed and describe the spectra you observed from that source. For each description, include colors, if the colors are blended together or separated, and if the colors are fuzzy or distinct. What feature of the light source do the spectra represent? In other words, what is it that you are actually analyzing?Why do you think spectrometers are so valuable for studying celestial objects?Part 3: The ReportWrite up your lab in a well-crafted report. The report should cover all the questions from Part 1 and Part 2, along with photos of all of your sketches from Part 1 and of your completed spectrometer in Part 2. Also include a discussion of how these two tools for studying distant worlds, Google Mars and a spectrometer, enable us to make new discoveries. Please adhere to APA formatting guidelines according to the CSU-Global Guide to Writing and APA Requirements (Links to an external site.) for all three parts of this lab.
As being the international student, I came to this country one week before my classes started. Everything thing was very different from my country culture, people and the way the live. I was not comfortable myself and the upcoming week was my first class. There were new faces in the class many of them were like me International students. It was bit unnatural and odd for me calling tutor by his name, because in my home country we denote teacher by “Sir” or “Ma’am”. The way of teaching was quiet different, teachers in my home country do not teaches us by PowerPoint slides and we do have specific text books for every module. Everything taught to us was from text books for the respective modules. It was my first day in class and I remember our lecturer had an introduction session with all the students, he pronounced the name of the student and we put our hand up in the air and also tell him the name of our country. We studied very little that day about the introduction of the module. In the later sessions we were taught about the perception of own attributes and personality, it was like what we are, what we do and how we deal in our life with different situations. The thing I experienced in class was students were not easy to mix-up with. Once I thought maybe they are ignoring me, but it was due to human nature as every person have different attitude towards different things and situations. It depends on individual’s nature, as it is not important that everyone will have the same way of thinking. Nature of individual differs from each other; it is totally based on individual differences. There have been many approaches to understand and make the concept clear about the human individual difference. Gordon Allport’s Trait Theory is the only one approach which is widely influential in psychological research and practice, this approach is applied to both cognitive abilities and personality. Trait Theory of individual difference says that there are cross-situational generalities in behaviour of individual. In other words personality difference in nature explains why people behave in similar way in different circumstances (as cited in: Arnold, John. 1998). It attempts to explain personality as psychologists have learned to emphasise the role of either person (internal) or situational (external) factors. It was important for me to understand the relative importance of students and situations in determining behaviour. Every day of our life we are not in the same mood or rather I would say in good mood, so it is not usual that we will behave the in the same way on encountering the same thing in different moods, this is cross-situational consistency as how we behave from one setting to another and other will behave different as per their personality and view of thinking. This was the gap which I felt between other students and me. They keep things to themselves and I was not quite comfortable with this, because in my home county usually new classmates introduce themselves to each other and share their past experiences about their social and study circles. The same way of behaviour was carried on in upcoming sessions of the module. No one gets involved in the social activities with other students and few students were coming to class with their old mates and the keep things to themselves, like no more friends or social networking. Sometimes it was difficult for me to cope with the studies, if I had missed my class and studying from the PowerPoint slides by my own was not helping me out. Being a new to this study system it was difficult for me to understand the PowerPoint slides, because in the PowerPoint slides only key information is provided in very short form. Though it was somehow good for all of us, as everyone minds their own business and no interference in others work. The lecturer has helped me along with other students in digging deep this module. He has been teaching us by creating interest in the sessions throughout the year. He has been source of motivation in this module. Tutor was leader and I was follower same as leadership is process of mutual influence, which depends on the interaction of both parties and in response to each other. If teacher does not take interest in teaching then students they will not pay attention in module. So it was very important for me and other students to pay attention in class so the tutor can fulfil his task and so we can. Due to not being very familiar with the education system and techniques, sometimes I lose my concentration in the sessions and even in self studies. As per Contingency Theory there is no best way to organise, or to lead and to make decisions, everything is dependent on internal and external situations (Cited: lecture notes). So our tutor use to apply many different ideas to make us concentrate in the module such as making a group of 3-4 pupils and giving them certain tasks to complete in class. He always makes best of his decision so that we can concentrate in our studies and sessions without any further interruption or lack of interest. Being a leader he has played is role very well in every aspect, he was having the qualities like transactional leadership and transformational leadership. It mean it was able to communicate with me and able to understand what are my views about the certain topic and if was wrong with his leadership qualities he was able to change my view and guide me to put on right path with encouraging manner. It is always assumed that leader must have certain attributes which are stable as well as transferable as per requirement of the situation and also be clearly distinctive especially measurable and can be predicted. He was having different style of his own. In class we were having mutual understanding, he was one of those peoples who first listen with patience and then react accordingly. He always takes all the students together and never let any one behind and was very concern about the whole group. He is the one who helped us in setting clear vision of our goals by his teaching confidence. He plans and assigns us with tasks; he let us know if we are not right and then explain the right way of doing it. Some time he makes it more interesting by give the task to complete and then rewarding us. I remember one day in class he gave us numerical problem as asked every student to answer it together and if no one makes the mistake he will give us treat but if any one of us goes wrong no one gets anything. This was an example of group encouragement in task completion. He has always focused on individual and team work in task completion. Every time he brings us new tasks and discuss it in class with all the students. I would say he has performed very well as leader he was having all the attributes of leadership. He understood the value of group that he was teaching developed vision accordingly, make everyone including himself to strategically take part in achieving the goal, help us make the purpose clear for studying this module, like a true leader he inspired us, motivated us and helped us getting to the right direction towards our aim. (Cited: lecture notes). I continue to attend my class as it was getting my interest in it. Then I was given a task to complete and score which will help me in passing this module or I can say it was the first task of the two to pass this module. I started my preparation for it; tutor gave us lecturer notes as usual he use to give in class. I find it difficult to complete the assessment as it was again different way of scoring as compare to my home country. This was not the only reason the question was troubling me. If I look for the books, I can’t find any book in the library which had the material which was needed for the assessment, however I got the book with partial study material, but the material for main approach of the assessment was not available. There were very limited books with that specific relevant material and we were lot of students to get them, so some of us may have got those books and some of us including me did not. This put more pressure on my mind to complete the task which was getting higher as the date of submission was coming near and the pressure ended up as stress on my mind for the assignment. I complete my assessment with the help of journal articles, books and other issued reading materials. It is usual work done under stress is not very good. Although it is essential to have certain amount of stress for meeting the challenges of life, stress can provide energy needed to resist aggression, maintain life and ability to adapt the constantly changing external influences (as Cited in: Johnson, David W. 1972). I got my feedback sheet in which it was clear that I have not score good marks. This has hit me psychologically, as my parents have spent lot of money for my education and I am not scoring good marks. I was thinking that I let them down with the bad performance. I started missing some of the sessions, losing my interest in studies. As per Lazarus
Table of Contents Introduction History of Artificial Intelligence Buddhist views on Artificial Intelligence Artificial Intelligence and Global Risk Can machines use thought to assist human beings? Turing Test Artificial Intelligence Case Study Conclusion References Introduction Calculators cannot be regarded as intelligent machines since they are not capable of working in the absence of human beings and cannot be taught. They are basically made to solve problems that people can readily solve. Regardless of speed and the complexity of mathematical problems that they can solve, all that they do is to accept some input and generate desired output. They may be fast but that does not mean they are intelligent since they only generate what was previously programmed and fed into them. According to Levy (2010) “the aim of Artificial Intelligence is not to regurgitate what has previously been programmed by merely solving a problem. Artificial Intelligence should instead help humans come up with entirely new and different ways of solving problems”. Unlike other disciplines that are well defined, Artificial Intelligence (AI) lacks clear details that can readily make it to be understandable. We all know how easy it is to distinguish between chemistry, physics, astronomy, biology, mathematics, languages, art, and music because all these disciplines are well defined (Russell and Norvig, 2006). There lacks clear definition of AI that can be widely accepted, in other words AI lacks clearly defined goals. Artificial Intelligent systems should be able to learn from experience with the aim of improving themselves, in other words, intelligent machines should be those that are capable of learning. History of Artificial Intelligence Artificial Intelligence may seem to some to be one of the recent subjects of study given its close association with computer technology. On the contrary, AI has a long history which can be traced back to imagination, philosophy and fiction. Disciplines such as engineering, electronics and others that were invented long ago have had their fare share of influence on AI. Historically, people are know to have applied the use of AI in areas like learning, deduction, and knowledge representation as well as translation, associative memory, theorem translation etc. Artificial Intelligence has historically existed in the realms of theory. It all began when Homer wrote some mechanical articles about “tripods” waiting to serve the gods at dinner, thus, imaginary mechanical characters have been part of human culture from antiquity. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, it’s only after renaissance about half a century ago that the AI scientists undertook to build machines that imitated human thought and intelligent behavior with the aim of testing whether Homers theories could be put to practice. As demonstrated in some films like the terminator, Robocop, transformers and others, prospect of machines that can mimic human beings remains in the future but discussion on the implication of such a reality should be encouraged at whatever cost (Levy, 2010). With an earth whose population has hit a record high of over seven billion and still rising, problems facing humanity are bound to escalate. Terrorism, diseases without cure, global warming, and increasing cases of financial insecurity even among the developing countries as demonstrated by movements like we are the ninety nine percent can overwhelm human beings at some point in future. Perhaps the invention of intelligent mechanical beings can be the only solution to social, economical and political woes that may overwhelm humanity. Like the ancient philosophers, should not the modern human being who relies on machines more than ever before stretch his imaginations once more and save humanity from a hoard of current and future problems that are all so real? Perhaps governments will some day be required to relocate people to some other planet due to overpopulation on earth. Descartes who is a famous philosopher suggested the possibility of inventing intelligent machines to help human beings discover who they truly are. Machines can eventually help bring about actual civilization by eliminating limitations of human intelligence that is prone to bias and that can be easily corrupted. Mechanical men designed to reason like human beings can help eliminate inefficiency in human institutions. They can be used to settle disputes in courts by using mechanical reasoning devices that use rules of logic. Prior to the invention of calculators, mathematics was a preserve for the few. Its invention did not render the mathematicians obsolete but strengthened their skills all the more and made it possible for many more others to learn the discipline much efficiently and effectively thereby improving humanities output or productivity. In Jewish folklore, there is this artificially created being called Golem that is akin to Mary Shelly’s Frankenstein. Such imaginary characters have always fascinated human imagination. However, such characters have always fueled irrational fear of intelligent machines among people. The first machine that seemed to emulate human thought was the chess playing machine invented in eighteenth century. Chess is a game that is intellectually demanding since it requires application of too much thought. People often believed that Turk was able to think on its own and thought that the machine could play against a human counterpart on its own. We will write a custom Article on Non Experts: Artificial Intelligence specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, unlike other people, a newspaper writer was able to observe that Turk was a machine since it played so well. It made flawless moves. Imagine a society where no professional ever made a mistake, would it not be perfect and ideal for human existence. Diplomatic rows would be solved free of human emotion and would be based on tradeoffs or win win solutions thereby making wars to be a thing of the past. No one would ever have to lose his life because of misdiagnosis by a doctor or faulty sentence handed over by a judge to an innocent citizen. The initial studies of AI involved chess which was used for studying inference. In 1997, AI proved to be no maniac’s delusional imagination when the world chess champion, Gary Kasparov was defeated by Deep Blue Program designed to test relevance of artificial intelligence. Buddhist views on Artificial Intelligence Philosophy plays a major role in determining what direction is taken by the AI researchers. It is well understood that AI systems cannot be built in the absence of undivided attention from human mind given the very nature of the subject. Another thing that one ought to bear in mind is that AI is a multi-disciplinary subject that requires close consultations among stakeholders from all other disciplines. Given that Human mind is the most intelligent thing on record, researchers naturally applies the knowledge they have gathered so far concerning its workings in building AI systems. According to Hagen (1999) “the Buddhist perspective on AI is a controversial one given the belief that the only way an individual can achieve enlightment is by suppressing every plan and calculation made by the mind “. According to Buddhism, an enlightened individual is devoid of common intelligence that shows how the world is made of interacting parts. The individual sees the world differently, he does not plan, classify, build mental assumptions to accommodate his observations and cares little if his actions should succeed or fail. Contrary to this belief, AI researchers’ endeavors to equip their systems with the ability to learn from past observations or with knowledge derived from day today experiences of the researchers themselves. Artificial Intelligence systems use bits or parts of different information to arrive at decisions. This means that when designing an AI system, one cannot help but divide the world into interacting parts that can either be relevant or irrelevant depending on the decisions that are to be made by the system. All successful robots and programs are based on this premise. Despite their usefulness to human and environment, Buddhists consider this to be against the natural state of human mind (Hagen, 1999). Buddhism teaches that all is flux and nothing abides. According to this principle there is no rule or regulation that can be applied constantly with success since change cannot be stopped from taking place by words written in any language. Any concept becomes obsolete with time. Buddhism teaches that change affects everything including our mind and ego that most people consider to be constant. This means that there can be perceptions without a perceiver or feelings without a feeler, interesting indeed (Hagen, 1999). Not sure if you can write a paper on Non Experts: Artificial Intelligence by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Buddhism teaches that everything is intimately interconnected and that reality cannot be a composition of parts. This means that everything is everything else. Thus, subdividing reality into parts will eventually provide wrong results. This concept is referred to as chaotic system. This kind of system cannot be divided into parts with limited controllable interaction. In such a system, work input does not equal work output since a minor change in output can lead to output that is non-proportionately big and with unpredictable changes. An example of such a system is the weather. Predicting weather often involves segmenting a certain area of interest into smaller parts and then applying simplified rules to each section. The results obtained from each section are combined and calculation of effects of each part of the other parts is done. However, it is a well known fact that not even the strongest of the super computers ever get to produce accurate weather predictions. According to Buddhism, it would be impossible to predict the weather by splitting it into parts. The only way of predicting it would be by considering it to be part of a whole. This means that one must take into account everything that can directly or indirectly affect the weather, such as the motion of an insect, heat generated by bacteria or even the light emitted by distant galaxies which has the potential of increasing the energy of a few air molecules. According to Buddhism, an intelligent machine can only be created when it is given both the power to think and to become enlightened. Creating a mind that can be enlightened can be a real challenge for developers of AI systems. Artificial Intelligence and Global Risk The greatest mistake that is often made by people is to assume too quickly that they understand something. Most people profess to understand the concept of genetically modified organisms, evolution and even artificial intelligence. Advocates of AI agree that AI is known for promising so much while at the same time delivering too little. AI is certainly not a simple subject, but people often treat it as some sort of fantasy subject that requires little or no attention. This is embarrassing indeed. Consider other disciplines like astronomy whose reputation never gets ruined by promising to create stars from hydrogen and then failing to create even a tiny one. This clearly shows that AI is not a complicated discipline but rather people tend to think they know a lot about it than they actually do. Villains, dignified men, men of collar you name them, none if asked to press a button that would lead to total destruction of the world would ever agree. They all need a platform from where each can carry out his noble or ignoble duties. Speaking thus, the destruction of the world would definitely be more of an accident than design. Human thought works in a way that allows it to provide accurate or approximate answers. People can easily tell what risks are capable of causing deaths more than others. However, when asked to be precise, they tend to overestimate risks that cause few deaths and underestimate those that can cause more deaths. This shows that human thought is often faced with the risk of making errors. Once a group of people were asked by a researcher to estimate the likely causes of deaths in United States, majority of them noted down that homicide caused more deaths than diabetes. Other studies have consistently proven that human judgment cannot be free of errors. Reports from various quarters noted that people were unwilling to buy flood insurance policies even when they were heavily subsidized. People tend to underestimate threats that can jeopardize their lives due to floods. They are simply not able to conceptualize or imagine a threat that has never taken place (Levy 2010). People living in flood prone areas will often take comfort of levees and dams built to control floods. However, what they forget is that serious damage could occur should a single uncontrollable flood strike. If people get used to controlling minor threats, they soon become reluctant and tend to treat the occurrence of major hazards as unlikely. Talk of dangers that threaten the very existence of man and nobody will take you serious for no such danger has ever faced humanity. Can machines use thought to assist human beings? The search for intelligent life in outer space is nothing new. Through Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence program or SETI, scientists have tried without success to determine whether other animals other than man possess intelligence or whether there is possibility of intelligent beings that live in outer space. All these efforts have born no fruit. It must feel lonely indeed being the only beings who are self aware in the universe. There are numerous fiction movies like star wars and the likes that suggest the possibility of developing artificial intelligence in machines in incredible ways. If anything, achieving such levels of intelligence in machines is still a pipe dream that is yet to be achieved. This does not mean that artificial intelligence is not in use today. Factories use robotic arms that can handle delicate tasks. Cars are fitted with micro computers that can detect slight changes in driving style and road conditions. The problem is whether AI researchers are able to come up with intelligent machines that are capable of engaging humans in objective dialogue. To understand how this is possible, it would be proper to discuss the difference between people and computers. Logic in man is not equivalent to computer logic which is discrete. This means that a computer cannot give you any other answer other than a single answer that it was initially programmed to give. This makes it possible to easily plot a computer’s decisions on a decision tree. Each set of discreet decisions taken is represented by a single node. This gives ability to the computer system to be able to search and understand every single one of these decisions. On the other hand, people do not make static decisions. For instance, if a group of persons were to be asked to state whether Lake X which is 960 feet deep is deep or not they can either give a yes or no answer. This kind of logic referred to as fuzzy logic is certainly not solid. It is mostly based on an individual’s opinion. For a computer, the answer is definite. The answer given b y the computer will have been obtained from some programmed rule like, “Less than 500 feet shallow, yes, more than 500 feet, deep, and no”. Humans are what they are today as a result of millions of years of evolution. Creating a machine with all human ability within a short period of time would definitely be a daunting task given all the stages that humans had to go through. Intelligent machines would therefore have to undergo evolutionary processes similar to those of humans in order for them to gain from enough experience and obtain intelligence equivalent to that of humans. Measuring amount of intelligence obtained through a certain degree of evolution can be quite difficult. 60 years ago, a method to determine the level of machine intelligence in comparison to that of man was invented and given the name Turing Test. Turing Test Alison MathisonTuring is a scholar who happened to be an outstanding mathematician. He wanted to establish whether it was possible for computer program to possess intelligence. He devised certain rules that would enable him accomplish his task. The rules were in form of a game commonly called the game of imitation. It involves a group of three people playing together, (A) a man, (B) a woman, and (C) an interrogator who can either be a male or female. C is locked in a room separate from the rest. The interrogator is supposed to identify between A and B which is the machine and who is a person. C does not know the exact names of A and B since they have been labeled X and Y respectively. The interrogator is supposed to say what he or she thinks of x and Y i.e. X = A or X= B, and Y =A or Y=B. The interrogator asks A and B questions (Penrose, etal, 2009). Turing suggested that if the responses of a computer were real enough, it would be impossible to distinguish between the real person and the computer. People have always wondered whether Turing test was designed to test the smartness of a human as opposed to machine intelligence of fooling the interrogator. Turing test has been used to develop most of the modern chat programs that tends to fool a person that they are conversing with a human. The person conversing with a human and a machine is made to believe before the game starts that he will be playing with a man and a woman. When the game is over, he or she is asked to state what player between A and B he or she would assign machine status. If the integrator is unable to tell the difference between the machine (advanced computer) and human, then the computer is deemed to have passed intelligence test (Levy, 2010). The test normally takes five minutes. Scholars have argued that this test cannot be used to define artificial intelligence for a number of reasons: A computer can imitate human behavior but not necessarily true intelligence. A computer can be intelligent but not able to chat like a real person. Turing Test Turing Test cannot articulate consciousness in a machine. Humans sometimes exhibit totally irrational, chaotic, unpredictable and unintelligent behavior. There is also some intelligent behavior that is uncharacteristic of human nature. Artificial intelligence can be faced with major setbacks indeed. For instance would such machines be able to experience pain and pleasure, make generalizations, generate ideas, use commonsense and so on. Such questions can make the idea of trying to build artificial intelligent systems to seem absolutely ludicrous. Does this mean that efforts to create artificial intelligent systems should be abandoned, absolutely not? One cannot understand something that cannot be created. Artificial Intelligence Case Study Somewhere in St. Leo Laboratory, Eddie Brown is fine tuning the behavior of a machine. Scattered around him is a horde of robots some of which resemble small all-terrain motor vehicles. They appear to be kind of lifeless and slow pieces of electronic gadgets. However, these contraptions are kind of curious in that reason bout the environment and react to surrounding changes. Literary speaking, these machines can “think”. Eddie, a senior artificial intelligence researcher compares the minds of these contraptions to those of knowledgeable insects that have learned to survive. A housefly is intelligent in that it is able to adapt to surroundings by doing those things which it can do well so as to increase its chances of survival. Eddie states that, going by that definition of intelligence, these robots are smart. Researcher Eddie (left) In a different Laboratory located elsewhere, Eddie collaborates with fellow researchers in the school of computing to build artificial intelligent systems that can make complicated decisions. These researchers have been charged with the task of exploring new applications. This is a project of DARPA or defense advanced Research Projects agency. The robots designed should be able to perform two important tasks. First, they should be able to learn from the researchers how to search for biological hazards in rooms. Second, they should be able to detect, intercept and destroy a moving enemy target. The robots should be able to perform these tasks without any assistance from the researchers. Most universities focus on building robots with low-level performance with basic system guided movements. There are some that embark on projects to build machines with a higher level of reasoning. Researchers in Georgia school of computing are doing everything to integrate the different levels of functionality to build robots with human like behavior for use by private sector and the military (Brooks, 2009). Building machines which simulate human knowledge and awareness is no mean task. Consider the case of a common human driver on a highway or a route he or she is used to. This person will drive along at ease without being conscious of the act of driving. This is called reflexive behavior. However, if the driver gets lost, he becomes conscious of driving as he or she tries to find the way out. This is called cognitive reasoning. The artificial intelligence researchers endeavor to make intelligent machines that can think and act as well as be able to learn and apply the required skills. This task lies squarely within the jurisdiction of specialists who can develop high level, behavior based software for robots. This system of software borrows heavily from neuroscience and psychology. Eddie uses this set of software to control hardware. Sensors are used to enhance both the software and the hardware and help develop and sustain methods through which robots can acquire and process data that they are able to perceive in real time using data and other information from global positioning satellite. Conclusion Just like humans, intelligent machines in the foregoing case can be assisted to gain knowledge through the use of various techniques. The most common technique if the Learning Momentum which was discovered by a person called Arkin and his team mates. The robot is taught that if a behavior has nothing wrong with it, then it should continue repeating it. The other technique is the reinforcement technique. This is just like the stick and carrot technique used to teach kids. Computer generated rewards are used to encourage the robot every time it makes good decisions thereby making it continue repeating the same. The foregoing project undertakes to investigate ways through which intelligent systems can get to interact with humans by instilling psychological properties in them. Other than the project that was just discussed, researchers from the College of Computing have undertaken to develop a group of 100 miniature robots to imitate a large scale system that includes different genre of machines, humans and robots. The group of robots is expected to work together in an environment they are not used to and which is subject to change from time to time. Sensors are allowed to be erroneous and able to gather information from different points. The sensors should be able to help the robots detect the movement and position of their counterparts. This acts as the principle means of cooperation and communication. This system is akin to that found in a colony of termites or bees. The robots will be able to act properly after a long duration of time since they will have been able to identify wrong moves made due to sensor errors. In other words the robots will have used intelligence to solve movement and spatial problems. Hindrances to advancement in the field of artificial intelligence range from intelligence, ethical, conscience, perception, locomotion and power storage (Russell and Norvig, 2006). References Brooks, R. (2009). Intelligence without representation . The Case Study of Artificial Intelligence. 5 (47), 7-23 Hagen, S. (1999) Buddhism Plain
CUMS Factors that Affect Hand Hygiene Compliance in Long Term Health Care Essay.
GEO 101 CSUGC Earth Sciences ON Weather Change Lab Report
Prepare this assignment as a 1,500-1,750 word paper using the instructor feedback from the previous course assignments and the guidelines below. PICOT Question Revise the PICOT question you wrote in the Topic 1 assignment using the feedback you received from your instructor. The final PICOT question will provide a framework for your capstone project (the project students must complete during their final course in the RN-BSN program of study). Research Critiques In the Topic 2 and Topic 3 assignments, you completed a qualitative and quantitative research critique on two articles for each type of study (4 articles total). Use the feedback you received from your instructor on these assignments to finalize the critical analysis of each study by making appropriate revisions. The completed analysis should connect to your identified practice problem of interest that is the basis for your PICOT question. Refer to “Research Critiques and PICOT Guidelines – Final Draft.” Questions under each heading should be addressed as a narrative in the structure of a formal paper. Proposed Evidence-Based Practice Change Discuss the link between the PICOT question, the research articles, and the nursing practice problem you identified. Include relevant details and supporting explanation and use that information to propose evidence-based practice changes. General Requirements Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.
CUMS Factors that Affect Hand Hygiene Compliance in Long Term Health Care Essay
CRM CASE STUDY ASSIGNMENT INSTRUCTIONS OVERVIEW In Module 4: Week 4, the student will read one of the accident
CRM CASE STUDY ASSIGNMENT INSTRUCTIONS OVERVIEW In Module 4: Week 4, the student will read one of the accident. CRM CASE STUDY ASSIGNMENT INSTRUCTIONS OVERVIEW In Module 4: Week 4, the student will read one of the accident reports below and write a 1-page case study paper in current APA format. After reading the report, the student will identify at least one (1) CRM problem/issue that led to the crash, then suggest a Crew Resource Management (CRM)/Human Factor solution from your textbook reading/videos and recommend the best solution that should have been implemented to possibly avoid future accidents. The 1-page report should give a short introduction to the problem(s) and student conclusion(s)/recommendation(s). The goal of the paper is to look into the CRM problem area(s) and offer a solution(s) based on your experience/study of CRM. INSTRUCTIONS Choose one (1) of the following accidents for the CRM case paper: • United Airlines, Flight 173, 28 Dec 1978 https://www.ntsb.gov/investigations/AccidentReports/Reports/AAR7907.pdf In a Microsoft Word document write a 1-page report, the report will just be the body of the report and a reference page (no title page). The paper will be in current APA format to include double spaced, 12-font, New Times Roman. CRM CASE STUDY ASSIGNMENT INSTRUCTIONS OVERVIEW In Module 4: Week 4, the student will read one of the accident
IT 270 Southern New Hampshire University Software Design Documents Discussion
best essay writers IT 270 Southern New Hampshire University Software Design Documents Discussion.
PART 1CompetencyIn this project, you will demonstrate your mastery of the following competency:Present and articulate technical concepts to non-technical audiencesScenarioYou are the manager of a software development team working on new applications for your company, Optimum Way Development, Inc. Your director has called for all development teams to submit product briefs detailing their current projects. The director plans to share the most promising product briefs with clients at an upcoming meeting. You have software design documents for two potential projects.DirectionsYou must choose one of the potential products and use the information contained in the technical specification document to create your product brief. The brief is intended to explain the new application to potential clients. (Use the personas created for the 2-1 Milestone as the audience for this project.) You should highlight the features that will appeal to clients and persuade them to purchase the new application. Your brief should include the following:An explanation of the features and functions of the productClear definitions of technical terms and concepts that are relevant to communicating the product capabilitiesAn explanation of the benefits of using the product within an organizationGraphics that support or clarify technical information concerning the productAppropriate language for the intended audienceWhat to SubmitTo complete this project, you must submit the following:Product Brief with GraphicsThis assignment must be 500 to 1,000 words in length and should include at least two graphics that help clarify technical concepts. Any references must be cited in APA format.Supporting MaterialsThe following resource(s) may help support your work on the project:Resource: Software Design DocumentsUse one of these software design documents as the basis for your product brief.Website: WebopediaThis website gives definitions of several technology terms. You can use this website to assist with defining terminology in the software design documents.Website: What Is a Product Brief and Why Is It Important?This website explains the components of a product brief and why it is important. Although you do not need to follow the suggested suggestions exactly, this may act as a starting point for structuring your assignment. PART 2 ::;CompetencyIn this project, you will demonstrate your mastery of the following competency:Describe the fundamentals of cybersecurity policies and proceduresExplain how the protection of information impacts policies and practices within an organizationScenarioYou recently stepped into the role of information security manager at a medium-sized e-commerce company with roughly 500 to 1,000 employees organization-wide. The company has hired a third-party consultant to evaluate its information security posture. The consultant has concluded the evaluation and noted several high security risks. These action items must be addressed to ensure that the company’s information assets are secure. Your task is to provide recommendations to address multiple identified security risks and explain your decisions to your leadership team.DirectionsMemo Template: To communicate the identified information security risks and your recommendations and explanations, you will generate a memo to your leadership team. Your recommendations do not have to address all information security risks; however, they must address multiple risks. Be mindful that your leadership team is considered a nontechnical audience. You must complete each of the following sections:Introduction: Describe how addressing the evaluated elements of information security will support the company’s business objectives.Laws and Regulations: Explain how laws and regulations influence information security policies and procedures within this company.Technical Controls: Describe the technical controls that you would recommend to address the multiple indicated information security risks from the consultant’s findings.Administrative Controls: Describe the administrative controls that you would recommend to address the multiple indicated information security risks from the consultant’s findings.Physical Controls: Describe the physical controls that you would recommend to address the multiple indicated information security risks from the consultant’s findings.Business Impact: Explain how your recommendations impact current information security policies and practices within this company.Conclusion: Explain why leadership should act on these control recommendations to improve the company’s information security posture. Your conclusion can also include a brief summary, although it is not required.What to SubmitTo complete this project, you must submit the following:Memo TemplateThis should be a 2- to 3-page Word document (.docx) with the following sections completed: introduction, laws and regulations, technical controls, administrative controls, physical controls, business impact, and conclusion.Supporting MaterialsThe following resource(s) may help support your work on the project:Project One Company OverviewBefore you start your memo, review the company overview. Reviewing the background of the company is necessary to help you meet the requirements for this project.Project One Consultant FindingsBefore you start your memo, also review the consultant findings. Reviewing the consultant’s report is necessary to help you meet the requirements for this project.Project One Memo TemplateYou are required to use the provided memo template. The template has the following sections to be completed: introduction, laws and regulations, technical controls, administrative controls, physical controls, business impact, and conclusion.PART 3:::The final project for this course is the creation of a website. Throughout this course, there will be key milestone activities for you to take advantage of so that have adequate time to research, analyze, and put together your website. These milestones are designed to build upon each other so that you can get started on key aspects of your final project and receive valuable feedback from your instructor for improving upon your work as you construct your website. Remember to always review your Final Project Guidelines and Rubric document for how you will be scored on your final draft submission. Note: You may complete this assignment in a separate Word document. If you choose to do so, be sure to number your responses to match the questions provided in the worksheet. 1. GENERAL PAGE TEMPLATE DESIGN Briefly describe the general design approach you have planned for your site’s home page template, as well as any likenesses or differences for your supporting site pages. A general description of overall page template arrangement, with general design element placements, will suffice. (6–8 sentences) 2. CHOICE OF COLOR PALETTE What colors have you chosen for your uncle’s website, and why did you make those choices? Have you chosen a primary color and one or more secondary “highlight” colors? Or have you kept your color choices simpler and more limited? (4–6 sentences) 3. TYPOGRAPHY CHOICES Briefly describe the typefaces you have opted to use for your final website project, and why. While this can be a complex set of choices for a large site, you should probably keep your choices here simple—say, a sans-serif font for display (headline) type, and a serif font for body type. (4–6 sentences(((All rubric/instructions will be send to you))))
IT 270 Southern New Hampshire University Software Design Documents Discussion
Environmental Psychology Is Relatively New Psychology Essay
Environmental Psychology Is Relatively New Psychology Essay. A survey was carried out to investigate whether level of education increased attitudes to proenvironmental behaviour. The survey was completed by 67 students, including 16 level three Access to Higher Education students, 29 level four psychological studies students and 22 level five psychological studies students. Level of education does not significantly increase attitudes to proenvironmental behaviour. Although it is not suggested what factors do increase attitudes to proenvironmental behaviour, which could be investigated in further research. Introduction Environmental psychology is a relatively new area within psychology; that developed at the end of the 1950s. Environmental psychology research began with interest into the physical characteristics of the environment but the research developed into the bigger issue of the interaction between human behaviour and the socio-physical environment (BonnesEnvironmental Psychology Is Relatively New Psychology Essay
ROI and TCO calculations
ROI and TCO calculations. I’m trying to study for my Computer Science course and I need some help to understand this question.
Assignment Instructions and Requirements
First, download the required template for this assignment:
Use of this template is
. Do not alter the formatting;
fill in the content as explained below. Failure to submit the assignment using this template will
Your 504 Technologies client is thinking about buying tablets for her traveling
and has asked you to verify if it would be a financially good investment. The client intends to purchase 5 tablets and thinks
using this kind of technology will ultimately save her company $4000 over two years, as it will save on travel expenses and employee overtime.
There will be other costs
in addition to
the purchase of the tablets
, of course
A monthly connection fee of $5 per month will be charged by the internet provider
a period of
five years, you estimate that each of the tablets will need a repair that costs an average of $50.
At the end of that five-year period, you estimate the resale value of each tablet to be 50% of its original value (rounded to the nearest whole dollar for this exercise).
You will need two sources for this assignment:
Shop online for a tablet that costs between $150 and $350 (base price, not including tax or shipping). You may use any vendor’s site you wish; your professor must be able to view the site without logging in, however. For your calculations, round the cost to the nearest dollar.
Find a suitable online source that explains Net Present Value.
Write and Calculate:
Add your name and the date to the template’s cover page.
Fill in the tablet product information as
on page 2.
Base your answer on the purchase of all five
the ROI is based
on one year.
Use the base price of the tablets rounded to the nearest dollar, without adding tax, shipping, or other costs.
Show your math
either in paragraph or equation form. Provide an explanation (labeling), not just the numbers. Round your final percentage to the nearest whole number.
Base your answer on the purchase of just one
for this is five years.
Again, use the base price of the tablet rounded to the nearest dollar.
Make sure you include internet access, repairs, original costs, and resale value at the end of the time
. Do not add tax or other potential costs.
Show your math
in equation, chart, or paragraph form. Provide an explanation, not just the numbers.
Write 50–80 words explaining the concept of Net Present Value.
Write this entirely in your own words. Do not copy or quote from your source.
Insert the URL to your NPV source. As this is a work document, in-text citation
is not required
in the NPV paragraph.
ROI and TCO calculations