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Fundamental Skill for Early Childhood Physical Education Class Lesson Plan

Fundamental Skill for Early Childhood Physical Education Class Lesson Plan.

You will create a lesson plan to teach a fundamental skill for
an early childhood physical education class (Pre-K to 3rd grade). You
will revise/add to this lesson plan in Week Five. To create your lesson
plan, start by reviewing and assessing that the skill(s) in your lesson
plan are developmentally appropriate by visiting National PE Standards (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. website. An
example of a skill is: ”Demonstrate the relationship of under, over,
behind, next to, through, right, left, up, down, forward, backward, and
in front of by using the body and an object.” Then, review Table 7.3 in
Chapter 7 for inappropriate activities in order tobetter understand the components of appropriate activities.Your lesson plan should include the following components:

Title Page

Section 1: Lesson InformationIdentify the following:

Grade level (specify what age/grade)
Estimated level of developmental stage for this age/grade
Number of students
Fundamental skill to be taught
State standard (see the list of National PE Standards (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. and indicate which state)

Section 2: Lesson Introduction

Provide a brief description of the lesson
Create a student learning objective: (e.g. “As result of this lesson, students will be able to demonstrate _________”.)
Describe your system for classroom management and student grouping
(e.g. class rules, consequences, rewards, and organization of the class
during the activity)
Describe the equipment needed and the environment (e.g. classroom, gym, outdoors, etc.)

Reference page

Include at least one outside resource.

Your title page, lesson plan, and reference page should be
formatted in APA style . The
lesson plan will be two to three pages, in addition to the reference and
title pages.Additional Planning Resources:
When researching lesson plans, the following resources are helpful.
These should be used as resources only and should not be copied and
pasted (Turnitin will detect any plagiarism):

Foundations of Moving and Learning

Chapter 7 – Planning Physical Education Lessons
Appendix A – Sample lesson plans
Appendix B – Sample lesson plans

Mr. Gym (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. (

PE Central (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. (

Fundamental Skill for Early Childhood Physical Education Class Lesson Plan

Solve for x chem problem.

Epsom salts, a strong laxative used in veterinary medicine, is a hydrate, which means that a certain number of water molecules are included in the solid structure. The formula for Epsom salts can be written as MgSO4 · x H2O, where x indicates the number of moles of H2O per mole of MgSO4. When 5.469 g of this hydrate is heated to 250°C, all the water of hydration is lost, leaving 2.671 g of MgSO4. What is the value of x? Use the longest values so (ie, 18.015 for water) etc
Solve for x chem problem

The new nation and Native Americans discussion essay.

The Issue:The New Nation of the United States had to deal with the issue of Native Americans and the land they occupied. As the nation expanded over the next century, this was an issue that was always up front, always controversial, and one that was almost always resolved to the detriment of the Native Americans – whether it was removal, separation or assimilation.The Assignment:Below is a small selection of web sites that address this topic; and I encourage you to find other good sites through online or library searches..
Native American Voices Indian Removal Act of 1830Indian Removal – Judgment DayIndian Land Cessions, 1784-1894Fort Scott National Historic SitePresident James Polk and the IndiansHistory of the Bureau of Indian AffairsYour assignment is to inform yourself about this era in our history . My intention is not to raise your anger about the past, rather to raise your awareness of our collective past. You may use any, some, or all of these web sites and/or others of your choosing:
Post an informal summary of your findings and your thoughts, 300-350 wordsFinal Note: Please restrict yourselves to the first century of the New Nation, through about the 1880s. And, please, don’t everybody write about Thomas Jefferson and Andrew Jackson.
The new nation and Native Americans discussion essay

MA 215 Grantham University W6 Business Statistics College Cost Statistics.

Business Statistics – Week #6 AssignmentWeek 6 Project AssignmentFor these project assignments throughout the course you will need to reference the data in the ROI Excel spreadsheet. Download it here.Using the ROI data set:For each of the 2 majors test the hypothesis at the 5% significance level:The mean ‘Cost’ for a college is $160,000. Be sure to interpret your results.For Business versus Engineering majors conduct a two sample test of the hypothesis at the 10% significance level (assume the variances are not equal):The average ’30-Year ROI’ for Business majors is less than for Engineering Majors. Be sure to interpret your results.
MA 215 Grantham University W6 Business Statistics College Cost Statistics

CJ 355 PUG Homeland Security Threat Prevention & Preparedness Programs Presentation

CJ 355 PUG Homeland Security Threat Prevention & Preparedness Programs Presentation.

You have been chosen to present in front of your local governing
board (county commission, city council, etc.) to outline the prevention
and preparedness programs that should be implemented in your community.Create a PowerPoint presentation consisting of 8−10 slides (speaker notes included) (excluding
the title slide, table of contents slide, and references slide) that
covers the following:Evaluation of the threats specific to your community (man-made and natural)Threat mitigation techniques that should be incorporatedImportant partnerships that should be maintained with both public and private entitiesCost effectiveness of mitigation versus the expense of response to an incidentBusiness continuity considerations for returning government services to normal operations
CJ 355 PUG Homeland Security Threat Prevention & Preparedness Programs Presentation

Advantages and Disadvantages of Inclusive Classroom Models

java assignment help Winner’s Circle Center is a special education, or what is referred to as a pullout program setting for children and teens with behavioral or developmental disabilities (or both) that emphasizes high student-teacher ratios, supportive services, and alternative educational environments to assist clients in successful academic achievement and development of social skills. Current thinking in most mainstream and public-school settings tend towards an inclusive classroom model, where such students are, for the majority of time, included in mainstream classes, sometimes with direct support and assistance. Both of these approaches have their advantages and disadvantages. Advantages of the pull-out programs are that each student gets more individualized attention. Students in the pull-out programs are working with other students that are on the same level academically, which makes it easier to structure lessons in a way that will help each student learn the material. In a traditional pull out program setting “the technical expertise required to work with students with mild disabilities is assumed to reside with the special education teacher, within the separate class.” (Manset, 1997, p. 10) indicating that the students are getting help from teachers that are specially trained to work with children with mild disabilities, supporting the theory that being segregated from mainstream classes is more beneficial to the students’ academic success. An added benefit is the opportunity for students to spend time with others who are on a similar level academically and with whom they may have more things in common (Mursky, 2011, p. 1). Teachers in pull out programs are also able to make various changes to the normal curriculum which allows for creative methods to assist students in grasping concepts and applying them, as well as allowing time and attention to work on the social skills aspects. The freedom to stretch the boundaries of standard curriculum makes room for specialists who are not certified teachers to assist in the development of curriculum and delivery methods (Renzulli, 1987, p. 248). Such departures from standard curriculum also creates space for “development of individual interests, opportunities to explore various approaches to learning and thinking styles.” (Renzulli, 1987, p. 248). Advantages of inclusion programs are that students are not removed from their classrooms and do not miss as much instruction. There is also a great opportunity for “collaboration, in the form of planning meetings and committees.” (Manset, 1997, p. 11) which increases the awareness and develops skills and experience of teachers. Another benefit of push in programs is that the specially trained teachers come to the classroom, which not only boosts teacher-to-student ratios but also gives students with mild disabilities the opportunity to work with a specially trained teacher. Push in environments also provide students a different opportunity for the development of social skills, which can be a positive but can also be challenging for some. Some inclusive classroom models give students a feeling of responsibility by giving students an instructional role. This paper will examine whether the inclusive classroom model provides better academic outcomes for children with intellectual disabilities than pull out program settings, specifically regarding the student’s ability to keep up academically with their peers and to absorb, understand and apply material. We will review studies dealing with academic achievement in pull out and push in programs and compare the results regarding academic progress. Our expectation is that special education settings, with typically smaller class sizes and opportunity for more individualized academic support, will prove to yield better academic progress on the part of children diagnosed with intellectual disabilities than inclusive, mainstream classroom settings. Study 1 First, I took a look at the experiment done by Stoutjesdijk and colleagues which focused on children of an average age of 9 years old who manifested significant ADHD behaviors. The study’s goal was to highlight the differences in both academic and behavioral progress between the children in a pull-out environment and those in an inclusive education setting (Stoutjesdijk, 2013, p. 21). The Stoutjesdijk study noted that the findings of this study may be impacted by the participant population, as academic underachievement and trouble with social interaction are common amongst children with this diagnosis, and often persists into adolescence (p. 21). This exploratory study put forth two hypotheses. One was that progress would be expected from children in both educational settings, but that those in a pull out program setting would show better outcomes; the other was that teaching strategies would have greater emphasis in pull out programs, primarily because of lower teacher-student ratios (Stoutjesdijk, 2013, p. 22). Method. The study included 64 children, from third to fifth grade; the majority of the children where in fourth grade. They were selected by random sample of 7 out of 16 special schools and 2 out of 4 educational services at mainstream schools (Stoutjesdijk, 2013, p. 22), excluding residential pull out environments. These children represented two groups, one group of 38 children who attended a separate educational facility for special education and another group of 26 children who were fully integrated in regular classrooms where they received special educational support. Analysis showed that there were no significant differences in the background variables of the two groups and the gender distribution of both groups was statistically similar. Stoutjesdijk notes that the study did not include participants with conduct disorders or comorbid ODD. Additionally, the study notes that there were no significant differences in classroom materials or curriculum, nor in additional support provided beyond academic support. As with most pull out programs, children in special schools had fewer students in each class, a more structured daily program, and fewer stimuli. The trade-off is that students in these classrooms had little opportunity to interact with typically developing peers during school (Stoutjesdijk, 2013, p. 24). Measures. The Stoutjesdijk study notes that participant’s progress was evaluated during the first year by pre- and post-assessments on multiple measures designed to speak to behavioral function and academic achievement (p. 24). The subscales Hyperactive/Impulsive Behavior and Inattentive Behavior of the SEQ were used to measure the severity of ADHD symptoms. The Dutch version of the Teacher’s Report Form was used to find non-disorder-specific problem behavior as noted by teachers (Stoutjesdijk, 2013, p 24). Academic achievement was measured utilizing a battery of tests recommended by the Dutch Ministry of Education and concentrated on reading, spelling and math. These tests provide performance levels of students in terms of months of education, with ten months equal to one academic year (Stoutjesdijk, 2013, p. 24). Additionally, the Stoutjesdijk study notes that IQ scores were obtained from diagnostic reports in the school assessment files of the participants (p. 24). Finally, teaching strategies employed were examined by school psychologists who utilized the Pedagogical Methods Questionnaire (PMQ), which consists of an inventory list used by respondents to indicate how teachers emphasize common teaching strategies used for children with ADHD in their classrooms (Stoutjesdijk, 2013, p. 25). The PMQ focused on four strategies for behavioral and emotional function. Three items on the PMQ provided insight into the level of support for participants in the area of academic achievement including use of concrete instructions, provision of individual instruction, and repetition of instructions and assignments (Stoutjesdijk, 2013, p. 25). Results and Conclusion. The study notes that the IBM SPSS Statistics 19 was utilized to conduct the statistical analyses. Stoutjesdijk finds that no significant effect of setting was found on any of the variables, indicating that both groups had comparable behavioral and academic needs and therefore valid comparisons could be made. The Stoutjesdijk study notes that while both groups were already lagging behind their peers academically at the beginning of the study and while both groups made significant academic process, neither made enough progress to catch up with their peers, and neither made significantly more or less academic process than the other (p. 27). So, the study did not bear out the anticipated results of a special education setting fostering better academic outcomes; however, it seems the results indicate steady and similar improvement in both participant groups. Study 2 The second experiment reviewed was “Effects of inclusion on the academic achievement and adaptive behavior of children with intellectual disabilities” done by Dessemontet and colleagues. The purpose of this study was to determine if children with intellectual disabilities who were part of fully inclusive mainstream classroom environments (with support) were able to make as much academic and behavioral progress as similar children in special education settings (Dessemontet et al, 2012, p. 579). Method. The final research sample was made up of 68 participants age seven to nine; diagnosed with ID (with an IQ between 40 and 75); and lived in their parent’s home. None were found to be on the autism spectrum. According to the article, no statistically significant differences were found between the two groups for the controlled variables of socio-economic status; associated impairments; cognitive skills; literacy and math scores; or ABAS-II scores (Dessemontet et al, 2012, p. 582. The participants were divided into two equal groups. One group was fully included in general education classrooms in their neighborhood schools. The other group of participants were mixed into classrooms of five to eight students that were also diagnosed with intellectual disabilities, instructed by a special education teacher with the support of an assistant. The group educated in mainstream classrooms received approximately 4.3 to 6.3 hours of support from a special education teacher per week and 71% of them were provided with therapies such as speech therapy (Dessemontet et al, 2012, p. 583). Alternatively, 95% of the group in special education settings received therapies (mostly speech and psychomotor therapies) (Dessemontet et al, 2012, p.583). Each student was given a standardized academic achievement test individually, three times over two school years (Dessemontet et al, 2012, p. 581). The tests were conducted at the children’s schools by proctors who had been trained to administer the test, and focused on literacy and math skills. The ABAS-II form was sent to the teachers of the participants, who completed their portion and distributed the parent’s portions appropriately at the beginning and end of two school years (Dessemontet et al, 2012, p. 581). These forms were requested to be returned to the main author by each recipient in a postage paid envelope. A brief survey was also given to the parents of each participant to collect data on their profession and education level (Dessmontet el al. 2012, p. 583). Measures. An ANOVA for repeated measures was carried out on academic achievement and adaptive behavior (Dessmontet et al. 2012, p.583) and the results utilized to compare the progress of the two groups of participants. When the assumption of sphericity was violated, degrees of freedom were corrected by using the Greenhous-Geisser correction (Dessemontet et al, 2012, p. 584). Results and Discussion. The results of the ANOVA concluded that although both groups significantly improved their math and literacy skills, there was statistically no difference in the progress made in math skills between the two groups; however, those in the mainstream classrooms did realize slightly better literacy scores than those in special education settings (Dessemontet et al, 2012, p. 584). The ABAS-II scores from the ANOVAs indicated that teacher assessments revealed no differences between the two groups in terms of adaptive behavior – again, both groups seem to have significantly improved, by the results derived from both teachers and parents (Dessemontet et al, 2012, p. 584). However, it must be noted that the results may be affected by the lack of an unbiased source of information regarding children’s adaptive behavior rating (Dessemontet et al, 2012, p. 585). Placement Winner’s Circle Center Academy is a pullout program for students with intellectual disabilities that are unable to progress in mainstream schools due to academic and/or behavioral issues. Students come to the Center via referral from the county in which they reside, and participate in Internet-based approved curriculum to complete high school. The program utilizes a non-traditional setting (classrooms are set in large rooms of a farm house) that promotes a relaxed environment with the goal of reducing stress that can lead to maladaptive behaviors. Currently there are sixteen students enrolled at in the program, aged 14 to 17. Three are three full time staff and three interns. Academic classes do not start until 11 a.m. and end at 2 p.m. each weekday; the shorter academic workdays have proven to be less of a challenge for students who struggle to maintain focus and are credited with more predictable attendance rates. Academic assignments are broken up into lessons, and students are generally given two hours to complete six lessons which works well for the majority of students. Staff and interns are available for one-on-one assistance and support throughout the academic day. I have observed that many of the clients show marked improvement in both academics and behavioral function over time. For example, Matt (not his real name) enrolled in the Winner’s Circle Center Academy program after being expelled from public school for poor academic performance and physical altercations with classmates. Matt has oppositional defiant disorder, and was not attending classes or finishing his assignments. He was lagging far behind his peers in public school. Matt has been with the Academy for three months. He is already showing marked improvement in both his behavior and academic achievement. When he first arrived, he had difficulty staying on task and completing lessons; after a few weeks he was completing all six lessons each day and frequently doing more then what was expected of him. He has also made efforts to be patient and avoid altercations with classmates and staff. Jaxon (also not his real name) is another client who was also expelled from the public-school system, lagging far behind his peers academically. Jaxon is autistic and has great difficulty with focus, and staying on task through completion. Jaxon has thrived upon the individualized support that Winner’s Circle Center provides. Although he needs support to complete schoolwork, his understanding and retention of the material have greatly improved, resulting in better grades. Nate (not his real name), was expelled from public school for physical altercations. He exhibited serious maladaptive behavior, which caused him to fall significantly far behind in school. This is his first year at Winner’s Circle Center and both his grades and behavior have transformed. He is now one of the calmest and quietest students in the program; he has caught up with his peers academically, and his GPA is now over 3.0. He frequently needs support, but he is always one of the first students to finish his work. He has had no serious behavior issues at Winner’s Circle Center. The studies we have reviewed conclude that both mainstream, inclusive classroom settings (push in programs) and pull out programs based on special education environments produce similar positive progress academically for students diagnosed with intellectual disabilities, with neither having statistically significant advantages. What could account for the success that Winner’s Circle Center has demonstrated with students who were failing in mainstream inclusive classrooms? To find this answer Winner’s Circle Center was compared to traditional pull out programs in public schools. While there are several similarities with the Center’s Academy program, there are also important differences that are key contributors to student academic success. One of the key differences is the classroom – or lack thereof. A relaxed atmosphere, without the typical rigidity of a traditional classroom, may be a contributing factor to removing obstacles to academic success. Studies show that symptoms of opposition, defiance and aggression are often associated with ADHD (Stoutjesdijk, 2013, p.21). It is also well-known that children on the autism spectrum exhibit both intellectual and behavioral challenges. A calm environment, with predictable structure, that does not present the anxiety and pressure of a traditional classroom setting, seems to be a factor in fewer displays of maladaptive behavior that can hinder learning. Traditional pull out programs give the “opportunity for students to interact with others who have similar strengths and interests.” (Mursky, 2011, p. 1) This concept is based on the fact that students with the same or similar diagnoses, and level of academic progress are often put together in special education classrooms. This of course simplifies lesson and activity planning and implementation. However, it is also true that the mixing of perspectives resulting from a non-traditional setting like Winner’s Circle can be beneficial to each student. Dessemontet, et al points out that adaptive skills and independence are also critical to the development of individuals with intellectual disabilities (Dessemontet et al, 2012, p. 580). Students in programs such as Winner’s Circle with both similarities and striking differences in behavior and academic levels learn from each other and create opportunities for social skill-building and development of adaptive behaviors which may not be present in a more traditional classroom where all students have more similarities than differences. Additionally, the mix of students with differing levels of need for assistance helps to create space for a smaller support staff to concentrate attention where and when it is needed. Another major difference between traditional pullout programs and Winner’s Circle Center is the curriculum. In traditional pullout programs teachers have the ability to change the normal curriculum to assist their students which can be a benefit but also means that students may not be receiving the same level of instruction or demonstrating the same level of understanding and ability to apply knowledge as their peers. At Winner’s Circle Center the curriculum is set, students are all instructed to the same standard, and each student has set expectations for the school day. While the school day is shorter, there is a routine established that in itself provides predictability and structure which assists students in maintaining focus. Internet-based lessons provide more opportunity to spend school hours pinpointing areas or concepts which are challenging individual students, allowing staff to tailor one-on-one instruction to the needs of each student. In conclusion, it is clear that there are several different models that can contribute to better academic outcomes for students diagnosed with intellectual disabilities; the key is in understanding the needs of each individual and ensuring that placement is matched to those needs in order to maximize academic progress and success. References Dessemontet, R. S., Bless, G.,

Employee Management Theories Paper

Employee Management Theories Paper.

You will be considering the views and arguments of five scholars or practitioners.For each, is he or she inclined to assert thata. team/group decisions are likely to be better than individual decisions ORb. team/group decisions are likely to suffer from lack of expert judgment.The fundamental question is the quality of group process vs. hierarchical systems.In two paragraphs or more, summarize and provide a critique of EACH view. Choose five from this list Fred Luthans (psychological capital)Mark Learmonth (the “girls” at the NHS)IrvingL. Janis (groupthink)Frederick Taylor (scientific management)Jack Welch (Ex GE CEO, stack ranking)Frank Schmidt (IQ predicts performance on all jobs)
Employee Management Theories Paper

Hinduism Religion: Food and Asceticism Essay

Food has become an important aspect of different religions and socio-cultural belief systems. The gift of food is considered sacred within the perimeters of Hinduism. Therefore, it is common knowledge within the religion that food “increases life, purity, strength, health, joy, and cheerfulness all which are savory and oleaginous, substantial, agreeable, and dear to the Sattwic (pure) people” (Ramanujan, 2002). In addition, food shares a connection with the main elements of Hinduism. Food nourishes the body by lodging in it a vital force. Consequently, the food portal contributes to the realization of Brahma. Hinduism also upholds the position of food as a category of thought. This essay explores the ascetic significances of food within the confines of Hinduism. The acts of food asceticism are an integral part of Hinduism. A holy person in Hindu can only handle food in order to carry out distinctive purposes such as the alleviation of human suffering and bringing individuals closer to salvation. Furthermore, a holy person has to have control when he/she is handling the food so as to enhance his/her spiritual power. Control over food can only be mastered through activities such as fasting. Fasting and minimal eating activities deny the body food-related pleasures and heighten a person’s alternative utilities. Staying away from food enables a human being to harness his/her touching and seeing abilities. Therefore, through fasting an individual can be able to communicate with hidden powers and messages. According to Babb, someone who is fasting can be able to “make food speak and act on his behalf, convey blessings and curses, and guide mortals towards spiritual experiences and divinity” (Ramanujan, 2002). Hinduism stresses that food has the ability to sustain life. A fasting experience deprives the body the ability to hear, act, enjoy, see, and reflect for the entire period of denial. However, when the fasting experience comes to an end, an individual is able to regain all his/her seeing, reflection, hearing, and acting abilities. This transition is beneficial to an individual’s spirituality. The Hindu religion requires that all dharma-upholding individuals practice fasting and consider it as a ‘cosmic sacrificial process.’ Furthermore, the achievements of the fasting process are considered as acceptable sacrificial products. Within the concept of Hinduism, food is only important as a tool of bodily sustenance. Consequently, ascetics serve both spiritual and bodily purposes. The spiritual purposes of fasting include providing the soul with dominance over the body and enhancing a person’s ‘self-food dialogue.’ Fasting is also a viable way of increasing one’s tapas within the dharma context. Mahatma Gandhi is an example of an individual who dedicated his life to long periods of ascetic thoughts. Gandhi’s dedication is, however, unique because he used his experiences to improve his self-worth. For instance, Gandhi’s fasting experiences were not accompanied by begging sessions or any notable miraculous works. On a personal level, Gandhi credited fasting with the opening of his ‘inner eyes’ especially during instances of moral dilemmas. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One writer notes that for Gandhi, fasting meant “abstaining from evil or injurious thoughts, activities, or foods” (Denton, 2004). Praying is closely related to fasting as practiced by several Hindu adherents. Some people believe that fasting enhances the power and value of prayers. Across India, several holy persons combine fasting with prayers. For instance, during Gandhi’s lengthy fasting sessions, he embraced both food ascetics and prayers and considered them as part of a powerful spiritual language. Another aspect of ascetics is meagerness. The concept of meagerness asserts the need to supply the body with “just enough food to sustain the body for the service for which it is made” (Ramanujan, 2002). Nevertheless, it is often difficult to ascertain what qualifies as a ‘meager meal.’ For instance, a meager meal can be enough food to sustain the body, a balanced diet, or a half-portion. Sannyasa is a branch of asceticism that involves the specifics of a householder’s way of life. Householders are married individuals who engage in duties such as raising children and welcoming guests. Food and its related ascetics are very important to a householder. Within the context of Hinduism, the role of a householder is considered to be very important. For instance, it is noted that householders have the exclusive privilege of offering sacrifices and afflicting themselves with austerities. One of the most notable duties of a householder is to feed world denouncers, students, and forest dwellers when they come begging for food. Consequently, most of the individuals who dedicate themselves to asceticism depend on householders for their bodily nourishment. According to the Dharma-concept of Hinduism, just like all living beings look up to their mothers for survival, mendicants owe their survival to householders. Another text conceptualizes the ascetic contributions of the householder by noting that “since people in the other three stages of life are supported every day by the knowledge and food of the householder, the householder’s stage of life is the best” (Khare, 2010). There is a deep connection between a holy person and a householder. This connection operates in two spheres, but they are both in ascetic form. For example, the householder looks up to the holy man for spiritual guidance and physical healing. On the other hand, holy persons constantly depend on householders for their body-nourishment needs. A householder admires individuals who effectively use ascetics to conquer moral, physical, mental, and spiritual weaknesses. For example, a female householder is susceptible to bodily impurity due to her monthly menstruation and her ability to give birth. Therefore, holy persons present householders with viable examples that they can follow (Denton, 2004). We will write a custom Essay on Hinduism Religion: Food and Asceticism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Tantric branch of Hinduism is made up of practices that contradict the Brahma that is achieved through asceticism. Therefore, while householders and holy persons use food for asceticism, the Tantras use food to break taboos and restrictions. The Tantras divide themselves into two categories, the right-handed, and the left-handed Tantras. The left-handed Tantras incorporate five sacramental rituals to their everyday lives, and four of these involve food. The five sacramental rituals of the Tantras include eating meat, fish, and parched-grain, drinking wine, and engaging in sexual activities. Tantric practices denounce the concept of asceticism. On the other hand, mainstream Hinduism shuns Tantric practices and ideas of spiritual enlightenment. Some Hindu adherents consider Tantras and their practices dangerous. Sometimes the Tantric practices that go against asceticism are equated to black magic by Hindus. Food is primarily used to break taboos by the Tantras. Nevertheless, a person who consumes meat on a regular basis and is often intoxicated does not necessarily break taboos. The process of breaking taboos is complex and lengthy, and it involves a certain level of purity. Food is an important part of the Hindu religion, and it is closely connected to asceticism. Holy persons deny themselves food in order to reach a high level of the spiritual endowment. Most mendicants do not handle food, and they have to depend on householders for leftovers and other small portions. Tantras, on the other hand, use food to break most of the taboos that are specified by the Hindu religion. References Denton, L. T. (2004). Female ascetics in Hinduism. London, United Kingdom: Sunny Press. Khare, R. S. (2010). Culture and reality: Essays on the Hindu system of managing foods. New York, NY: Penguin. Ramanujan, A. K. (2002). Food for Thought: Toward an Anthology of Hindu Food- images. New York, NY: Penguin.