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Games in the Classroom

Games in the Classroom. I don’t understand this Writing question and need help to study.

Recall that one of the major benefits of using technology in the classroom is the ability to differentiate instruction to meet the needs of every student in every lesson. Just as each student grows and develops at different rates, research tells us that students also learn in different ways. Jane McGonagall is an expert at differentiation through the use of games, which is sometimes described as a form of gamification. As featured in her engaging TED Talk (2010), Gaming can make a better world (Links to an external site.); she discusses gamification in classroom contexts.
Games in the Classroom

BMT – WKON – Feedback – DQ.

Please read the text below and provide analytical feedback on the based on how question was answered. Please use appropropriate grammar and APA format and on a collegiate level when responding to this task.Question:What is strategic management and why is it important?Answer/Response:Strategic management is a continuous process, that focuses on competitive advantage (Management Study Guide, 2019, para. 2). Through a combination of formal tools and creative thinking, firms utilize the strategic management process to examine the relationships between leadership, management, firms, and industries to determine why competitive advantage exists and how it can be attained for the firm employing strategic management (The Saylor Foundation, 2014, p. 3).This is important because competitive advantage is how firms establish themselves in the market. If strategic management is key to determining competitive advantage, then it is absolutely imperative that firms utilize this process to succeed. For example, Apple utilized the strategic management process in creating the iPhone, transforming the company from one struggling to find market share in the personal computer space, to becoming a trillion dollar company worth more than the majority of countries on Earth (Tibken, 2018, para. 1). Even a cursory examination shows that strategic planning was key to this shift. Steve Jobs understood the performance of Apple and then compared it to other firms in the market, then determined through environmental and external scanning that there was an opening in the market for a phone that was more than a basic phone or a business productivity device (The Saylor Foundation, 2014, p. 29). Jobs and Apple then formulated a strategy for unveiling and launching the device, and then implemented that strategy in 2007 with the launch of the original iPhone (Carey, 2019, para. 2).This marked the end of the initial strategic management cycle, but as it is a continuous process, Apple must be constantly evaluating and re-evaluating to ensure competitive advantage (The Saylor Foundation, 2014, p. 28). This process can be seen in subsequent iPhone models such as the iPhone 3G, which skipped the number 2 so that 3G coverage could be highlighted in the offering (Carey, 2019, para. 1). Apple’s dominance in the smartphone market is a prime example of just how important strategic management is.ReferencesCarey, C. (2019, October 8). The Evolution of the iPhone: Every Model from 2007–2019. Retrieved from Study Guide. (2019). Strategic Management Process – Meaning, Steps and Components. Retrieved from Saylor Foundation. (2014). Chapter 1 Mastering Strategy [PDF file]. The Saylor Academy. Retrieved from, S. (2018, August 3). Apple becomes a trillion-dollar company. Retrieved from
BMT – WKON – Feedback – DQ

Thesis and “in text evidence” based essay on Virginia wolf’s “a room of one’s own”.

The essay should be a minimum of 5 full pages in length (no more than 7) in the Humanities format (seeMechanics section in Humanities Program Writing Handbook). A counterargument is required.Respond to the following prompt and Write a CLEAR thesis and use clear evidence supporting your thesis. In A Room of One’s Own Woolf states that “women have served all these centuries aslooking-glasses possessing the magic and delicious power of reflecting the figure of manat twice its natural size” (35). In what way do women serve as ‘looking glasses’ in eitherSartre or Eliot? Use Woolf’s articulation of this concept to help build your argument.
Thesis and “in text evidence” based essay on Virginia wolf’s “a room of one’s own”

Types and Forms of Racism: Exploration of the US

Racism has been around for a long it and it is quite difficult to point out whether it is going to end today or in the near future. Many people would think of racism in terms of Whites oppressing the Blacks but there are various forms of racial discrimination that we will analyze shortly. Racial discrimination overall is not a good thing. Those who practice it should put themselves on the shoes of those being oppressed and try to visualize how good or bad it is. From there we would have an equal platform of reasoning together. In the United States, there are different groups of people that are discriminated against. This includes; the Native Americans, African Americans, Latin Americans, Arabs and Muslims and Iranians. Introduction Racism in simple terms can be described as the hatred one human being hast towards another human being (Human Rights Watch May, 2008). This hatred is based on the differences in skin color, language, place of origin and cultural customs. One group of individuals believes that their group is better than the other. An example of the worst racism is that of the Whites towards the Africans. Some, even up to today believe that Africans are incomplete creatures. This is what led to the early slave trade and the present enslavement. Racism also exists among the Whites themselves depending on whether one is an Easterner or a westerner. This is influenced by the superpower capability that a country possesses. Racism has led to slavery, war, splitting of nations and formation of new ones and drafting of legal codes. Types of Racism There exist different types of racism as described by Human Rights Watch (May, 2008); the first type is the historical racism. This comes about due to a person’s lineage and decent. People with common historical origins, but not necessarily biological characteristics, fall under this category. It is used to categorize nation states in Europe. For example the Nazi eagle, Aryan cross; was believed to be superior to other nations. The second type of racism is the institutional based racism. This is put in place to protect the interests of a certain group and maintain the status quo of inequality among the society members. This can best be expressed by the apartheid rule that was in place in South Africa. The third type of racism is the scientific type of racism. This classifies people to have superior characteristics than the other for example intelligence due to brain size, a fore head which is sloping. It is believed there is a hierarchy of races and this is what was used a justification to colonize others. The last type of racism is new racism. This is based on new expressions. This encompasses immigrants, integration and cultural values. Forms of Racism According to Human Rights Watch (May, 2008), racism can be classified into two categories: Minority racism and majority racism. Minority racism is practiced by affluent minority groups that look at themselves as special and in some circumstances; you find that they have support from some external powers. This kind of racism tends to be closely linked with imperialism. It is usually y called minority racism from above. Western imperialism falls under this category as well as the former colonials that practiced apartheid in South Africa. The Whites were unable to exterminate the local Africans as they did with the natives of North America. The Chinese nationalism also falls under this group. The Chinese Diaspora views themselves as a superior ethnic group especially in Southeast Asia. Jews, in Israel, view themselves as a minority group surrounded and oppressed by the Arabs. However, the Jews are many in number in Israel. This emanates from the Arabs desire to oppress the oppressor. This view of the Jews is what is known as minority racism from below. Majority racism from above is a populist in nature usually based on racial reversal for example the Hutu and Tutsi genocide in Rwanda or Sinhala, who discriminated the Tamils (Human Rights Watch May, 2008). There is usually a divide and rule force behind this kind of discrimination. In the United States, this can be illustrated by the hatred the natives had against the immigrants. Racism from below is the common form of racism experienced in the West. This is illustrated by discrimination against the African Americans or discrimination against the Native Americans. African American is the most hated group due to the poverty levels they exhibit and the crime rate levels they are involved in. Racism can be more dangerous and hurtful if its forces are being propagated by a well social-economic class. Anti-racism in many cases is involved in trying to distribute power equal in terms of economy, employment opportunities, access to social amenities and education thus eliminating ethnic tensions that may arise Overview of Racism in the United States Racism in the United States dates back as far as to the colonial era (Anthony 34). Inequality in human rights has been witnessed by the Native Americans, African Americans, Mexican Americans and Asian Americans. Racial discrimination dates as far back as the 17th century up to the 1960s. Only the White Americans enjoyed access to literacy, the right to acquire and own land, citizenship, and the right to vote, immigration and a right to a fair trial in court proceedings. Other European groups like the Jews and the Irish have experienced major social exclusion. Even though racism was officially banned in the mid 20th century, it continues to be experienced in areas of employment, housing, education, lending and government institution. Many people have not accepted the ban and thus racism continues to be experienced in terms of segregation, slavery, reservations, residential schools, internment groupings and Indian wars. Discrimination is also evidenced in terms of religion. Muslims are discriminated against due the activities of extremists and are thus, widely viewed as terrorists (Alvin Poussaint, par 3). Recent Day Racism Situation According to a United Nations Committee on Elimination of Racial Discrimination report (March 2008) reported by Anthony (38), the United States has or it is failing to meet international standards on racial equality. The equality disparities are being witnessed education, housing, criminal justice and healthcare. In March 2006, the same committee criticized the United States for not upholding the right of land ownership policy by the Native American. The committee wanted the United States to enforce the United Nations declaration on the rights of indigenous communities. The United States was also to provide a detailed report on what it had done to promote the culture of indigenous Hawaiian, Alaska and Indian Americans (Alvin Poussaint, par 3). The committee also observed that there was indiscriminate environmental racism and environmental degradation of spiritual areas and also areas that held certain cultural significances. The environmental degradation in question includes mining on sacred lands. Anthony (37) reports that racial discrimination was also observed in the judicial system. This was so especially with the death penalty and life imprisonment sentence. It was observed that minors were sentenced to either of the two harsh sentences as compared to their other counterparts who received a more lenient sentence having been convicted of the same crime. The committee was outraged by the government’s comments that black kids get life without parole because of the many crimes they had committed. The committee was also not happy in the way the United States continued to hold non-U.S. suspects of terrorism in the Guantanamo Bay prison. The wanted the United states to expose the prisoners to a judiciary review. To them, this was just another form of racial discrimination. Ajamu Baraka of the Human rights network observes “Racial discrimination has been normalized and accepted as a way of American life” (Anti-Defamation League, par 4). The committee advised the United States to set up a Human Rights body that will keep track and oversee racial discrimination or disparities. The committee went ahead to warn the United States that it is not above the law. Racism in the Criminal Justice System According to Anti-Defamation League (par 4), the United States’ criminal justice system has been mentioned negatively in various print and news media. It is said to be racial based. It is said that African Americans are usually targeted and severely punished as compared to their white counterparts. The following few incidents go on to show the extent to which the criminal justice system is said to be rotten. According to a Human Rights Watch (May, 2008), the Whites and Africans who are involved in drug trafficking are fairly the same. The United States African American population is made up of only 13% and those using drugs are made up of 14%. However, when it comes to arrests made on those dealing with drugs, the majority are African Americans. It beats the logic how come it is only the African Americans who are arrested the most. It is also reported that stops that are made by police involves mainly Blacks and the Latinos (Anthony 62). It is said that 80% of the stops made by NYPD in New York involved either Blacks or Latinos. For these stops, 85 % were frisked while only 8% of the white stops made were frisked. The same happenings are reported to be the same elsewhere in the country. In California, for example, it was found that Blacks were stopped times more compared to the Whites. It has also been revealed that once arrests are made, the Blacks are more likely to remain in jail awaiting trial as compared to the white counterparts. In a 1995 review report on the rate of trial of felonies carried out by the New York State Division of Criminal Justice, it was found out that 33% more Blacks would be detained awaiting trial as compared to their White counterparts 80 % of people convicted of a crime seek a public defender. The higher numbers of people seeking a public defender are Blacks. The public defenders are an overworked lot who are underpaid and effectively, it means the poor Blacks who cannot afford the services of a private attorney will contend with the services of a tired and disgruntled public defender. In the end, the Blacks stand a big chance to lose their cases (Anti-Defamation League, par 3). As reported by Anti-Defamation League (par 3), the Equal Justice Initiative released a report on June 2010, arguing that African American are underrepresented or excluded from the criminal jury services. It is reported that in Houston County, Ala, 8 of the 10 African American juries have been barred from participating on death penalty cases. It is said only few cases end up in the trial chambers. The main reason being, the African Americans plead guilty to a crime they did not commit so as to avoid the flawed court process that can sentence them for a long period for a crime they did not commit. It is also reported that Blacks found guilty are likely to receive a sentence that is 10% longer than their white counter parts for a similar crime. The report still goes on to say that 20% more Blacks are likely to be sentenced to prison on drug offences as compared to the Whites while 21% more will receive the compulsory minimum sentence. According to Anthony (2009), in July, 2009, the sentencing Project reported that more people who are not Whites were receiving the long term serving sentences. It reported that 2/3 of the people servicing life imprisonment were either the Blacks or the Latinos. According to the Congressional Testimony for The Sentencing Project report mentioned by Anthony (34), 56% of those in prison convicted of drug offences are the Blacks. This is a big contrast compared their population of 13% and drug users of 14%. The United States Bureau of Justice Statistics shows that a male by born it the year 2001 is likely to go to jail five times and three times for Latinos more than a white boy born in the same year. There are about 16% juvenile Black American youth in the whole population and about 28 % juvenile arrests are made. 37% of the juveniles are imprisoned in juvenile jails and about 56% are sent to adult prisons (Anti-Defamation League, par 5). The United States has the highest percentage of population in prison than any other country in the world (Anti-Defamation League, par 5). However, the majority of the prisoners are Black males. This is according to the ABC News report. It is reported that even after the prison stint, racial discrimination continues to be felt outside prison. Whites who have criminal records are treated better than Blacks who do not have a criminal record. Whites who are released from prison have a higher percentage likelihood of being called back compared to Blacks also who have a criminal record. Impacts of Racism Racism has some negative psychological effect. Delivering a key address, Allavian Poussaint (1993) said; “to be black in America is to be a suspect” (par 2). A black has to prove that he/she has no ill motive. Competence also has to be proved beyond reasonable doubt. Thus a black will not walk comfortably in the streets with long over his/her shoulder due to security reasons. Racism can impact negatively on one psycho-politically. Black in general has been considered to be evil. Lucifer is depicted to be black. Thus African Americans are considered to be of a dark ancestry. This in other words is promoting white purity and stigmatizing the black race. Overall, the implication is that the Blacks should be segregated, oppressed and enslaved. Racism has led to genocide. Allavian Poussaint (1993) also says that according to the white Americans, “the only good Indian is a dead Indian” (par 6). This shows how life has been devalued. During the civil rights struggle, several people were killed. Anthony (2009) reiterates that the law is not applied in equal terms. This is especially with the death penalty. It is said that minorities who are sentenced to death are highly likely to be executed as compared with their white counter parts. According to the anti-death penalty Organization Amnesty International, murderers of white people are 6 times likely to be executed as compared to the killers of the black people. It goes to show that the judicial system values White live than that of Blacks and other minority groups. Global Research (2008) has indicated that racism has led to formation of attack gangs. In Southern California for instance, there are African American and Mexican American gangs. The gangs have special mafias who attack each other i.e. the Mexican kills the Blacks and the Blacks kill the Mexicans on sight. This has also been witnessed in the prisons where riots have been reported due to one group attacking the other. The Black Americans have not had a cordial relationship with the black immigrants. This is based on the cultural and social differences that exist between them. Anthony (37) argues that there is disparity in wealth creation. The tax policies have restricted people on how to acquire wealth. The Social Security Acts excludes some sectors of the economy such as agriculture where most minority groups work and rewards other groups like the army. This has a disparity of wealth of acquisition by a factor of 1 to 10. Racism has affected negatively the health of the minorities. It is observed that the number of minorities that who visited psychiatrists was much higher as compared to Whites (Anti-Defamation League, par 3). Stress levels have also been discovered to be higher in the minorities groups. Frequent physical diseases and common colds have also been discovered to affect the minority females as compared to the white women. Inadequate health care is blamed for the many deaths observed in the black race than the white race. The Blacks lack or have inadequate medical insurance cover, reluctance to seek medical attention and poor medical service. It is said that many lives would be saved if the minority groups received proper medical attention as that of their white counter parts. The minority are no privileged to receive adequate health care if the treatment in question involves the very most recent technology. Affirmative Action Though he has been critical in highlighting the plights of the minority groups in America, Anthony (2009) adds that affirmative action has been put into place to address the historical injustice imposed on groups that were discriminated. This includes access to education, employment, health facilities. Most universities and employers are using affirmative action while admitting new students or employees respectively. Historically disadvantaged groups are given priority or a quota system is used. Opponents of affirmative action have displayed openly their discontent and would like people to be taken on merit and not on the basis of other methods. Fighting Racism at Individual Levels There exists ways that can help to fight this racism vice. A few of the ways as held by Global Research (2008) as such that could be to the sense that whenever one makes a racist joke, we are not supposed to laugh at it. Laughing encourages one to go on. Instead, we should make the person understand that the joke was not funny or we do not appreciate such kind of jokes. The worst thing is to keep silent. Instead we should speak over minds out but cautiously and politely. We should strive to learn about others and understand their cultures; the differences in our culture call for appreciation and celebration. We can learn from them and appreciate why some things are the way they are. There is no culture which is considered superior than the other. It is helps in enriching our own cultures. We should always use the correct language. It is not prudent to mention races in a conversation. Some people get offended when you use a language that it, there is an implication of racial discrimination. We should never use words haphazardly when we are not sure where one ails from. As much as possible, we should try to be role models. We should speak against but not criticize comments that are racist in nature. Educate others the negative effects of racism and narrate your own experiences to them if any. The other best thing though it can be uncomfortable is to venture into areas where one is not of the other kind. However, one should take his/her safety issues into consideration. If one learns in a White institution, one should try to venture into a Black institution or if she/he is a Christian, she/he should find time to visit a Muslim mosque. The experience will certainly be enlightening than one might expect (Global Research, par 7). If presented with projects, one should try to do them with people who are not from their own kind. Playing at an equal level enhances the confidence of the minority and helps to cancel the bitter discrimination injustice feelings they might be harboring in their hearts. According to Anthony (2009), If one is a parent, he/she should at an early age try to mingle his/her children with the children from the other groups. One should strive to discuss TV programs and movies that could be of stereotype. This will help children to understand other people and their culture. This will help in suppressing racial discrimination traits from creeping in. As much as possible one should help and support organization that voices their ideas against racial discrimination. This will help in fighting against it and by joining these groupings; you will have a more powerful voice at the local level. People will be ready to listen to you. As they say, “united we stand and apart we fall”. Thus being in an organization with a common goal, great strides of achievements will be made. Conclusion It is safe to say that racism has drastically reduced with the continued legislation and having an informed populace. Religion also has played a major role in eradicating it as people believe that racism is a sin and practicing or helping in its propagation is sinning against God. Affirmative action programs have majorly benefitted the minority even though the white feel that they should be done away with total. They feel that they are the ones at the losing end. As always people try to resist change to the old ways they are used. Racial spats these days are not common. If one does an act implying racism, it is usually unconscious, unintentional and not malicious. With the reduction of racism, some things are yet to be achieved like equal employment opportunities and wages. The economic status of the minority still is wanting. This could be one of the reasons why hate crimes are still in the increase. The best way to reach a conclusive end to race disparities is to find a way of eliminating institutionalized discrimination. This kind of discrimination maintains the status quo of the society and thus the groups that have historically been disadvantaged continue to be on the losing end. As Martin Luther King Junior said that we as a nation need to undergo a radical revolution of values. Thus the United States criminal justice system must check the main cause of the problem. It should not rely on what it calls reforms; reforms of having nice beds in good position.

IT 415 SNHU Parentune Wireless Sensor Networks in Transportation Systems Discussion

i need help writing an essay IT 415 SNHU Parentune Wireless Sensor Networks in Transportation Systems Discussion.

Specifically, the following critical elements must be addressed:
I. Project Proposal: The project proposal should contain enough detail so that relevant stakeholders (who will vary, depending on your topic of interest) can
determine if the proposed solution is feasible and will address the needs or gaps in the current operating environment.
A. Problem Statement: Craft a clear, accurate problem statement that highlights the information technology-related aspects of the challenges that
you are facing.
B. Significance: Analyze the significance of this problem and what a solution could mean to you, the company or group, and the discipline or area
of interest within information technology. In other words, describe the significance that this project has to your discipline or area of interest
within information technology and your development as a practitioner. This will be your chance to sell this project idea, so that it is exciting for
your imaginary stakeholder audience, and also for your real-world instructor, peers, and potential employers.
C. Objectives: Describe the scope, goals, and objectives of your project. If you are addressing only a part of the overarching problem, state this in
this section. Make sure that your objectives are reasonable (i.e., could be accomplished without exorbitant resource usage, an irrational
timeline, etc.).
D. Deliverables: Propose your overall solution, highlighting the key deliverables that you will create to solve the problem or challenge the
E. Methodology: Establish the methodology and techniques that you intend to use throughout the design phase of your project, with support as to
how each is appropriate for the situation.
F. Risks: Analyze the problem and your own solution proposal to highlight any risks that may prevent successful completion of your solution
design. Include risks that result from the project not fulfilling the objective to solve the information technology problem. In other words, what
risks are present and how would they impact the potential for a successful information technology solution?
Prompt II: Project Plan and System Design
Your project plan and system design will be submitted together in Module Seven, and should communicate a problem to be solved by your proposed
information technology solution. These deliverables will be used to direct the implementation effort in your next course, IT 420.
Specifically, the following critical elements must be addressed:
I. Project Plan: The project plan will be drafted early in the course but further refined as you develop the system design. This way, the work breakdown
structure and tasks identified in the design in need of development are added to the project plan.
A. Work Breakdown Structure: Clearly communicate a logical work breakdown structure for stakeholders to ensure successful completion of the
project. Identify all tasks and artifacts to be developed.
B. Timeline: Illustrate the overall project timeline, identifying start and finish dates, major milestones, and any other relevant data points during
the design and implementation of the project/solution. (Implementation should happen in IT 420, the implementation course.)
C. Dependencies: Clearly communicate any dependencies between tasks or resources for ensuring successful communication of needs.
D. Use of Tools: Professionally document project plan using Microsoft Project or Excel. 
II. System Design Document: Although you will individually develop your recommended information technology project, the project design should contain
enough detail to support another skilled information technology practitioner in implementing the solution. Determine a reasonable scope for your project
so that it can be implemented within the timeframe of the IT 420 course. The following sections should be included:
A. Introduction: Articulate the overall purpose and scope of the system design in terms of addressing the problem or challenges identified in your
B. Requirements: Determine all relevant and necessary system requirements based on analysis of the problem faced. The requirements should be
written as “system shall” statements that are testable and include functional, design, security, safety, and performance requirements.
C. Constraints: Determine the constraints of the system design and any assumptions made in terms of the problem being solved.
D. Resources: Identify necessary resources—hardware, software, servers, virtual desktop resources, and so on—that are required to complete the
project, based on analysis of the problem being solved.
E. System Overview: Describe the overall design in terms of the integration of tools and technology for successfully constructing your solution. In
this section, you should describe the high-level design and architecture, making sure that details are congruent with the type of project you are
working on. For example, use of case and class diagrams would need to be included if your project focused on a software application, website
wireframe, screen mock-ups for a web application, and so on.
F. Documented Detailed Design: Your detailed design should illustrate and annotate all important details to be developed of the system and its
components, interfaces, subsystems, and more. It further breaks down the high-level design into small enough chunks to be properly
implemented. The detailed design should align with the work breakdown structure in the product plan. The detailed design should inform the
tasks identified and included in the project plan.
Specifically, the following critical elements must be addressed: I. Project Plan: The project plan will be drafted early in the course but further refined as you develop the system design. This way, the work breakdown structure and tasks identified in the design in need of development are added to the project plan. A. Work Breakdown Structure: Clearly communicate a logical work breakdown structure for stakeholders to ensure successful completion of the project. Identify all tasks and artifacts to be developed. B. Timeline: Illustrate the overall project timeline, identifying start and finish dates, major milestones, and any other relevant data points during the design and implementation of the project/solution. (Implementation should happen in IT 420, the implementation course.) C. Dependencies: Clearly communicate any dependencies between tasks or resources for ensuring successful communication of needs. D. Use of Tools: Professionally document project plan using Microsoft Project or Excel.  II. System Design Document: Although you will individually develop your recommended information technology project, the project design should contain enough detail to support another skilled information technology practitioner in implementing the solution. Determine a reasonable scope for your project so that it can be implemented within the timeframe of the IT 420 course. The following sections should be included: A. Introduction: Articulate the overall purpose and scope of the system design in terms of addressing the problem or challenges identified in your proposal. B. Requirements: Determine all relevant and necessary system requirements based on analysis of the problem faced. The requirements should be written as “system shall” statements that are testable and include functional, design, security, safety, and performance requirements. C. Constraints: Determine the constraints of the system design and any assumptions made in terms of the problem being solved. D. Resources: Identify necessary resources—hardware, software, servers, virtual desktop resources, and so on—that are required to complete the project, based on analysis of the problem being solved. E. System Overview: Describe the overall design in terms of the integration of tools and technology for successfully constructing your solution. In this section, you should describe the high-level design and architecture, making sure that details are congruent with the type of project you are working on. For example, use of case and class diagrams would need to be included if your project focused on a software application, website wireframe, screen mock-ups for a web application, and so on. F. Documented Detailed Design: Your detailed design should illustrate and annotate all important details to be developed of the system and its components, interfaces, subsystems, and more. It further breaks down the high-level design into small enough chunks to be properly implemented. The detailed design should align with the work breakdown structure in the product plan. The detailed design should inform the tasks identified and included in the project plan.
IT 415 SNHU Parentune Wireless Sensor Networks in Transportation Systems Discussion

GGU Professional Nursing Organizations and Texas Healthcare Legislation Essays

GGU Professional Nursing Organizations and Texas Healthcare Legislation Essays.

At least 2 APA citations (in-text and reference) are required for each essay. a) For the following three professional nursing organizations 1. American Academy of Nurse Anesthetists (AANA) 2. American Nursing Association (ANA)3. American Association of Critical Care NursesProvide a brief summary of their purpose, requirements, and any differences in focus, population, scope, or intent. How do these organizations align to your goals and worldview?- Notes: I am a critical care nurse right now, my goal is to become a DNAP (Doctor of Nursing Anesthetist Practice) by 2030- Worldview – I am a Christian, I believe in working hard, treating everyone with dignity and kindness, and being a servant leader.b) Research health care legislation that is being considered in your state. What impact might this legislation have on your future practice? What impact does it have on the collective practice of nurses in your state? How do you envision yourself potentially becoming involved in political advocacy for the profession in your future practice?- I am interested in the ongoing battle to allow Nurse Practitioners (NP) full practice authority in Texas. If these bills are passed, these nurses would be able to practice independently of physicians. – NPs basically have the same education, skills, and knowledge as MDs, but the legislation is being blocked primarily becuase some powerful MDs in the Texas Medical Association do not want to recognize that advanced practice nurses are as skilled as they are and they do not want to lose the money that NPs have to pay them just so they can practice. Currently NPs who have independent practices have to have an MD on payroll to technically approve all prescriptions and therapies the NPs prescribe but these MDs do not play an active role in the care of these patients, the NP does all the work and its basically free money for the MDs. Most states don’t limit how many NPs an MD can work with so the potential to for the MD to make easy money without the work or liability is quite high but the cost can be prohibitive to an NP looking to open their own practice.- This can impact my future practice as a DNAP because if NPs can practice fully within the scope of their education, DNAPs will be able to work closely with them to care for critical care patients. We currently have to work with both Critical Care MDs and NPs and NPs cannot approve all aspects of the anesthesia therapy even if they are the primary critical care practitioner for the patient. Some links to consider – – an overview of the issue – the bill in legislation
GGU Professional Nursing Organizations and Texas Healthcare Legislation Essays

Use of Colour in Art and Architecture

Use of Colour in Art and Architecture. The use of colour in history has gone through a long story. It has been used because of its ability in altering mood and atmosphere, and also because of its symbolic meanings. The earliest known usage of colour in interior spaces started when man drew on walls of caves and tombs, which continues with the application on cathedrals, palaces, and ordinary homes. However, despite the usage in daily life, there’re times when the potential of colour is forgotten. Few causes such as the movement Minimalism and the term ‘chromophobia’ are part of it. But considering its ability in altering perception of space and creating direct connection with the user, should we re-examine the use of colour in modern architecture in order to prove its value? The usage of colour has been involved in the architectural development in ancient Egypt and Greece. It has been used mostly because of the association of colour with certain symbolism in the cultures. Ancient Egypt, one of the most documented civilizations, used paintings on walls and ceilings in order to tell the story of their civilization, from daily life to battle scenes. Earth pigments are used in creating these paintings – red, yellow ochre, also green, blue, purple, black, white, and gray. Each colour is used to symbolise certain aspects, for example red ochre for skin colour of men, while yellow is used for the women. While in the Greece history, the Palace of Knossos, is a distinct example of the use of colour in its architecture. The most outstanding feature in the building is its large red and black columns (Rompilla, Ethel, 2005). Palace of Knossos Based on these examples, we realize that colour can be used to create certain effects in its application, either symbolically or structurally. In the Palace of Knossos, colour is able to manipulate the appearance of the building. The colour red and black applied creates a distinct feature in the building. Even in its usage in symbolism, colour creates relation with certain people. This kind of occurrence, relation between colour and certain culture, still lives nowadays. We can see how certain culture is associated with certain colour. For example, the Japanese is often associated with the subtlety of white and blue. On the other hand, Mexico is associated with brighter colour tones. For these people, the colour chosen can serve as a connection between them and their culture and therefore its application is more than just decoration. This is one of the aspects which can be used as a consideration in applying colour in architecture. The colours in Japan culture ( left ) and Mexico ( right ) Association with culture and impact on structure will contribute on how objects and spaces perceived by the viewer. More on this issue will be examined thoroughly in the next chapters. THE REDISCOVERY OF COLOUR: Towards a Dynamic Architecture Colour Throughout History Considering the importance of colour in everyday life, to observe what has been done in its usage in the past, is part of knowing to what extent colour has achieved in its application. Therefore, the following is an observation on the role of colour in three ancient civilization, Egypt, Greece, and Rome. The observation will focus on the role of colour not only in its symbolic meaning to a particular culture, but also in terms of creation of arts. These include paintings, ceramics, sculpture, and also architecture. 1. Egypt Egyptian civilization,(3000-500 B.C.E), had developed an advanced creation in arts. Colour, was used as an integral part in the process. The colours of the Egyptian were obtained from finely ground minerals, and mixed with a tempera base, material prepared from glue or egg albumen. In the later time, they began to get colour pigments from inorganic sources, too. The ten basic colours being used by the Egyptians are white, gray, yellow, burnt umber, brown, red, green, blue, violet, and black. In portrait paintings, the Egyptian always used black for eyes and hair. This practice is also used in portrait sculptures to outline the sculptures, resulting an enhanced colours and defined shapes. 2. Greece The recorded history of Greek civilization spans from about 800 B.C.E to 250 B.C.E. Colour was widely used in ancient Greek. It was also applied in their human figures sculpture. These figures did not look like what we see nowadays as colourless sculptures. In its production, these figures used to be coloured with vivid-coloured paints. However, time and weather caused these colours to fade, leaving these sculptures colourless as we see them nowadays. In terms of the colour palettes they used, the Greece has its foundation from the Egyptian. They used white, light brown (ochre), purple (reddish violet also known as Tyrian purple), black (from soot and smoke), yellow, yellow-orange, brown, gray, green (known as Greek green or verdigris), and blue. The colour Tyrian purple was used in the later civilization of Roman, however it was the Greeks who found it first. Plato wrote about the importance of the Tyrian purple in his Republic, indicating its usage in various major rites, such as births, deaths, and marriages. And also about how the colour was perceived by the Greeks as the most beautiful colours due to its equal proportions of dark and light. Tyrian purple ( left ) and Greek green or Verdigris ( right ) 3. Rome The Romans usage of colour were mostly influenced by the tradition of Greeks, this includes their colour palettes and usage in arts. However, unlike the Greece admiration to tyrian purple, the most popular colour in the civilization was red, which was reflected in the ruins of Pompeii. Red colour dominates the walls of Pompeii ruins The colour palettes used are mostly similar but brighter than the Greeks. They are white, black, warm red, Tyrian purple, blue green, foliage green. Yellow, earth brown, purple, sea foam green, cool red, and gray. As how we’ve read about the history on how different colours were used in the civilization, the tradition of colour as a symbol of culture is still carried along nowadays. However, besides its relation to culture, there’s another concern regarding on how colour is perceived based on science. The findings are regarded as an important achievement which helps to enhance the sensation perceived, especially in terms of arts and design. Colour Theory ” Take a good look round and you’ll see that everything is coloured.” K. Schippers In order to understand the colour sensation, one must first understand how our eyes perceive them. Colour, dissolving perfectly in our life, may seem as a very normal experience. But it actually is a very important aspect in our vision because it plays a big part in shaping our visual perception. So, what is colour? Colour, in physics and optics, is defined as ‘component parts of light’ (Fisher, Pat and Zelanski, Paul, 1989). Being able to see colour enables human to differentiate objects seen more easily , compared to what might possibly be seen in only shades of gray ( known as monochromatic vision). The benefits of seeing colour is absent in some animals. Animals such as dogs, don’t experience colour vision. This condition causes that they can only spot other creatures, for example rabbits, only if they move. The experience of seeing colour would not be possible if not because of the assistance of light in our vision. Our eyes perceive differences in light frequencies just as how we perceive differences in sound frequencies with our ears. While differences in sound frequencies enable us to hear different pitch, differences in light frequencies enable us to see different colour. The colour field that human perceive ranges from the longest visible wavelength (red) to the shortest visible wavelength (violet). Light, in various wavelength and brightness, enters our eyes through cornea, a transparent outer covering. The received light then will be focused on the back of the surface of the eye. The back of the eye is covered by the retina, which contain many layers of cells. The layer which is important in colour vision consist two receptors called rods and cones. Rods enable us to see black and white visions in dim light, while cones enable us to see hues under brighter lighting condition. Hence, through these series of mechanisms, we are able to see colour. An observation of how light affects the colour perceived by human eyes has been done by the French Impressionist, Claude Monet, in creating his works. In the creation of his works, Monet often painted the same scenes, such as haystacks and cathedral’ face, under different lighting condition. Once, he decided to rent a room opposite Rouen Cathedral and stayed there for months painting the cathedral in different times of the day. It appeared that in full midday sunlight , the facade of the building is washed with gold colour and a slight blue shadow. While at sunset, the surface is coloured pale bluish pink, with lots of oranges and reds in the building’s recesses. Paintings of Rouen Cathedral by Monet Monet is not the only one who was in search of finding the explanation behind the role of colour in human’ visual perception. Many theorist and authors, spent years researching in order to gain more knowledge about the relation between to assist them in the usage of colour. Their curiosity brought them to a series of experiments in order to find explanation on how colours affect our vision. The studies include examination on the mechanism of eyes and the colours perceived, which also brings about the role of light in affecting the appearance of colours. The first manifesto closest to colour theory was created by an ancient Greek philosopher named Empedocles. He concluded that it is the eye of the observer which perceived colour and that colour is not a property of the object being observed. This idea had been evolving along with the discoveries by other people, such as Aristotle. Aristotle, another Greek philosopher, assumed that the colours were formed by the blending of sunlight, light, fire, and the lack of light in various degrees. The development was continued afterward with people from different backgrounds, such as theorist, authors, and physicist. Some of these people are Sir Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Albert Munsell, Johannes Itten, and Joseph Albers. Each contributes to the knowledge of colour we use nowadays. The Loss of Colour Being used and developed since the early civilization, there were times when the use of colour is being ignored. The situation is caused by several reasons, such as the idea of white as a better choice than colours, and how this idea is strengthen by the emergence of the Modern Movement and International Style, who preferred the natural colour of the materials, and later on the idea of black, white, and gray in Minimalism. These movements has changed people’s perception of colour and therefore resulting avoidance in its application. 1. Whiteness ” Though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow.” Isaiah 1:18, Bible The colour white, through various cultures, has been associated with perfection, innocence, and cleanliness. Colour, on the other hand, is perceived as the opposite of whiteness, which is dirtiness and the less-than-true. The word ‘colour’, which is colorem in Latin, is related to celare, means to hide or conceal. In Middle English ‘to colour’ means to disguise. 2. Chromophobia Another form of rejection of colour is called chromophobia. Chromophobia, based on David Batchelor, is defined as ‘ a fear of corruption or contamination through colour’. He mentioned that chromophobia “manifests itself in the many and varied attempts to purge colour from culture, to devalue colour, to diminish its significance, to deny its complexity. ” (Batchelor, David, 2000) The rejection of colour happens in two ways. First, colour is perceived as being ‘made out of foreign body- usually the feminine,the vulgar,…’.In this case, colour is treated as something foreign, something ‘alien'( Batchelor, David, 2000 ) so that it is considered dangerous. Charles Blanc, a colour theorist, identified colour with the ‘feminine’ in art and as something that cannot be detached from life. Not just that, he even consider colour as a permanent internal threat. Therefore, he came up with the idea of either completely ignoring colour or controlling it, in order to preventing it from ruining everything. Besides defining colour as dangerous, according to David Batchelor, the word ‘chromophobia’, is also used for the idea of colour as “something superficial, supplementary, and as a secondary quality of experience” ( Batchelor, David, 2000 ), which leads to lack of consideration in its usage. This perception also resulting colour being used only as decoration in architecture. This case had happened in the past and was criticized by Vitruvius. He complained that buildings were painted without considering its relation with the architectural form, which means there was not much consideration put in the thought process therefore resulting an unsatisfying project. 3. The Modern Movement, International Style and Minimalism The influence of chromophobia and perception of white as a better choice also had its impact in architecture. It appeared in the form of architectural styles called the Modern Movement and the International Style, which often termed their works as ‘minimal’. In this period, light and neutral tones are preferred in the space. White is the most dominant colour because it allows colours and light of the surrounding reflects into the space and that it is felt as natural colour. Colour, on the other hand, is being avoided because it makes a striking contrast with the surrounding. The famous people in this period are Mies van der Rohe and Walter Gropius. Their works, reflecting the idea of Modern Movement, shows restraint use of colour. Instead of using colours, they use the genuine colour and texture from the materials used, such as steel, glass, concrete, masonry, and stone, which dominates their works. Minimalism, another architectural style, is also much associated with the use of white. The term ‘minimalism’ is applied to works showing reduction in forms, usually created with flat surfaces that reflect a simple and tranquil atmosphere. White colour is chosen as the most dominant colour, since it is seen as colour with pure, smooth, and serene quality, and therefore goes along with the idea of calmness and tranquillity in minimalism. Samuel Wagstaff, an art curator, mentioned that this new aesthetics in black, white, and gray, is aimed to keep the viewer from being ‘ biased by the emotionalism of colour.’ (Meyer, James, 2010). So, white colour, along with black and gray are preferred to be used here. The rejection of colour in architecture does not only happen among the architects, but it also affected the people. A few cases of rejection of colour towards coloured buildings in the past had been experienced by architects. It happened to Belgian architect Huib Hoste, who throughout his career has been experimenting with colours in his works. One of his works, the Zwart Huis ( Black House ), which was created for Raymond de Beir Knokke in 1924 was painted deep black and partly red for its walls. Complains came from the neighbours who felt uncomfortable by the too-striking-colours and on how it broke the harmony within the surrounding environment. In 2001, a similar problem occured with the work by MVRDV. Designing an entire orange office building in a courtyard in Amsterdam, provoked dissapproval from the neighbours who felt annoyed with the orange glow that forced its way to the surrounding homes. ” Everything around you is orange – you didn’t ask for it, you didn’t want it, but you can’t do anything about it”, they said (Komossa, Susanne, 2009, p.254). Colour in Architecture Traces of the perception of white-black-gray as a better choice than colour in spaces can still be seen in today’s architecture. However, despite the rejection of colour, few modern architects who believe in the benefits of colour in architecture emerged into practice, for whom the idea of colour was an essential element, opposing the idea of colour as decorations. The first idea of using colour in modern architecture emerged in 1920s, inspired by paintings. Three architects who were known to use colour in their works in this period are Le Corbusier, Theo van Doesburg, and Bruno Taut, but each architect has different approach in applying colour in their works. Theo van Doesburg is the member of De Stijl Movement, an important accomplishment in applying colour in architecture. Other movements using colour as their conceptual design basis are Constructivism and Expressionism. In De Stijl, colour is considered as an important element and is developed as a tool in creating a new spatial experience. The goal of the movement is to achieve an ideal future where walls that separate men would be broken down. The architects of De Stijl believe that the three-dimensional properties of mass and volume is against the goal of the movement, and in order to achieve their goal, these components must be broken down through the use of colours. The method they used is to place colour planes on corners and boundaries, resulting a change in the volume of space. Here, colours were used not just as mere decoration, but it also plays an important part in altering the visual experience of the user spatially. However, Le Corbusier called van Doesburg’ application on colour as camouflage architectural and disagreed with the use of colour to weakens the physical space or to conceal its actual spatial proportions (Komossa, Susanne, 2009). Opposing this idea, in his work, Le Corbusier coloured the entire wall surfaces to make them an individual elements, so that it would not disturb the spatial effect of the architecture. These coloured walls were used as an intervention against the mostly painted white spaces in the building. The colours here, as Batchelor commented, was used by Le Corbusier to make his architecture ‘even more white. Having a different approach with his two fellows architects, Bruno Taut’s intention was to use colour as ‘an agent of social reform’. His goal was to create various identities in a large housing estates, where people from overcrowded flats in the backyard of Berlin will be the occupants of the building. Along with the development of colour in architecture, more “colour-architects” emerged. Some of the recent architects are Luis Barragan and Ricardo Legoretta whose works constantly exhibit the use of vibrant colours. Their usage of such bright colours are influenced by the place where they grow, Mexico. Mexico covered its land with colourful buildings such as red, pink, turquoise, yellow, creating bright figures under the broad amount of sunlight perceived in the country. Luis Barragan used the colours in his building more towards a psychological way which is to evoke dreamlike and surreal atmosphere. While Ricardo Legoretta, inspired by the 20th century mural paintings, focused more on the benefits of colour physically, which is to emphasize shapes and to deny mass of the buildings. Herzog and de Meuron, is also another example of those who supported the usage of colour in modern architecture. The design of their first house in Basle suburb is covered with blue layer that engages the viewer. In the past, colour in architecture was mostly used in order to relate to certain symbolism and culture. But, with the emergence of these architects, the usage of colour in spaces has gone towards a different direction, which is to concern more about how it enhance the perception of space and not just by delivering symbolic meaning or by using it as decorating elements applied on the walls. Looking at the development on how colour is perceived in today’s architecture, just as mentioned by Rem Koolhas, ” the future of colour is looking bright.” ( Koolhas, Rem, 2001) Colour Affects Perception of Space: Psychology and Physically The importance of using colour in space is based on the idea of the impact it has on the user of the space. Hence, before further explanation about how the user is affected by the presence of colour in space, the following will first briefly explain the importance of colour in shaping human visual perception. Perception is a critical connection between human and their surrounding environment. It can also refer to a more complicated and higher level of thinking process. Perception enables human beings to decide what has been sensed and then analyze that sensation. Besides absorbing the information received from the sensors, perception also acts as a filter that classifying important and useful information. In architectural design, where work mainly is about the creation of space, perception of space is nevertheless important. In order to perceive the space, one must first sense the space. To sense a space is to become aware of own self’s existence in the space and therefore one is able to distinguish between the self and the surrounding. This is done through the use of human senses, which are hearing, seeing, smell, taste, and touch. But as we always hear, ” Seeing is believing”, visual perception is very important in shaping perception of space. Here, colour can play a major role. As mentioned earlier, colour has the ability to affect our perception of space. It could happen either psychologically and physically. Physically, colour is capable in affecting the size, shape, mass, and volume of a building or an interior space, which means colour has an ability to deceive its viewer. This aspect was observed in Joseph’s Alber’s book, Interaction of Colour, as how colour is always never seen as it is in reality, resulting the actual (space perceived by the viewer) and the factual (the physical space border by walls in reality). He also stressed the needs to always keep the idea of colour deceives in mind, in order to use it effectively. The manipulation of a building’s physical structure due to its colour usage is reflected in the High Tech Park project in China. The use of white and blue colour is chosen in order to accentuate each other on the appearance of the facade. The colour blue creates the perception of depth and at the same time, involving the continuous form of the facade, makes the shapes appear longer than it actually is in reality. High Tech Park Project in China In terms of psychological, colour is able to affect the mood of the user of the space. Different tones of colours create different atmosphere in the space. This phenomena was then being observed scientifically in terms of how it affects the health of human body. One of the direct example of this benefits can be seen in chromotherapy. Chromo therapy, or colour therapy, is the ” practice of using coloured light and colour in the environment to cure specific illness and in general to bring about beneficial health effect ” ( Hope and Walch, 1990, p.75). The study on chromo therapy is based on the discovery of how our bodies, acting like prisms, absorb white light and other colours, too. The therapy involves the use of natural light that is filtered through a certain colour of glass. For example, patient with migraine will be treated with sunlight filtered through blue glass, and depression can be treated with red light. Shower Chromotherapy gives beneficial effect The ability of colour to heal creates the opportunity for application in healthcare spaces such as clinics and hospitals. However, as mentioned earlier, colour does not only affect human psychology in terms of healing, but also in terms of altering the mood of the viewer. Based on people’s daily activities which are either active or passive, we can differentiate between the needs of stimulation and the needs to rest. Therefore the role of colour in the space is to offer atmosphere/moods that support stimulation and calmness to the viewer. Balancing between both in the same space can result a dynamic environment and avoid monotonous atmosphere created by a single colour. The sense of balance between the two conditions can be achieved through controlling the degree of brightness in the space, because it is the aspect that determines the mood created by colours. The psychological effect of colour on human body was also written by Kandinsky. He wrote, ” Various attempts to exploit this power of colour and apply it to different nervous disorders have again noted that red light has an enlivening and stimulating effect upon the heart, while blue, on the other hand, can lead to temporary paralysis.” ( Dudek, Mark, 1996.) In order to achieve the right degree of brightness in the space not only the brightness of the colour need to be considered, but also the intensity of light that illuminates the surface. Brightness and Darkness: The Intensity of Light and Colour As explained in the earlier chapter, colour can only be perceived with the existence of light. And it is because of the presence of light that architecture can be seen and experienced. At the same time, existence of light as natural element in the space does not only define architecture and the colour perceived, but also nurtures the user of the spaces. This goes along with the usage of colour in creating a desirable mood and therefore the combination of both can strongly enhance a sense of a comfortable space to dwell, which is the aim of every spaces built. Hence, in order to incorporate both, the degree of brightness of both elements have to be considered. Controlling light in the spaces requires consideration in few aspects. The condition of light and the changes it made due to its direction, form, colour, and its arrangement; has a potential to create various colour perceptions. Considering the possibility of changes in perceiving colour based on the lighting condition, various kinds of atmosphere might be created. Both natural and artificial lighting is able to be used in assisting colour in the space. Direct sunlight can make surfaces in the space appear lighter, while the indirect sunlight will cause less dramatic shadow casting. Since the sun moves throughout the day, different kinds of light will be experienced. Different lights will reflect colour differently, resulting the same colour might be perceived differently during different time of the day. This has been proven by Monet’s observation in his painting of cathedral as mentioned in the previous chapter. Based on our ability to see objects hit by light, we can differentiate the degree of brightness we perceived. Brighter light makes it possible for a person to see the environment that surrounds him. At the same time it can also stimulates the nervous system of the body. Dim light, as the opposite, has the reverse effect. It causes the body to retire into itself. The comparison on how degree of brightness affect human body can be experienced in how people feel when there is maximum light on a sunny day compare to a rainy day with little light. People tends to be more active when the sun is still out and rest when it is dark. However, as much as our body needs to rest, to be in a completely dark spaces cause feeling of uncomfortable. As Goethe wrote in his book Theory of Colours, ” If we keep the eyes open in a totally dark place, a certain sense of privation is experienced.” ( Goethe, Johann Woflgang von, 1970.). The sense of privation is perceived due to human’ needs to have contact with the external world and becomes part of the whole, which once again brings back the importance of light in spaces. On the other hand, despite its ability to give a sense of connection with the surrounding, light that is too strong or bright might be disturbing for the viewer. The effect might be experienced when one look on a white, strongly illuminated surface. Looking at a very bright surface might dazzle the eye and for a moment disables the ability of eye to distinguish objects in the surrounding environment. This might be experienced when one look up at the sun as the brightest source of light on earth. Then, when we alter our gaze away the sun afterwards, we will experience a temporary discomfort in our vision. A high degree of brightness has a kind of force that demands attention from the viewer and stimulates the nervous system, hence it might cause distraction on the activity a person is doing and reduce the level of concentration . Dim light, on the other hand, is more useful to concentration-demanding activities, because it demands less attention which means less distraction for the viewer. ( Danger, Eric P., 1987) Hence the needs for stimulation and the needs to rest has to be balanced, as well as the context of the space which includes types of activities held in the space, user of the space, etc. As how brighter light cause stimulation and demands attention from the viewer, the same goes with bright colour and therefore bright colours fit well for spaces requiring lots of activities, while on the other hand, darker colours tend to calm people and therefore fit well for spaces to rest. The lighter the colour, the greater the effect because the brightness of light colour tend to spread out on the retina, causing the eyes to give more attention towards it. Bright coloured space to stimulate ( left ), dark coloured spaces to rest ( right ) Bright colours are associated with warm hues which contain colours related to red, with red-orange as the warmest hue. Others included in the category of warm hues are yellow, yellow-orange, orange, red, red-orange, and red-violet. While darker colours are associated with cool hues which contain colours related to blue, with blue-green as the coolest hue. Others included in this group are yellow-green, blue-green, blue, and blue-violet. The differentiation between the brightness and darkness in colour is first being observed by a theorist, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Goethe is a German poet who was also interested in the phenomenon of colour. In 1810 he published a book called The Theory of Colours, consist of his investigation and record about the function of the eye and its interpretation of colour, rather than the properties of light. Goethe assigned numbers to primary and secondary hues based on their luminosity (ability to give a glowing impression). White, as the most luminous, is given the number 10, followed by yellow (9), orange (8), red (6), green (6), blue (4), violet(3); while black, as the least luminous is 0. The numbers are used to match these colours, creating pairs of complementary colours. Each pair consist of a light hue and a dark hue : yellow – violet, orange-blue, and red-green. (Feisner, Edith Anderson, 2006) This knowledge therefore can be further used in the space because our eyes in reality require any given colour along with its complementary. This is due to the way complementary colours provide psychological balance in satisfying the needs of both warm and cool colours. People have a strong tendency to unconsciously seek warm and cool hues in the same space. This has been proven by Louis Cheskin, a colour consultant and author. Cheskin did an experiment with three rooms coloured in green. The first one was painted in a single shade of green. The second one is treated in three values of green. While the last one also used three values of green yet he added the colour wine red, which is the complementary of one of the values of green. The occupants of the first room gave a negative reactions due to monotony. Occupants of the second room did not show any defined respond, either favourable or unfavourable. While occupants in the last room showed 94% favourable reactions. ( Danger, Eric P., 1987) By using complementary colours in the space, a sense of perceive Use of Colour in Art and Architecture