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Gender in Science Essay

Table of Contents Introduction Importance of gender balance in science Objectivity of Science Conclusion References Introduction Gender issues relating to a balanced representation of men and women in governance, scientific research, and other socio-economic and political spheres of the human life are common in virtually all societies. Even though experience indicates that gender equity is essential to meaningful and sustainable development, gender imbalance in various critical sectors is still a thorny issue in many societies including certain sections of the so-called mature democracies. Gender imbalance in science is particularly a serious issue even when it has been conventionally accepted that, what a man can do, a woman can do better, especially in academics. This essay argues that science would be more objective if gender were visible. Importance of gender balance in science Conventionally, gender equity is essential in attaining poverty alleviation and socio-economic development. This development is usually an outcome of the combined efforts of men and women. Women play the vital and crucial role in society through their contribution to fruitful activities and responsibility of social educators and family custodians. Similarly, gender equity in science and technology is crucial for societal development (Miroux 2011, p.2). Unfortunately, there are cultural practices in different countries, especially in Africa and other developing countries, which discourage girls from pursuing science in universities or schools, and from choosing a scientific career (Willingham
Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp CHAPTER-III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research methodology includes Research approach, Research design, Variables, Description of settings, Criteria for sample selection. It further deals with Description of tool, Content validity, Reliability, Pilot study and Method of data collection. RESEARCH APPROACH An evaluate approach will be considered as an appropriate research approach to evaluate the effectiveness of garlic cloves on Blood pressure among patients with Hypertension. RESEARCH DESIGN The research design used in this study was quasi experimental design. E O1 X O2 C O1 O2 E Experimental group C Control group O1 Pre test O2 Post test X Administration of garlic cloves Variables Independent variable: Garlic Cloves Dependent variable: Blood pressure Description of Setting The study was conducted in primary health centre Rural area Alangium community which is 20km away from Sara Nursing College. In the primary health centre general ward facilities are available the population Alangium community 22,097 among them 12,054 are female, 10,043 are consist of north street, and Muslim street. The people get medical aid from the primary health centre one primary school, and secondary school are there for educational purpose. Water and electricity facilities are available. The common occupation in the village in agriculture most of the people are coolie workers, going for construction work and other include and shop. Study population The population of the study was patients with Hypertension. Sample The Sample for this study was patients with Hypertension attending OPD at PHC, Alangium during the study period and those who meet the inclusive criteria. Sample size The total Sample size was 50.Among them 25 were assigned to experimental group and 25 were assigned to control group as per the convenience of the Researcher. Sampling technique Convenience sampling technique was used for this study. Criteria for sample selection The Sample was selected on the basis of following inclusion and exclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria Patient who are between 40 – 60 years of age. Patient who are willing to participate in this study. Both males and Females. Patient with Blood pressure level between 140/90mmHg and 160/100mmHg. Patient who are in anti-hypertensive drugs. Exclusion Criteria Patients with hypertension with other systemic illness. DESCRIPTION OF TOOL Section- A Structured interview schedule for demographic profile Structured interview schedule was used in this tool .It comprised of demographic data such as age, gender, educational status, religion, occupation. No score is given to this demographic profile. The data will be used for descriptive statistics. Section- B Structured interview schedule for Life style Questionnaire A structured interview schedule was used to collect information regarding life style questionnaire such as, duration of illness, history of hospitalization, treatment, dietary pattern, food habits, exercise, recreational activities, family history of hypertension. No score was given in this section and it was used for descriptive analysis. Section- C Observational method to find out blood pressure by using Digital blood pressure monitor. Digital blood pressure monitor was used to assess the blood pressure among patient with hypertension. According to the readings of Digital blood pressure monitor were classified in to normal, pre hypertension, stage I hypertension, stage II hypertension. Based on the category were given. Table 3.1: According to joint national commission VII of early detection and treatment of hypertension, 2003 Blood pressure category Systolic blood pressure mmHg Diastolic blood pressure mmHg Normal <120 And <80 Pre hypertension 120-139 or 80-89 Stage I Hypertension 140-159 or 90-99 Stage II Hypertension ≥160 ≥100 Content validity Content validity of the tool was obtained on the basis of opinion of medical surgical experts [5 medical surgical nursing specialist,1 medical officer1,1 dietician]. The tool was found valid suggestions were incorporated. Reliability To ensure the reliability of the instrument, blood pressure was checked to 6 patients with hypertension. The reliability of the instrument was established by Inter-rater reliability method and the Karl Pearson coefficient formula was used to find the consistency of the tool.The obtained reliability co-efficient of systolic blood pressure (r=0.8), and diastolic blood pressure (r=0.9) Hence the tool was reliable. Pilot study In order to find out the feasibility and practicably a pilot study was conducted at Sanjay hospital, Palani for a period of 1 week (26.6.2013 to 1.7.2013) 6 patients with hypertension were selected (3 experimental group and 3 control group). Pretest was done for experimental and control group and intervention given for 5 days for experimental group and posttest was done for both groups. The study was found feasible to conduct. METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION Ethical consideration; Formal written permission was obtained from the medical officer of primary health centre Alangium. Oral consent of each individual was obtained before the data collection. Period of data collection Data collection was done over a period of 4 weeks from 5.8.2013 to 31.8.2013 DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE The written permission was obtained from the medical officer (Dr.Bharathi) prior data collection. The samples were selected by convenience sampling technique oral permission was obtained from them after explaining the objective of the study. The 50 samples were selected know case of hypertension detected at PHC on the basis of convenience sampling technique. Approximately 8 samples was selected daily and 4 samples was allotted to control group and 4 samples was allotted to experimental group pretest was done for both groups. The researcher checked the blood pressure using Digital blood pressure monitor for both experimental and control group then the researcher daily visited the experimental group in home under the supervision of the researcher 10 grams of garlic cloves was given with after breakfast. For the control group the investigator assessed the blood pressure level and advised to continue the prescribed treatment. Posttest was done on 22 th day for both experimental and control group by using Digital blood pressure monitor. PLAN FOR DATA ANALYSIS The data was analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. The following plans for data analysis were developed. OBJECTIVES STATISTICAL ANALYSIS To assess the pre and post test systolic level of blood pressure among patients with hypertension in experimental group and control group. Descriptive Analysis: frequency distribution , percentage. To assess the pre and post test diastolic level of blood pressure among patients with hypertension in experimental group and control group. Descriptive Analysis: frequency distribution , percentage To compare the pre and post test systolic level of blood pressure among patients with hypertension in experimental group and control group. Descriptive Analysis Inferential statistics: Mean ,Standard deviation ,paired ‘t’test To compare the pre and post test diastolic level of blood pressure among patients with hypertension in experimental group and control group Descriptive Analysis Inferential statistics:Mean,Standard deviation ,paired ‘t’test To evaluate the effectiveness of garlic cloves on reducing the systolic blood pressure among patients with hypertension. Descriptive Analysis Inferential statistics:Mean,Standard deviation ,Independent ‘t’test To evaluate the effectiveness of garlic cloves on reducing diastolic blood pressure among patients with hypertension. Descriptive Analysis Inferential statistics: Mean,Standard deviation ,Independent ‘t’test Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp
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Week 7 Discussion Board 3: Do We Have Rights During Wartime?Directions:Based on the assigned reading, lectures, and videos this week, how would you answer the question: Do We Have a Right to Civil Liberties During Wartime?This question refers specifically to the case of Eugene Debs, who made an anti-war speech in 1918 and was subsequently arrested and imprisoned for violating recently passed federal laws restricting wartime protest.So that you may make an informed, historically well-supported judgement of the Debs case, you should first do the following things:study our lecture on Nativism and the Great chapter 19 of our the Espionage Actwatch the video with your textbook author Eric Foner discussing civil liberties during WWIlisten to the radio interview with scholar Ernest Frieberg, who wrote a book on the Debs the entire speech Debs gave in Canton, Ohio (1918)Once you are informed and ready to post, make ONE main discussion post indicating whether you feel the government was justified in prosecuting and imprisoning Debs, and whether you think his sentence was fair. Aim your main post to a minimum of 300-400 word range.Also, reply to ONE of your classmates explaining why you agree/disagree with their analysis. As always, be courteous and pratice good etiquette even when disagreeing with each other. Consult the discussion board scoring rubric posted earlier this semester to review the grading criteria.Higher scores will go to posts that demonstrate an understanding of what was happening in America during that time, based on our assigned materials.Remember, your discussion posts are due by Sunday before midnight. So you will need to complete this assignment within that time frame.SEARCH ENTRIES OR AUTHOR Filter replies by unreadUNREAD Collapse replies Expand repliesSUBSCRIBEReply12 hours agoREQUIREMENTSschool m school n school bBids (39)Bids are offers from tutors to work on your question. will regularly recommend a tutor for you based on your needs.
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Need help with a History Question about the Missouri Compromise.

 Shortly after the
Missouri Compromise, Congress imposed tariffs on foreign imports,
which severely impacted the South. In response, South Carolina threatened
to nullify the new taxes. Ultimately, a compromise was made and a
stand-off was averted. Should states be able to “ignore” laws or
policies mandated by the federal government?

Need help with a History Question about the Missouri Compromise

Biology homework help

Biology homework help. The first final project for this course is the creation of a writing plan. Writing is a craft that people spend a lifetime refining, and one that allows people to express themselves in various ways. Effective writing has the ability to shape and inform the opinions of its readers. The ability to articulate a message through writing is essential in any career. Something key to remember is that the writing process is never truly complete. In this assignment, you will select one of the provided readings and analyze it. Next, you will develop a claim about the information presented in that reading. In the next assignment, you will support that claim through a critical analysis essay. There is no right or wrong claim. It is how you support your claim that makes your essay effective. The project has one milestone, which will scaffold learning and ensure quality final submissions. This milestone will be submitted in Module 3. The final submission is due in Module 5. In this assignment, you will demonstrate your mastery of the following course outcomes: ? Discuss stylistically appropriate writing strategies for various audiences, subjects, and purposes ? Identify main ideas, supporting evidence, and conclusions through critical analysis for utilizing these components in one?s own writing ? Interpret the writing process as a means for generating ideas, drafting, and revising for improving the quality and effectiveness of one?s own writing ? Integrate appropriate and qualified evidence into one?s own composition through effective research Prompt For this writing plan, you will analyze a reading and develop a claim about the intent of that reading. Once your claim is established, you will use examples from the reading to support your claim throughout your writing plan. Critical Elements Specifically, the following critical elements must be addressed: I. Writing Plan: Use this writing plan as a way to gather your thoughts and determine your strategy for writing your critical analysis essay. This process will allow you to develop a potential structure for effectively communicating and supporting your claim. This plan will be helpful in keeping your thought process on track when you begin writing and revising your essay. A. Determine the author?s claim to be addressed in your analysis essay. Your determination of the author?s goal must be derived from one of the provided articles. B. Determine author?s key points and rationale that will be helpful in supporting the validity of your claim. C. Identify the audience that will be reading your essay. What potential challenges will you have supporting your claim with this demographic? D. Establish your goal that you hope to accomplish with your essay. For example, you may disagree with the author and demonstrate why he or she is incorrect, or you may agree but want to further substantiate his or her claim. E. Based on your claim, determine potential places where evidence would be most effective. Defend your choices. For example, if you disagree with an author?s point you would want to use evidence to support your view. F. Identify a revision strategy that would be most effective in informing you while writing this essay. Why would this strategy be effective? G. How will this essay benefit from receiving feedback from an outside party? How can that feedback be integrated? Assignment 1, Milestone 1: Writing Plan Draft In Module 3, you will submit your Writing Plan Draft containing your initial plan for writing your essay. This assignment will be graded with the Assignment 1, Milestone 1 Rubric. Assignment 1 Submission: Finalized Writing Plan In Module 5, you will submit your writing plan in its final form. It should be a complete, polished artifact containing all of the critical elements (above) associated with Assignment 1. This assignment will be graded using the Assignment 1 Rubric. Assignment 1 Rubric Guidelines for Submission: Your finalized writing plan must be 1?2 pages in length. Use double spacing, 12-point Times New Roman font, and one-inch margins. This assignment will be completed through the interactive activity provided in your MindEdge eLearning materials and then submitted within Blackboard.Biology homework help

Summarize a short video about armed teacher in school and explain why you believe they should NOT be armed.

i need help writing an essay Summarize a short video about armed teacher in school and explain why you believe they should NOT be armed..

Follow the APA Template. Please write the debate about teacher should NOT BE ARMED in schools. Instructions:1. Watch the 8 minute video Summarize the debate detailed in the video above. Cite video in your summary. This summary should be the first section of your paper, just after your introduction – you may consider using the heading “Video Summary” for this section. This summary should be a minimum of 6 sentences.3. Explain three reasons why teacher SHOULD NOT be armed in schools. Provide evidence-based support for your argument and claim. Explain the logic of your argument. Cite a minimum of 2 scholarly and/or expert sources (not including the assigned video which is not scholarly or expert). 4. Assess and evaluate your argument. REMEMBER: STAY IN THE 3RD PERSON! Evaluate credibility: Are the sources used to support your claim credible – explain how/why you know these sources are credible. ( minimum of 5 sentences]Assess validity/soundness: Is your argument valid – explain how your argument is valid; cite the textbook. minimum of 5 sentences]Assess reasoning: What type of reasoning (you must discuss at least one of the 3 specified types of reasoning discussed in class – are you employing – explain how this reasoning is sound; cite the textbook. ( minimum of 5 sentences] 1) Comparative Reasoning, 2) Ideological Reasoning or 3) Empirical Reasoning
Summarize a short video about armed teacher in school and explain why you believe they should NOT be armed.

University of California Davis Knowledge Graph Question

University of California Davis Knowledge Graph Question.

I’m working on a information technology question and need support to help me learn.

In this assignment, you will once again update your knowledge graph to reflect what you have learned so far in the course, and how your understanding and beliefs about sustainability and technology have developed. You will be asked to make 10 valid changes to your knowledge graph that you submitted for Knowledge Graph Assignment 2. Reference the Knowledge Graph Assignment 2 description for detailed information on what counts as a change, as well as a video tutorial.Below is a list of friendly reminders as you work through this assignment:To start, import your knowledge graph from Knowledge Graph Assignment 2 using CmapTools. Steps to import are: File -> Import -> Cmap from CXL FileYou are welcome to make more than 10 changes to your knowledge graph, but you should make at least 10.Think carefully about each relationship that you previously included and decide whether you still feel it is correct. It is a perfectly valid to remove or re-label relationships that you think can be improved, and this will count as a change towards your total of 10.You can add new concepts to your knowledge graph, but you should not remove any concepts.The knowledge graph must remain completely connected, without “islands” of concepts and relationshipsTurning in your submission for Knowledge Graph Assignment 1 again (or something similar) is not allowed. Yes, we will be checking. If you changed something between Assignment 1 and Assignment 2 and revert the change in this assignment, you should be able to justify your decision to do so if asked.You are also responsible for making the appropriate changes to mistakes that were made in KG Assignment 2. Otherwise, you will lose points for the same thing again. You may remove/change a concept if the concept in your KG Assignment 2 was invalid (meaning, that it did not properly link to an English Wikipedia page – concepts with the default label of “????” or concepts that linked to other sites such as Wiktionary should be changed to Wikipedia URLs or removed. This is the only case that changing or removing a concept will be considered acceptable. You should also correct misspellings in relationship labels, correct/remove relationship labels that were not on the list, and make sure your graph is completely connected if it was not already. These changes will not count towards your total of 10 changes but will help prevent you to lost points for the same mistake.Use the Google form here (Links to an external site.) if there is a concept you wanted to include, but wasn’t available on WikipediaOnly use relationship labels that are present in the list below, and copy them into your knowledge graph exactly as they appear – please do not paraphrase or create your own relationship labelsWatch out for typos! Copy and paste Wikipedia URLs and relationship labels (from the list below) to avoid mistakesOnce again, for this assignment you will not be graded based on the accuracy of your submission, but do your best to include only information you feel is correct. Your knowledge graph will undergo a peer review process later on in the quarter.When you are finished, upload and submit your new knowledge graph in .cxl formatValid relationship labels:causes inhibitsincludes excludesbenefits threatensdamages usesmade from produceshas purpose physically interacts withhas replacement owned byhad significant event described by sourcestudied by practiced bydisputed by opposesRubricKG Assignment 3 RubricKG Assignment 3 RubricCriteriaRatingsPtsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeChanges from KG Assignment 2View assignment description to see what qualifies as a valid change2 ptsAt least 10 changes from submission in KG Assignment 2 that do not revert to KG Assignment 11.33 pts8 or 9 changes from submission in KG Assignment 2 that do not revert to KG Assignment 10.33 pts6 or 7 changes from submission in KG Assignment 2 that do not revert to KG Assignment 10 ptsFewer than 6 changes from submission in KG Assignment 2 that do not revert to KG Assignment 12 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeFormatting1 ptsGraph uses the correct formatting as shown in the assignment video0.5 ptsA few mistakes were made in the graph formatting0 ptsGraph uses completely incorrect formatting1 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeConnectedness1 ptsGraph is fully connected (i.e. there are no “islands”)0.5 ptsGraph contains 2 different “islands” of concepts/relationships0 ptsGraph contains more than 2 “islands” of concepts/relationships1 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeRequired Concepts and Relationships1 ptsGraph includes all of the concepts from the original submission and only uses relationship labels from the provided list0.5 ptsGraph does not include 1 concept from the original submission or includes some relationship label that is not in the provided list0 ptsGraph is missing more than 1 concept from the original submission1 ptsTotal Points: 5The course materials:…the attachment picture is Knowledge Graph Assignment 2 description
University of California Davis Knowledge Graph Question

Cognitive Impairment After Stroke

I. INTRODUCTION Topic Background Stroke comprises a major morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries [1]. In 2008, stroke was the leading cause of mortality in the United States and was the leading cause of long-term severe disability [2]. In Japan and other Asian countries, the percentage of ischemic stroke is higher than in the west [3]. Stroke ranked as the second leading cause of death after heart disease in the Philippines and the mortality rate is increasing in both sexes [4]. Stroke may cause physical and cognitive impairments [5]. Cognitive impairment occurs three months after stroke in 35.2% to 43.9% of patients and may continue for a long time in almost one third of patients [6-8]. Hospital-based and population-based studies [6,7] have shown a substantial risk for developing delayed dementia even among patients who remain cognitively intact after their index stroke. However, motor deficits rather than cognitive deficits attract most attention after stroke, and patients with stroke with problems in cognition frequently do not receive medical treatment [8]. In the Philippines, cognitive impairments occurred in 16% of patients after an acute ischemic stoke according to one study [9]. Unfortunately, there are no other local studies on this field, hence this undertaking. Review of Related Literature Stroke is a global problem. Over the past decades, stroke incidence went down to 42% in high-income countries and increased by more than 100% in low and middle-income countries. Stroke incidence in low and middle-income countries now surpasses those in high-income countries [10]. Cognitive impairment often develops after stroke and its prevalence ranges from 20% to 80% [11]. Snaphaan and colleagues in 2007 reported that post-stroke cognitive impairment varied from 23% to 55%, three months after stroke and dropped to 11% to 31% one year after stroke [12]. A stroke cohort study showed that 30% of patients with stroke who had mild cognitive impairments (MCI) improved between zero to six months and became cognitively intact by 12 to 18 months after stroke [13]. Douiri PhD et al. in 2013 noted that the overall prevalence of cognitive impairment remained relatively unchanged three months after stroke and at yearly follow up, at 22% at three months, 22% at five years and 21% at 14years. Studies evaluating the course of cognitive decline over time showed a 10 to 15 percent annual rate conversion of MCI to dementia [14]. The risk of cognitive impairment post-stroke is related to the demographic aspects such as age, sex, education and occupation and vascular factors [11]. Studies found that the prevalence of MCI increased with age [15,16]. Petersen, PhD, in 2010 noted that the prevalence of MCI is higher in men than in women across all ages [15]. In contrast, a French study and Italian study revealed a greater prevalence of MCI in women compared to men [17,18]. Increasing number of years of education markedly decreased the prevalence of MCI. Petersen, PhD, MD et al. in 2010 noted that the prevalence of MCI had decreased from 30.2% to 11.0% in subjects less than nine years of education and in more than 16 years of education respectively [15]. A low socio-economic status is also an important risk factor for a number of undesirable health outcomes, including cognitive and functional impairment [19-24]. Basta et al. in 2007 pointed out that persons living in underprivileged areas were found to have a greater prevalence of cognitive impairment compared to those living in well-off regions [25]. Hypertension is correlated to a higher risk of MCI [24]. There is proof that non-amnestic MCI is associated with cerebrovascular disease and vascular cognitive impairment. Since hypertension is associated with a greater risk of stroke and vascular dementia, [26,27] it appears rational that it is associated with the risk for non-amnestic MCI such as frontal-executive cognitive impairment [24]. Luchsinger, MD et al. in 2007 pointed out that the probability of MCI secondary to diabetes was higher in African American and Hispanic persons. However, the prevalence was lower in non-Hispanic white persons, indicating the greater occurrence of diabetes in marginal populations in the United States. Diabetes was associated with a greater risk of amnestic MCI even when adjusting for stroke and vascular risk factors, which denotes that the association between diabetes and amnestic MCI is independent of cerebrovascular disease. Contrariwise, the association of diabetes to non-amnestic MCI was substantially reduced and became non-significant after adjusting for stroke and vascular risk factors [28]. Patients with familial hypercholesterolemia revealed greater prevalence of MCI compared with those without familial hypercholesterolemia. Previous reports revealed that older patients with sporadic hypercholesterolemia did not show a higher incidence of MCI, suggesting that early exposure to high levels of cholesterol or LDL receptor dysfunction may be at risk for developing MCI [29]. Hansen, et al. in 2012 noted that white matter lesions (WML) were appreciably linked with impaired executive function and memory [19]. Major deficits on measures of attention and other executive functions were identified in a set of subjects with severe WML implying that a threshold for the total area of WML must be exceeded before cognitive deficits ensue. Smaller total areas of WML are being needed to produce cognitive deficits when critical locations are involved [20]. A large study in 2000, found that subcortical and periventricular WML have been associated with lesser performance on cognitive measures, mainly those related to psychomotor speed [21]. Similar association between periventricular WML and processing speed were reported in the studies of Ylikoski et al. and Fukui et al [22,23]. Tatemichi et al. in 1994 found that cognitive domains that had been commonly affected in stroke were memory, orientation, language and attention as compared with control subjects. Among stroke patients, cognitive impairment was most often associated with infarctions in the left anterior and posterior cerebral artery territories and major cortical syndromes [30]. Detection and monitoring of MCI is vital to proper patient care [31]. In 2006, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and the Stroke-Canadian Stroke Network recommended the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test, as an optimal concise protocol for the evaluation of vascular cognitive impairment [32]. This reference was centered on evidence for detecting MCI in memory clinic patients using the MoCA, also on expert opinion about the cognitive domains most affected by vascular disease. Content validity evidence implies that the MoCA assesses most of the domains that exemplify cognitive impairment in stroke. The MoCA compares equivalently and favorably to the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) as a screening tool to the milder forms of cognitive impairment that follows after stroke [31]. In the 2012 Dementia and Cognitive Impairment Diagnosis and treatment Guidelines, MoCA has been one of the recommended validated cognitive assessment tools for evaluating cognitive function [33]. Though there are limits in the capability to predict the conversion from MCI to dementia [34,35], it is identified that MCI is correlated with effects at the societal, individual and familial levels [36]. At the societal level, it has been projected that the expenses related to MCI are only somewhat greater than those without MCI [37], presumably since the problem has not been scrutinized in detailed studies [36]. Conversely, it should be anticipated that as the familiarity of the syndrome advances, the costs would rise due to the development of new techniques for persons with the finding [35,38]. At the individual level, although still effective in their daily undertakings, the ones with MCI are challenged with cognitive difficulties that cause them apprehension and anguish [39-42]. Various reports have shown that individuals with MCI are faced with thoughts of societal isolation, insecurity and anxiety, which could be a consequence of the uncertainty of the diagnosis, of fear of humiliation or from reduced self-reliance [40,43]. The effects at the family level are unfavorable. Certainly, there have been a lot of reports evaluating the consequences of MCI on family caregivers [36]. A current publication covering the report up to July 2011 denoted that the most frequently felt emotions stated by caregivers were frustration, guilt and anger [39]. Additional consequences are a strong sense of loss [44] and lack in the caregiver connection with the patient [45], including a less efficient interaction, a loss of affection [39,46], and reduced marital desire among spouses [47]. The Southern Philippines Medical Center (SPMC) is a government hospital in Davao City under the Department of Health, with a 1,200-bed capacity. An average of 157 stroke patients are being admitted per month or approximately 1,884 annually under the Internal Medicine Department. An average of 139 stroke patients is consulting per month or approximately 1,668 annually at the Outpatient Neurology Clinic. Cognitive deficits are not routinely checked in our stroke patients. Hence, this study is conducted to add knowledge on cognitive impairment among stroke patients in this locale. Research Question What is the prevalence of cognitive impairment among stroke patients in a tertiary hospital in Davao City? Significance of the Study Most studies of stroke outcomes have focused on physical consequences and few have examined intellectual deficits. MCI has been given much scientific attention due to its higher risk to progress to dementia. Because early intervention, such as controlling the vascular risk factors and initiation of pharmacologic treatment, would be helpful in slowing the rate of decline in cognitive function. Therefore, it is important to detect vascular dementia at an early stage. In SPMC, there is no study yet regarding cognitive impairment among stroke patients. Determining the prevalence of cognitive impairment among stroke patients and the urgency in administering early therapy should be discounted in research advances. Operational Definition of Terms Age category: a) 39 and below b) 40 to 59 c) 60 and above Cognitive domain – an area of study that deals with the processes and measurable results of study, as well as the practical ability to apply intelligence. Comorbidities – are conditions that coexist with a primary disease. Hypertension Diabetes Hypercholesterolemia Hypertension and Diabetes Hypertension and Hypercholesterolemia Diabetes and Hypercholesterolemia Dementia – is a disorder characterized by problems with memory and at least one cognitive function (learning, reasoning, language, spatial ability and orientation, and handling complex tasks) that are severe enough to interfere with activities of daily living. Diabetes – a person with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) 126 mg/dL or A1C 6.5% or random plasma glucose 200 mg/dL. Educational attainment: a) elementary b) high school c) college Hypercholesterolemia – a person with a low density lipoprotein (LDL) of 100mg/dL. Hypertension – a person with a blood pressure (BP) of140/90. Income: (based on National Statistics Office) Low-income – are people or families earning less than 65,787 per year. Middle-income – are people or families earning between 65,787 to 805,582 pesos per year. High-income – are people or families earning more than 805,582 pesos per year. Mild cognitive impairment – is a cognitive decline greater than expected for an individual’s age and education level that does not interfere notably with activities of daily living. Montreal Cognitive Assessment – is a rapid screening instrument for mild cognitive dysfunction. Stroke –is an abrupt onset of a neurologic deficit that is attributable to a focal vascular cause. Stroke has occurred if the neurologic signs and symptoms last for >24 hours. General Objective The main objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of cognitive impairment among stroke patients in a tertiary hospital in Davao City. Specific Objectives To describe the demographic profile of stroke patients in a tertiary hospital in Davao City, in terms of: Age Sex Educational attainment Income Medical comorbidities Location/extent of stroke To assess different cognitive domains: Attention and concentration Executive function Memory Language Visuospacial skills Abstraction Calculation Orientation To determine the relationships between demographic profiles and cognitive impairment.

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