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Functional Behavioral Assessment Report (Assessment)

Introduction A particular behavior exhibited by a student can be explained through three perspectives. The first perspective is that a student behaves a certain way because of the psychological problem while the second perspective is associated with a specific social background that deeply affected the behavior. The third perspective is tied to the events and situations that occur within the school environment (Functional behavior assessments and behavior support plans, n.d.). For this reason, conducting a functional behavior assessment is crucial for finding out the cause of the student’s irregular behavior and developing an intervention plan to modify and improve the conduct. This report will focus on the identification and definition of the specific behavior, the collection of information, identification of the behavior’s purpose, and the development of a hypothesis about the behavior. Three Expected Outcome Goals and accompanying interventions will also be included in the report. Identification and Definition of the Specific Problem Behavior The behavior of Mark, the student with a disability chosen for this assessment, significantly impedes his and other students’ learning. Teachers, students, and student’s parents have reported that the child cannot interact with others without being aggressive or annoying. Specific behaviors identified within the school environment included being aggressive to students if something does not go the way the boy wanted. For example, when someone sits at a desk Mark wanted to sit, he begins screaming, verbally threatening, and punching the person that occupied his favorite spot. Another example of improper behavior is when a teacher poses a question that needs to be answered. If a teacher allows other students to answer the posed question, Mark begins interrupting with his answer, mocking other students, and, therefore, causing significant disruption in the learning process. There is one common theme that can be found in all instances of irregular behavior exhibited by the student – Mark becomes angry and annoyed when his persona is not put in the first place. Thus, the identified target behavior can be formulated as “exhibits threatening behavior, uses verbally abusive language, and does not understand the boundaries of other students’ personal space in situations when his interest, opinion, or wish is not regarded as the most important and valuable.” Collecting Information Since the student’s behavior brings some major inconvenience to teachers and his peers, as well as to the overall process of learning, the stage of information collection is considered one of the key activities that will present a better understanding of why a child behaves a certain way. Observations After observing Mark’s behavior in the school environment for one week, a conclusion can be made that other students do not provoke his aggression intentionally. There were no conflicts that resulted in other students being rude, disrespectful, or offensive. It was quite understandable that no one cared for the child and preferred to stay away from him in order not to get attacked. In almost all instances, Mark became aggressive when for example, someone has accidentally taken his pen or unwillingly interrupted him. Moreover, the student was never seen interacting with any friends between classes, which indicated that his behavior was off-putting and threatening to others. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It was decided to monitor the student outside the class to see whether Mark acts differently in a home environment. He lives with his stay-at-home mother and a father that works at two jobs and takes up regular night shifts. Such a family dynamic means that the mother gives all her attention to her child. When the boy is at home, every desire is fulfilled by his mother who wants to avoid aggressive behavior and give him what he wants. It was observed that the only person that says ‘no’ in the household was the boy himself when he indicated that he didn’t want or need something. It became clear that the child was spoiled with attention from his mother who did all she could to avoid conflict. Therefore, there is a starking contrast between the way Mark behaves at school and his demeanor at home. Interviews Interviews with other students, teachers, and parents have shown different results about the student’s behavior. Mark’s peers indicated that the boy always behaved like a spoiled child that ‘wanted his toys back.’ Students understood that his behavioral problems were associated with his disability and preferred to stay away from the boy as much as they could since conflict would not have brought any results. Teachers indicated their frustration with the child and complained that he always disrupted the learning process; some of them even stated that ‘normal’ school was not for him. Mark’s father could not attend the interview because of his schedule, which shows that there could be some underlying issues with regards to the father-son relationship. The boy’s mother cried during the interview and stated that she was very tired of her son’s behavior. She indicated that fulfilling Mark’s wishes were the only thing that kept the boy from aggressive behavior. She also told about one instance when her son had intentionally spilled coffee on her white blouse when she had forbidden him to play video games until midnight. Data Analysis After completing the stage of data collection, the next step is data analysis for determining what precedes the target behavior and what are the consequences. It is also important to identify with what purpose the child exhibits the target behavior. The collected data has shown that the precedent of violent behavior is the action or inaction of the third party that does not account for the interest and the desire of the student. The consequence of the action is the disruption of the learning process in the school environment or serious issues in the home environment. The purpose of the violent behavior is associated with making sure that the third party satisfies the desire of the student. Hypothesis statement: when someone unintentionally causes an inconvenience to Mark or if his desire is not satisfied, he throws an aggressive fit, interrupts others in their activities, refuses to comply, or uses verbally abusive and derogatory language to focus other’s attention on himself. Expected Outcome Goals and Accompanying Interventions After formulating a hypothesis statement of Mark’s target behavior, it is important to identify Expected Outcome Goals and focus on their accompanying interventions. We will write a custom Assessment on Functional Behavioral Assessment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Facilitate teamwork and cooperation between Mark and his peers To improve the learning process within the school environment, a cooperative learning intervention may be administered. It can benefit Mark in developing adequate leadership skills within the environment of interdependence and cooperation to achieve common goals. When Mark is put in a context of tight dependence on other people, he will slowly learn to turn to others for help because his grade will rely on the performance of the entire team, not just him alone. Establish a relationship between Mark and his father The data analysis and observations have shown that Mark’s father does not play a participating role in the boy’s life. An intervention should include family visits to a psychotherapist to find specific issues in family relationships and find a way in which Mark’s father can help his son overcome behavioral problems. Because Mark’s mother is very tired of her son’s aggression as is not strong enough to say ‘no’ to his desires, the father’s support is crucial when it comes to making the child behave appropriately. It is crucial to administer all changes gradually, given the underlying psychological issues Mark has. Decrease the level of aggression and improve Mark’s overall wellbeing Dealing with Mark’s behavior will require cooperation between teachers, parents, and students. The intervention should include regular consultations with a psychotherapist, possible administration of medication, and interaction with other children outside the school. A strategy of neutral redirection can be effectively used in cases when Mark exhibits aggressive behavior in the classroom and the home environment. An example of neutral redirection is asking Mark to calmly express his opinion or dissatisfaction instead of allowing him to higher his voice or offend others for no specific reason. If none of the interactions help Mark improve his behavior in the classroom, it may be advised to transfer him to a special education school where teachers are trained to teach students with disabilities. References Functional behavior assessments and behavior support plans. (n.d.). Web.
Strategic human resource management emphases on human resource programme of Nokia that has long term objectives. It is focusing on internal human resource issues as well as on addressing and solving problems that effect management programs in the long term. so the main goal of strategic human resources is to boost employee productivity by focusing on business resistance that take place outside of human resources. SHRM of Nokia employs strategies that help to develop the business’ performance of Nokia and help an environment of modernism and flexibility among employees. The main actions of Head of SHRM Juha Akras are to identify key HR areas where strategies can be implemented in the long run of progress the overall employee motivation and productivity. SHRM also describe about the company’s internal strengths and weaknesses. This is very important as the strengths and weaknesses of a company’s human resources that have a straight effect on the company’s future. The purpose of Strategic Human Resource Management activities of Nokia: SHRM has a unique purpose to meet the company’s objectives. Different company has different strategy and SHRM plays a role to identify the overall need for the company to achieve the company goal. The SHRM activities are as follows for Nokia and it has a great purpose for company’s future: Resource planning: Resources are very important and should be available to meet both current and future business needs according to company strategy. Nokia Resource planning conducted at both organizational/ global and unit /local levels which is done by SHRM of Nokia. Particularly, talented workers or real apprenticeship schemes must be used. Workforce planning and recruiting: Workforce planning is the development of assessing a company’s current and future human resources needs. Workforce planning also includes managing any training and recruitment process to make sure the organisation has the exact staff inexact place. Nokia work force planning has a great purpose to properly express one way to make a workforce receptive to cross functional, Cross-cultural teaming that can therefore make fast, high-quality decisions and increase the organization’s flexibility. Performance management: Nokia SHRM has a system to run employee performance. It ensures individual objectives are copied from company strategy and policies. This is for motivate Nokia’s employee. Recruiting and exit procedures: Nokia SHRM makes sure that competent and eligible individuals are recruited and appointed to open positions, according to competence, with equal opportunity and on a voluntary basis. The supplier of Nokia check the eligibility of candidates and that they exceed the minimum legal age of employment. SHRM provided with a work contract or offer letter, basic or specific training. SHRM shall ensure that exit procedures are acquiescent with local legislation, international labour law and appropriate collective agreements. Nokia specific training and certification: Nokia SHRM has the necessary training on Nokia policies, products, processes and guidelines and, if needed, have necessary licenses and certificates to learn the social process of engaging multicultural, multi-country employees in generating and agreeing on a set of values and to search and get deeper considerate of the relationships between strategy, culture, values and business outcomes. 1.3. Contribution of Strategic Human Resource Management to the achievement of Nokia’s organizational objectives. To continue a strong, booming and efficient environment Nokia collaborates with its employees under the main goal to create an environment for all its employees where they can fulfil their potential. Motivation, encouragement and maintaining employee’s satisfaction and well-being at work is vital for Nokia to perform at its best. Company growth: Nokia expands their business in regularly basis with new innovations and ideas. That is why Nokia needs lot of skill and experienced persons to meet their business growth. For example Nokia’s Research
a. Sentence Outline. (1) Write a double-spaced, one to two page outline of one of the provided questions you plan to answer in your argumentative essay, including the thesis, major points, and supporting points of evidence about what you plan to write in your argumentative essay. (2) Paragraph “c” below lists the topics for this essay. (3) The Pass or Fail requirement will be a sentence outline of no more than one to two double-spaced pages in length. The outline will include an attention step, thesis statement, major points of evidence, and conclusion. This requirement is pass/fail. (4) See Annex C for instructions on creating a sentence outline. Your instructor will return your outline with comments on how to improve your argument. Failure to complete a passing outline will result in REDO until a grade of “Pass” is awarded by a DDE instructor. (5) Submit a bibliography with your outline c. Choose ONE (1) of the following two topics for your outline and essay. 1. How have the theories of either Carl von Clausewitz or Antoine Henri Jomini influenced warfare since 1815? Use evidence from H100 (the Western Way of War) to support your argument. In your conclusion, suggest the significance to today’s military professional. Always be specific and use Annex C (sentence outline example) 2. Of Knox and Murray’s first four Military Revolutions covered in H100, which one has had the greatest impact on Large-Scale Combat Operations (LSCO)? Use evidence from H100 (the Western Way of War) to support your argument. In your conclusion, suggest the significance to today’s military professional. Always be specific and use Annex C (sentence outline example) Note: I was leaning on choosing number one question because it has many supporting sources, but I left number two just incase you prefer it. Also see the attached for detailed instructions. Clausewitz Homepage (
Looking At The Human Growth And Development Theory Social Work Essay. Social work practice has shown that understanding different psychological, sociological and biological theories can help in working effectively with families going through difficulties (Adams, Dominelli and Payne, 2009). This assignment will discuss relevant theories that would enable a social worker to better understand and assess this family’s circumstances and behaviour. A brief history of Sam states that he was previously adopted by the family when he was 4 years old. One of the theories to consider within this case study is the Attachment theory. It has become more relevant in social work, especially when applying to adoption and fostering. Walker (2008) has highlighted the relevance of attachment theory to child protection in social work. Social work now understands the importance to assess the capacity of carers that would substitute the previous that would provide a secure base. Bowlby (1988) states that children would then develop and grow if they have this secure base. A possible problem would be that Sam has already entered the care system. He may have already experienced significant loss or trauma. This would affect his relationships with others. Children who have experienced significant loss or trauma will need help from their substitute carers to manage their feelings, which could be too strong for the child to manage alone. Therefore their carers need to have resolved any issues similar to the child’s in order to be affectionate and cognitively aware when the child remembers their experiences. (Walker, 2008) Attachment was originally used to describe affectional bonds between children and their main care givers. The term has now been expanded to include other periods of development like adulthood. (Adams et al, 2009) The primary function of the attachment relationship is to ensure closeness to the caregiver for food and safety. (Brodzinsky and Schechter, 1990) A large amount of research has found that attachment at infancy has a huge effect on the child’s psychological functioning. Researchers Hazen and Durrett (1982) found that toddlers more securely attached as infants are more willing to explore their environment, than those who were more anxiously attached to their caregivers. Other researchers have found that there is a continued link between behaviour from childhood when involving terms of attachment. (Brodzinsky et al, 1990) As Sam was adopted at a later developmental stage this would have an effect on his attachment. The foster home or placements before adoption is critical in that he needs support from the carers both psychologically and emotionally if he has experienced trauma or neglect. Children can have numerous attachments but according to Brodzinsky et al (1990) if they have suffered abuse or neglect in early infancy then this may affect their level of basic trust. Bowlby described the attachment system simply. If the child perceived its attachment figure as accessible it will have confident behaviour. However if the child doesn’t believe this they will exhibit anxiety. This behaviour may have been produced by Sam up until he ‘gave up’. Sam may not believe his attached figure is still accessible as she’s caring for a newborn. Bowlby believed that after this time he may experience depression and despair. Work by Tizzard (1977) found that children adopted from age’s two to four showed that on average demonstrated no more problems that those children living with their family. They were however more likely to be over friendly and have attention seeking behaviour. (Berryman, Smythe, Taylor, Lamont and Joiner, 2002) Some researchers have found that there is an over dependence on using the attachment theory in adoption cases. Barth, Crea, John, Thoburn and Quinton (2005) found that the scientific base of attachment theory is limited when underpinning theory for future interventions. Barth (2005) did state that social workers needed to understand what works when using the attachment theory in adoption cases but to use what works and develop an intervention that has a more appropriate evidence based approach. Applying Attachment theory to practice involves looking at the child’s present relationships, relationship history and the context of their life and concluding which particular stresses may affect their behaviour the most. In this case looking into Sam’s school life and financial problems the family may be having. Social workers work with families to provide support and psychotherapy. In this case they should help provide support in getting the family help regarding emotional support and financial. According to Payne (2005) understanding how attachment experiences can relate to difficulties they are currently facing is one of the therapeutic tasks Bowlby highlighted. A criticism highlighted by some psychologists is that the theory uses ideas from different theories. Bowlby didn’t set exact ideas of how to practice this theory, although Payne (2005) does recognise that the theory does have a good basis for explaining childhood problems. When practicing this theory social workers must understand the importance of linking it to other theories as they support further work for example the cognitive behavioural supports the idea of using therapy as a learning tool much like what the Attachment theory describes. Sam has shown a change in behaviour since his baby brother was born. He’s been rude to teachers, argues at home, he’s not eating properly and is withdrawn from his family. This change in behaviour may be because of a number of reasons however it is important to highlight that even though he displaying avoidant behaviour now he can still be securely attached. Avoidant behaviour means he is more likely to be withdrawn although still securely attached. However some of his behaviour shows signs of stronger avoidance. Sam is fighting at school, one example of avoidant of behaviour is bullying and focusing on those weaker than him, he has showed signs of this towards his baby brother which is a cause of concern. (Walker, 2008) Social workers should be aware of this change in behaviour. Children who have experienced neglect or trauma will present challenging behaviour to their care givers, these carers then need to be more understanding as this behaviour may be due to past experiences and high levels of anxiety. (Berryman et al 2002)(Walker, 2008) When working with Sam at assessment level its essential that the social workers use anti discriminatory practice they need to be non judgemental. It may be that they have seen cases like this several times, but to understand that each case is different and assessing Sam with no assumptions and treating him as an individual is an important attitude that the social workers would need to have. The history given has shown that the parenting styles may have changed recently, as Sam has been more disruptive his parents have been firmer, sending him to his room. This authoritarian parenting style produces children that are anxious, aggressive and have low self esteem, all behaviour styles that Sam has presented. (Baumrind, 1966) This may not be the best way to deal with his behaviour, especially as he has become more withdrawn from the family and not eating. This may highlight an underlying problem for example an eating disorder or ADHD. Research by Harris (1998) a major critic of the attachment theory found that Nature is an assumption. Society assumes that parents who are kind and honest will have kind and honest children. Harris believes that peers may have more of an effect on the child’s personality. Using the example of identical twins, she highlights that when living in different homes they will more likely have the same habits. She also highlights that children who live in high crime areas will be more susceptible to committing crime themselves. Personality also comes from genes, as shown in separated twin studies. In this case it’s important to investigate Sam’s friends at school and also his maternal mother to find out what could be influencing Sam’s behaviour. Once more social workers when working with Sam would need to understand that although society can make assumptions social workers cannot. When working with Sam it’s also worth noting that the social workers must have controlled emotional involvement. Sam may explain situations which could be very emotional the social workers would need to have the capacity to be sensitive when working with him. An additional theory that social workers should consider when assessing Sam is the Social Readjustment rating scale. Invented by Homes and Rahe (1967) the higher the number you have when counting the number of life events you have faced the more likely it is that you will have an illness. The scale denotes that if you have a score higher than 150 then you have faced mild life stress. Using the scale Sam’s social rating scale was 153. This scale is useful when considering the life events that Sam has faced in a relatively small space of time. However Lazarus and Folkman (1984) found that this approach is narrow and has the ability to ignore difference between individuals when considering their vulnerability to these life events. Lazarus et al also found that the Social readjustment rating scale ignores chronic stressors which may distress individuals greatly over a length of time. An approach to understanding stress was produced by Lazarus, DeLongis, Folman and Gruen (1985) they consider stimulus and response, coping style and defence mechanisms. Called the Model of Adoption adjustment it focuses on two types of coping, problem focused and emotion focused. The emotion focused strategies can involve attempts to reduce the individuals stress with behaviour such as avoidance, distancing or selective attention. These changes in behaviour help in reappraising the life event and redefining it as less intimidating than the individual previously thought. This type of cognitive appraisal process and coping strategy Lazarus et al argues can be influenced by environment. Using this approach can help investigate other factors. This cognitive appraisal process provides the bases of highlighting differences between individuals and what their psychological stress reactions are in response. (Lazarus et al, 1985) As Sam has faced so many life events it’s important for social workers to understand how much they can affect his psychological well being and behaviour and to understand the importance of recovery in these very traumatic situations. This approach can help expand the social workers understanding of how much these events could be part of the cause of his change in behaviour. Criticising different aspects of these similar theories can establish how useful it would be to individuals and how differently each individual responds to certain stressors. Applying the Model of Adoption adjustment theory to practice would involve investigating Sam’s relationships and past history of emotional events to gain a better insight into how well he has used emotion focused or problem focused strategies and what his psychological reactions have been in response to the events he has faced. Bronfenbrenners Ecological theory is another theory the social workers should consider when assessing this case study. This theory takes into account the relationship between the family, immediate environment and also the larger environment. It understands a structure of five layers. These layers involve different systems which would all affect Sam differently. The microsystem contains direct relationships and interactions of the child, the structures in the microsystem can be the family and school. Bronfenbrenner believed that the relationships between this system impact away and toward the child. For example the child affects the behaviour of the parent and the parent affects their behaviour onto the child. The mesosystem includes the child’s connections between the microsystem’s structures, e.g. Between Sam’s parents and their community neighbourhood. The exosystem identifies the child’s larger social system, although Sam will not directly function with it. For example Sam may not be directly involved with his father’s work hours but may be affected by its interaction within his system. The fourth layer, the macrosystem involves the wider society. (Payne, 2005) (Adams et al, 2009) The ecological theory focuses on the unique influences of the service user and the relevance of the immediate environment as well as larger society. It focuses on the service user as the centre of the process. Assessments use an ecological framework as a basis although in practice Francis et al (2006) argue that comprehensive assessment tools may affect crisis intervention assessments because this assessment is very time consuming. This theory provides a basis on which social workers can work from to consider the impact that these layers would have on Sam’s relationship and behaviour. In this case it would be sensible to consider this theory. Sam has faced multiple life events each could affect his behaviour. This approach recognises that multiple factors could be affecting Sam’s behaviour. It provides a holistic framework to understand these factors, then analyses them and finds solutions. A major criticism involving social work using this approach is that as the assessment is so lengthy and needs a lot of organisation to produce a solution. Many social workers have shown a poor record of good quality assessments. (Petch, 2002) Some social workers seem to focus on the immediate future of the child rather than long term solutions. The GSCC (2004) have produced aims because of this to highlight that it is important that practitioners understand that it’s a central part of their core principles. It’s important to note the use of Anti discriminatory practice within the use of assessments using an ecological approach. Understanding that individuals all have different cultures, behaviours and history is essential especially when Sam is vulnerable both as a child and as a previous service user who may have experienced past neglect or trauma. Jan (mother) A brief history of Jan explained that she has previously used IVF treatment a number of times with no successful pregnancy. After realising the emotional and financial difficulties that may follow if they decided to carry on trying they applied for adoption. They were matched to Sam, who was four at the time and despite initial reservations he seemed like the ‘model child’. Jan then gave up work to care for him. At 24 weeks she found out she was pregnant which she was told by doctors would be virtually impossible. Jan has found motherhood a struggle and has stated she feels useless. Her Parenting style towards Sam has changed as she has been stricter because of his behaviour change. She is also worried about the health of her baby. Attachment is also an important theory to consider for this individual. Research on Attachment in adults focuses on the assumption that the same bonds between parents and children are responsible for the bonds between adults in personal relationships. (Bowlby, 1988) If this were the case then the relationship between these individuals should reflect how they attached when they were younger; younger children may have secure attachments. Therefore when they grew up have equally secure romantic attachments. However if they had less stable attachments when they were younger they may have less secure relationships when they reach adulthood. Similarly children who have secure attachments but have had inconsistent secure attachments as they grow up may well have a change in their attachment pattern. Jan and her husband Tony seem to have some relationship problems. Tony isn’t able to provide the level of emotional support that she needs because of the increased hours he has to work. Jan may be slightly insecure about her relationship with Tony it’s important to explore this relationship at both an individual level and together to work out solutions together. To provide support and work out what each individual needs both emotionally and psychologically, especially as Jan seems to be becoming more upset about her situation and because she doesn’t seem to have anyone to turn to for help. Jan’s relationship with her mother seems problematic. Firstly she seems over dependent on her mother, who she expected to help with the baby. The relationship she has with her mother may have consequences on how she attaches to future individuals affecting both her attachment with her husband, the attachment she has with her baby and with Sam. As Jan didn’t realise she was pregnant until she was 24 weeks pregnant she didn’t have as much time to become emotionally and psychologically ready to prepare to have her baby. A paper by Bernstein, Lewis and Seibel (1994) found that women who were previously infertile have difficulty transitioning to parenthood some women may show high levels of anxiety, avoidance behaviour and problems with preparing for a newborn. They found that guidelines need to be developed to meet the needs of these women who have become pregnant after infertility. Not only could the attachment between her partner and mother be problematic but as these papers suggest the attachment between her and the newborn may be the most affected because of her infertility the effects it has on her emotionally, psychologically and biologically. Creating further levels of anxiety and producing negative behaviour. Social workers assessing and working with Jan who have been involved in IVF or have experienced it themselves may be too embroiled in the situation as the social workers may unintentionally direct Jan into making decisions. It would be more responsive as a social worker to understand this and move away from this case. The Spoilt identity theory is an important sociological theory to consider when understanding Jan’s behaviour. Goffman’s (1990) spoilt identity theory or social stigma explores behaviour and how certain behaviours or attributes can be socially shameful. The Collins dictionary describes stigma as distinguishing mark or social disgrace. Goffman (1990) refers to stigma as an attribute that is discrediting. This theory is significant to this case as Jan has had to deal with a number of life events especially one that is socially discrediting. Stigma theory predicts that childless women deviate from ordinary and normal life courses and are deeply discredited by society. Jan had expectations before she got married that she would have children by birth and became increasingly obsessed with having a child because of the amount of IVF treatment she used. A recent paper by Whiteford and Gonzalez (1995) posed the question “Why do some women become consumed to give birth to a child, even to the detriment of their own health, marriage and financial status?” They found that society was the main cause that pressures women into having children. That the women used within their research suffered because they had internalised the norms within society and because of this described their selves as defective. As well as society it is also the mediatisation of intervention that has also affected women infertile. Media is constantly highlighting how many infertile women are now with child because of medical interventions what this does psychologically to the women still not able to become pregnant is even harder to comprehend. When infertility does affect you the individual is then not living one’s life via the social “norms”. It affects women differently compared to other stigmas as infertility stigma is not a physical one like a limp. Looking at a woman who is infertile would not tell you that she is, it’s their own knowledge that has such a profound effect on their psychological wellbeing. It can create stress and crisis to both the individual and family, affecting them financially, emotionally and physically. Jan and her husband have both been affected through this trauma and it may benefit both of them if they have counselling together, even though they have now become pregnant and had a child it is still affecting their relationship. The husband has to work long hours to be able to afford living costs because of the cost of treatment for the IVF. Post natal depression may also be affecting Jan. Since she has had her baby she has become emotional and found motherhood a struggle feeling useless and low. Biologically speaking post natal depression is a form of depression. Depression usually develops within three or four weeks after childbirth it has the same symptoms is depressive disorder these include increased sleeping, lethargy and affected appetite. New mothers would also be anxious about the baby and have thoughts about her failure as a mother which Jan has showed signs of. Jan has faced a number of life events which may increase the risk of post natal depression. Fortunately there are a lot of different types of diagnosis for post natal depression. The Edinburgh post natal depression scale and the Hamilton rating scale for depression which uses a point system to assess their level of depression. There is a wide range of treatments for post natal depression the type the patient needs would be dependent upon the severity of their depression. Firstly support and advice is offered to give the family an understanding of how they can recover. Independent advice is given regarding any social problems that may be affecting their relationships. Antidepressants may be prescribed, these would then allow the body to function more normally. Although there are several types of side effects which may cause further problems. Counselling and psychological treatments may be the best form of treatment as they look at the individual wholly and what within their lives could be affecting their depression. Cognitive behavioural therapy helps indentify thought patterns which could make the patient more depressed. It achieves changes in the way people think. Interpersonal therapy may also be useful to consider in this case as this therapy identifies problems within relationships and relates it to the individual’s depression. There will always be positives and negatives of using these different treatments post natal women may find it hard to commit to psychological therapy because of the time commitments and may find it easier to just use prescribed medication. The main criticism with this treatment is that it doesn’t look at the patient’s problems holistically if there are problems within the relationships facing them now and finding solutions rather than putting them off would be more beneficial in the long run. According to research by Dennis (2005) the most promising intervention is intensive professional post natal support. Whilst working with Jan and her family it’s essential that the social workers give purposeful expression of feeling, giving them the chance to say what they want from the social workers and what they really need and feel about everything that’s affecting their relationships and what they want their goals to be. Considering each type of theory for this case study then establishing how they all correlate to one another is the best way to understand how to find solutions for these individuals. Understanding biological, sociological and psychological theories and human growth and development plays an essential part in assessing and intervening in a positive way. The International Federation of Social Workers guideline states that “The social work profession draws upon theories of human development and behaviour and social systems to analyse complex situations and to facilitate individual, organisational, social and cultural changes.” (2000) Considering each type of theory gives a broader understanding of individual’s experiences and how social workers can find solutions when they are needed. Social workers need a broad knowledge base of professional experiences, evidence based research and service users experiences to gain the best understanding of that situation. Looking At The Human Growth And Development Theory Social Work Essay

Havard University Tax Game Analysis

Havard University Tax Game Analysis.

This assignment has two parts. For part one you will work with a simulation. For part two you will answer one questions (with a calculus option).Part one1. Play the Tax Game available online at (Links to an external site.)It is a simulation in which you are the tax dictator for a mythical country. You must collect enough revenue—but not too much—for your government by adjusting a number of different tax rates, caps and deductions. When you collected sufficient revenue, the game will tell you the tax incidence. That is the impact of your tax choices on different income groups ranging from the bottom 20% to the top 1%. The game also will report the Gini Coefficient.See the reading on Canvas about taxes and the Gini coefficientYou will be asked to readjust you tax choices so that you are satisfied with your tax incidence. There is no correct answer to the game; each of you will differ in your political perspective and how you choose your tax rates. However, I will ask you to justify each of your tax choices as well as the overall tax incidence.For each of the taxes, explain the choice you made for the tax rates. How did it affect your desire for a progressive or regressive tax incident. When relevant refer to the price elasticities that may have influenced your choice.Part two: practice with data you may encounter in your work lifeImagine that you are an intern at a business. They ask you to research how demand for their product depends on household income. You remember that this is measured by the income elasticity of demand and that the U.S. economists measure this at . (Links to an external site.)Choose two goods or services of interest to you. For each goods or services:a. What is the good or service?b. Which two numbers for each good at the website provide information about the impact of income on quantity demanded (cite these numbers and the income levels used)Note: the columns show the expenditure by “quintile” that is the bottom 20% up to the top 20%. The “mean” for each good or service tells you how much that quintile spends on the good or service.c. Do these numbers indicate that each good has a higher or lower income elasticity of demand (or perhaps even an inferior good)? How do you know?
Havard University Tax Game Analysis

A Drug Induced Psychosis Health And Social Care Essay

programming assignment help Within this Independent study drug induced psychosis will be looked at. Within the first two pages a definition will be given as well as a brief history. This will be followed by a discussion on drug induced psychosis how individual is a affected and what is the cause. The author will then look at the drugs and how they affect people mentally and physically as well as how they affect the brain. When the final few pages it the author will look at the evidence and literature available for drug induced psychosis before then commenting on personal recommendations and the conclusion of all findings. The rationale behind choosing this topic was simply that more and more people through subculture and their own vulnerabilities are accepting of drug however through their own naiveté and lack of understanding are consequences he consequences and consequences Definition According to Mosby (2009), drug induced psychosis is a psychotic state caused by an excessive dose of both illegal and therapeutic drugs. This is supported by the West Australian Department of Health [WADOH](2009) who defines stimulant-induced psychosis, as an episode where the use of a legal or illicit drug has caused a psychiatric illness where the reality of the patient is impaired. The impairment of the patient can also include hallucinations or delusions, which can cause additional communication problems or social interaction difficulties. The drug induced psychosis according to WADOH (2009) may also be as a result of the overuse or abuse of prescription medication, or the outcome of a history of illicit drug abuse. Brief history Razool (1998) describes the historical evidence for substance abuse dating back thousands of years. Tobacco, alcohol and other psychoactive drugs have bee used by different societies for medical, religious, cultural and religious purposes and acts as a social lubricant. Today there is no lack of interest in the use of psychoactive substances and plants. Alcohol and drug use remain part of the social and psychological fabrics of our society and are now regarded as a public health problem. Attitudes towards drug use have changed during various stages historically and even with harsh laws, there still remains problems in society where drug education and drug treatment is required by society (Razool, 2008). Tea, coffee and tobacco have all been illegal in Britain at some stage (Whitaker, 1987 cited by Razzol, 2008). Alcohol and drug use can cause a host of physical, social, psychological and economic harm, not only to the individual, but also to the family and the wider community. If the individual has previously had psychosis the use of drugs or alcohol can increase the likelihood of another psychotic event. This is due to the fact that the individual can become emotionally unstable, due to their drug use along with their loss of cognitive processing and therefore, inhibits the chemical balance of the brain (Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital, 2009). Within this section use critical analysis and relevant referencing to show a lack of information provided and the difficulty clinical nurses face while battling this. Drug induced psychosis According to studies by REF, Psychosis can be induced by the misuse of drugs, such as Cocaine and Amphetamine and Cannabis, which according to Arendt (2005), has been linked with the development of early onset psychosis. However, these drugs can trigger psychosis, particularly in someone who is already an increased risk because they have “vulnerability”. This is then known as drug induced psychosis WADOH (2009); Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital,( 2009). National Health Service [NHS] (2009). This type of psychosis which is normally the result of long term or heavy drug use, generally lasts only a couple of days and is characterised by confusion, memory loss, delusions and hallucinations, that responds well to treatment (WADOH,2009). While the majority of drug induced psychosis responds well to treatment there are individuals who from their drug use develop persistent psychosis. Early intervention program (Canada Health 2004) The diagram above depicts how an individual with the vulnerability factors can combine, to cause psychosis. The full jar represents a person with psychosis. As the individual has a predisposition towards psychosis, the addition of environmental factors, increases the individual’s risk of developing psychosis to increase, and over time, this can lead to the development of full psychosis. Early intervention program (Canada Health 2004) When the individual reduces the environmental factors such as illegal drugs their jar of risk comes to a point where the individual is not affected by psychosis. Additionally, the second diagram indicates how the psychosis can be overcome and managed, using medication and coping strategies, thus enabling the individual to continue with their every day life in the community. How drugs affects individual’s mental and physical health Cannabinoids Marijuana, weed, and dope, skunk (cannabis): people smoke cannabis to relax and get high, however the short term affects of this can make it difficult to remember things, even if they’ve only just happened. According to Barnes (2008), cannabis can cause anxiety attacks or feelings of paranoia, and using a lot of cannabis regularly, may be putting oneself at risk of suffering confusion or delusions. However, as a long term affect the individual who smokes cannabis might trigger long-term mental health problems, according to Barnes (2008; Nutt, 2007) including psychosis, schizophrenia and depression. Rounsaville’s (2007) research indicates that if the drug addiction is treated, the psychosis level will be reduced. The environmental factor of cannabis and its effects in relation to schizophrenia, needs further research according to Rounsaville (2007); as there appears to be some long term implications, indicating that use of high strength cannabis, triggers schizophrenia. Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, also known as Ecstasy) MDMA (Ecstasy) in the short term can provide relaxation and energy to users but can also have the opposite effect where the individual will become paranoid, aggressive and anxious (Barnes, 2008). Nutt (1996; 2005) highlights that regular long term usage of MDMA can cause sleep imbalance problems, lethargy, and anxiety. However, there is some debate over whether MDMA causes depression. While Barnes (2008, Nutt, 1996

Role of Hedge and Mutual Funds in Financial Crises

Introduction Financial crises are an unavoidable aspect of capitalism as a consequence of the dichotomy between hard-wired human behavior and the ability to compete and innovate. Since the 18th century, the western European countries have been experiencing financial crises due to various reasons, such as financial bubbles and bank failures. In the past century, sound financial policies and regulations have reduced the frequency of financial crises, from an average of two per decade in the 1870s – 1910s, to around one per decade in the 1910s – 2010s (Clement, James,

MGT 325 SEU Develop Refrigerators in India for Rural Poor Questions

MGT 325 SEU Develop Refrigerators in India for Rural Poor Questions.

QUESTIONS1.What were the pros and cons of attempting to develop a refrigerator for India’s rural poor? (1 marks)2.What product and process innovations did the Chotukool entail? Would you consider these incremental or radical? Architectural or Component Competence enhancing or competence destroying? (1 marks)3.Did the Chotukool pose a threat of disrupting the traditional refrigerator market? Why or why not? (1 marks)4.Is there anything you think Godrej should have done differently to penetrate the market of rural poor families in India? (1 marks)5.What other products might the lessons Godrej learned which chotukool apply to? (1 marks)
MGT 325 SEU Develop Refrigerators in India for Rural Poor Questions