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THE APPROVED TOPIC WAS : PRODUCT LOYALTY.PLEASE NOTE: WE ARE NOT TO USE ANY OF OUR OWN PERSONAL THOUGHTS OR IDEAS, – IT HAS TO BE FROM RESEARCHED INFO FOUND IN THE WEB OR OTHER ARTICLES ONLY. (COPY & PASTE WITH CREDIT TO THE AUTHOR)After your topic has been approved by the professor, prepare a 2-3 page paper in which you: Define focus areas of study within your topic.
Describe the importance and background of your topic, current issues regarding the topic and highlight some future implications and opportunities within the topic.Develop a statement of the problem or issue. (State the problem in one sentence.)Connect the stated problem to a broad category of challenges and/or trends as it relates to your discipline major (Healthcare, Organizational Leadership).Identify relevant challenges and trends as it relates to your discipline major (Healthcare, Organizational Leadership).In your paper, be sure to demonstrate application of the Central Christian Fit Four Model and incorporate evidence of learning from your previous courses. Format RequirementsDocument TypeMS WordPaper Size8.5 X 11″Length2-3 pagesMargins1″FontTimes or Times New Roman, 12 pt.Line SpacingDouble. No extra double space between paragraphs please.In-text Citations & Reference List StyleAPAFile Naming ConventionLastNameFirstNameWeek1bApplyExample: DoeJohnWeek1bApply

Prompt: In this milestone, using the problem you formulated, you will complete your system models and your problem analysis. Specifically, the following critical elements must be addressed:  I. System Modeling  A. Develop causal loop diagrams that apply to the case with at least 20 causal factors to illustrate. Be sure to use appropriate symbols that clearly display the information in graphic form.  B. Develop stock and flow diagrams that apply to the case with at II. Problem Analysis  A. Apply system archetypes to your case in order to better understand the problem. Illustrate your selections using specific examples.  B. Identify the extent to which there have been previous attempts at solving this or related problems. To what extent was systems thinking applied in the previous attempts? What can be learned from them?  C. Identify the extent to which there are analogous problems or situations that contribute to your understanding of this case. What insights can you glean from these similar cases?  D. Using a systems thinking approach, characterize the true nature of the problem as you see it. In other words, to what extent is there a “problem behind the problem”? Cite specific evidence to support your conclusion. Guidelines for Submission: Your second milestone should be submitted as a 3 Microsoft Word document with double spacing, 12-point Times New Roman font, and one-inch margins. All sources used should be cited in APA style.
Introduction Omega, the flagship brand of one of the leading watch manufacturing companies, the Swatch Group, has established itself internationally as a world leader. With a lot of potential for growth in the international market, Omega is currently competing with Rolex to become the world’s most popular luxury watch (Deshpande, Misztal

NURS FPX 4900 Capella Nursing Intervention Presentation & Capstone Video Reflection

NURS FPX 4900 Capella Nursing Intervention Presentation & Capstone Video Reflection.

I’m working on a nursing project and need guidance to help me study.

Assessment 5 Instructions: Intervention Presentation and Capstone Video ReflectionPRINTPresent your approved intervention to the patient, family, or group and record a 10-15 minute video reflection on your practicum experience, the development of your capstone project, and your personal and professional growth over the course of your RN-to-BSN program. Document the time spent (your practicum hours) with these individuals or group in the Core Elms Volunteer Experience Form.IntroductionBaccalaureate-prepared nurses have many opportunities to reflect on their contributions to patient care outcomes during clinical experiences. Research suggests that creating and sharing video reflections may enhance learning (Speed, Lucarelli, & Macaulay, 2018).For this assessment, you’ll present your approved intervention to the patient, family, or group and reflect on various aspects of your capstone practicum experience. Such reflection will give you a chance to discuss elements of the project of which you are most proud and aspects of the experience that will help you grow in your personal practice and nursing career.ReferenceSpeed, C. J., Lucarelli, G. A., & Macaulay, J. O. (2018). Student produced videos—An innovative and creative approach to assessment. Sciedu International Journal of Higher Education, 7(4).InstructionsComplete this assessment in two parts: (a) present your approved intervention to the patient, family, or group and (b) record a video reflection on your practicum experience, the development of your capstone project, and your personal and professional growth over the course of your RN-to-BSN program.PART 1Present your approved intervention to the patient, family, or group. Plan to spend at least 3 practicum hours exploring these aspects of the problem with the patient, family, or group. During this time, you may also consult with subject matter and industry experts of your choice. Be sure you’ve logged all of your practicum hours in CORE ELMS.Use the Intervention Feedback Form: Assessment 5 [PDF] as a guide to capturing patient, family, or group feedback about your intervention. You’ll include the feedback as part of your capstone reflection video.Part 2Record a 10–15 minute video reflection on your practicum experience, the development of your capstone project, and your personal and professional growth over the course of your RN-to-BSN program. A transcript of your video is not required.You’re welcome to use any tools and software with which you are comfortable, but make sure you’re able to submit the deliverable to your faculty. Capella offers Kaltura, a program that records audio and video. Refer to Using Kaltura for more information about this courseroom tool.Note: If you require the use of assistive technology or alternative communication methods to participate in these activities, please contact Disability Services to request accommodations. If you’re unable to record a video, please contact your faculty as soon as possible to explore options for completing the assessment.RequirementsThe assessment requirements, outlined below, correspond to the scoring guide criteria, so address each main point. Read the performance-level descriptions for each criterion to see how your work will be assessed. In addition, note the additional requirements for supporting evidence.Assess the contribution of your intervention to patient or family satisfaction and quality of life.Describe feedback received from the patient, family, or group on your intervention as a solution to the problem.Explain how your intervention enhances the patient, family, or group experience.Describe your use of evidence and peer-reviewed literature to plan and implement your capstone project.Explain how the principles of evidence-based practice informed this aspect of your project.Assess the degree to which you successfully leveraged health care technology in your capstone project to improve outcomes or communication with the patient, family, or group.Identify opportunities to improve health care technology use in future practice.Explain how health policy influenced the planning and implementation of your capstone project, as well as any contributions your project made to policy development.Note specific observations related to the baccalaureate-prepared nurse’s role in policy implementation and development.Explain whether capstone project outcomes matched your initial predictions.Discuss the aspects of the project that met, exceeded, or fell short of your expectations.Discuss whether your intervention can, or will be, adopted as a best practice.Describe the generalizability of your intervention outside this particular setting.Document the time spent (your practicum hours) with these individuals or group in the Core Elms Volunteer Experience Form.Assess your personal and professional growth throughout your capstone project and the RN-to-BSN program.Address your provision of ethical care and demonstration of professional standards.Identify specific growth areas of which you are most proud or in which you have taken particular satisfaction.Communicate professionally in a clear, audible, and well-organized video.Additional RequirementsCite at least three scholarly or authoritative sources to support your assertions. In addition to your reflection video, submit a separate APA-formatted reference list of your sources.Competencies MeasuredBy successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the course competencies through the following assessment scoring guide criteria:Competency 2: Make clinical and operational decisions based upon the best available evidence.Describe one’s use of evidence and peer-reviewed literature to plan and implement a capstone project.Competency 3: Transform processes to improve quality, enhance patient safety, and reduce the cost of care.Explain whether capstone project outcomes matched one’s initial predictions and document the practicum hours spent with these individuals or group in the Core Elms Volunteer Experience Form.Competency 4: Apply health information and patient care technology to improve patient and systems outcomes.Assess the degree to which one successfully leveraged health care technology in a capstone project to improve outcomes or communication with a patient, family, or group.Competency 5: Analyze the impact of health policy on quality and cost of care.Explain how health policy influenced the planning and implementation of one’s capstone project, as well as any contributions the project made to policy development.Competency 7: Implement patient-centered care to improve quality of care and the patient experience.Assess the contribution of an intervention (capstone project) to patient, family, or group satisfaction and quality of life.Competency 8: Integrate professional standards and values into practice.Assess one’s personal and professional growth throughout a capstone project and the RN-to-BSN program.Communicate professionally in a clear and well-organized video.
NURS FPX 4900 Capella Nursing Intervention Presentation & Capstone Video Reflection

Critical Incident Analysis of Classroom Management in the Subject Context

help me with my homework Critical Incident Analysis of Classroom Management in the Subject Context. “Success is not final, failure is not final; it is the courage to continue that counts.” (Unknown). Although undoubtedly not referring to teaching or learning when said, I believe this quote sums up the learning to teach experience very aptly. It implies that trial and error, along with the reflection on both of these, is key to all learning. School A is a mixed gender school, providing secondary education to 11-18 year olds from both the local and neighbouring education authorities. The school is part of a multi academy trust, which also includes a Studio School and a local primary school. Located in an affluent area, the number of students eligible for free school meals (ergo registered for Pupil Premium (PP)) is below average the national average. The school had an Ofsted short inspection in March 2016, having previously been judged as good in November 2011. The outcome was that “the school continues to be good” (Ofsted, 2016) and a particular inspection finding was that “the school has a good record of raising the achievement of disadvantaged pupils, although some gaps remain. Recently, the school’s success in narrowing the achievement gap in English between disadvantaged pupils and others received national recognition.”. The report also stated that “an additional focus on the achievement of boys has led to more boys making the progress expected of them.”. School performance in GCSEs ranks it tenth in the Local Authority area in terms of the percentage of pupils achieving Grade 5 or above in English and Maths, with its Progress 8 score described as “Average” at 0.20 (National Statistics, Compare School Performance, Jan 2018). In 2017, 100% of Sixth Formers (Keystage 5) completed their main study programme, with the average grade across a student’s best 3 A levels being B-. Nationally the incidence rate of SEN for pupils on the roll in state funded secondary education is 18.5% (National Statistics, Special educational needs in England, Jan 2018). The rate at School A is slightly lower at 14%, with boys accounting for 60% of these pupils. The school operates a setting system throughout Keystages 3 and 4. Pupils at Keystage 3 study one or two modern foreign languages, depending on ability. Least able pupils only study French and it is not expected that they will opt to continue in Keystage 4. The critical incident observed happened at the start of Phase 1 of my initial teacher training when I was observing a Year 9, set 4 French class for the first time; a class I would eventually be teaching. The cohort consisted of 15 pupils; all low ability and all boys. Six pupils are on the SEND register and 5 are in receipt of Pupil Premium (PP) – four pupils are both SEND and PP. One pupil is on prescribed medication for ADHD and ADD. The class teacher is an experienced, male, modern languages teacher, as well as being Head of Faculty. This was the first lesson of two timetabled for that day; the second being Lesson 4, straight after lunch. At School A, pupils start the AQA GCSE curriculum in Year 9. It became clear from the start of the first lesson that managing the behaviour of some of the pupils in this class would be the primary barrier to learning during the lesson. Many of the pupils entered the classroom in a loud and rowdy manner, throwing their bags on to the desks and shouting across the room to each other as they sat down. The teacher quickly instructed them to sit down and to listen quietly as he outlined his expectations in terms of behaviour from them along with the Lesson reward and sanctions monitoring system employed by the school. Throughout the lesson, behaviour varied between low level disruption, such as talking and messing with pens, to higher level disruption and disengagement of unprompted shouting out and resting heads on the table with no involvement in the classwork that had been set. The teacher dealt with this unwanted behaviour by both addressing individuals about their specific behaviour as well as addressing the whole class with regards to focus and effort. This behaviour was not universal, however, and some of the pupils were able to complete the task set to a reasonable level. This disruptive behaviour not only continued in the second lesson of the day, it escalated. The same pupils persisted with shouting out and overall the effort during the class to complete the tasks given was very low. There were a couple of occasions when pupils commented that they did not know why they had to bother as they knew they wouldn’t be learning French beyond Year 9. Following the lesson, I spoke with the teacher regarding the class as a whole and what techniques might be of use in achieving a higher level of effort and commitment to learning from the pupils in future lessons. He explained that teaching this class was a particular challenge as the pupil were aware that they would not be expected to continue with learning French to GCSE level in Years 10 and 11. He suggested that this cohort needed more incentivising to behave than other classes Having considered the situation from the pupil’s perspective, I determined that my overall objective for this class when I took over their teaching, would be to focus on changing how they viewed their French lessons; to change it from one of negativity and being pointless, to one of enjoyment and understanding the value in learning a foreign language, no matter how basic. Following on from those lessons I reviewed a number of reflective models and concluded that Jay and Johnson’s (2002) ‘Typology of Reflection’ would provide a valuable and logical framework from which to appraise and analyse the critical incident I had observed. The typology outlines a number of questions from which three levels of analysis are formed: descriptive, comparative and critical. The consideration of these levels would then form the perspective from which I could consider how behaviour might be better managed, may be even corrected and the learning outcomes at the end of each lesson improved for all pupils. My initial thought on how the class behaviour might be better managed centred on the teacher’s comment that the class required more incentivising than others. It suggested that the school’s Lesson monitoring system would go some way to help manage their behaviour, but that it was probably not the only way required to get them to engage with what is being taught. Further reflection on the lessons left me with a number of questions: how else might the most disruptive pupils be incentivised?; was incentivising the best way to motivate low ability pupils to learn?; did pupils learn more when incentivised to behave better? In this early part of Phase 1 I had also observed a Year 9, Set 1 for French where the learning outcomes were very different. Behaviour was much improved, the rate of learning accelerated and the pleasure in learning for learning’s sake self-evident. Of note is that out of this class of 30, only two pupils were on the SEND register and five receiving Pupil Premium. Two possible learning theories that could be employed are Behaviourism and Constructivism. Although very different in their pedagogical approaches, they both purport to being the best way in which pupils can gain knowledge. Behaviourism is based upon the relationship of stimulus and the subsequent response to that stimulus and is often referred to as ‘Operant conditioning’ (B. F. Skinner, 1974). In the classroom, it works upon the premise of incentivising pupils to behave as the teacher would want and expect them to, that their behaviour could be predicted and controlled, by giving them a reward in return for a positive response and that these responses will continue as long as the stimulus is provided. On the face of it, this theory works well to manage behaviour, but does it lead to improved learning outcomes for pupils? And is the behavioural response conditional on the stimulus being provided? What behaviour will be displayed if this Conversely, Constructivism is based upon the premise of discovery and empowerment, dependent on the cognitive development of pupils. That pupils should be allowed to explore and construct knowledge themselves and develop understanding through active participation in the learning process (E. Rummel, 2008). In constructivism, it is believed that learning happens most easily and effective when the knowledge to be gained is consistent with the developmental stage of the pupils. UK school academic classes are currently split according to the chronological age of the pupils, but if Constructivism is the most effective theory for learning, is this the best way to stream children to elicit the best possible learning from them? How would the developmental stage of each child be easily and quickly profiled? And when would this profile take place? By studying these two learning theories and comparing the two class observations, I have concluded that classroom management, learning theories and positive learning outcomes are inextricably linked. They cannot work in isolation if good teaching with the best pupil outcomes are to be achieved. There is no ‘one size fits all’ approach in the classroom that will work every time with every pupil in every lesson. For the low ability Year 9 class I will be teaching, I believe that finding a way to combine elements of both behaviourism and constructivism would be of greatest benefit to their longer term learning outcomes in French. I will be looking for ways in which to motivate them through incentives, as well as devising lesson plans in such a way as to allow pupils to discover language learning, whilst at the same covering content as stated in the AQA GCSE curriculum. References: B. F. Skinner, 1974 GOV.UK. (2018). Special educational needs in England: January 2018. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 Nov. 2018]. GOV.UK. (2018). Secondary school performance tables in England: 2018 (provisional). [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 Nov. 2018]. Jay J KCritical Incident Analysis of Classroom Management in the Subject Context


Compare. Paper details This assignment should include the following elements: 1. It will be written in the 3rd person and objectively 2. The length of the body of the paper will be no more than 4 pages and this does not include the title and reference page(s). 3. APA style format 4. Use the 7th. edition of the APA Manual for all APA formatting and the ‘professional paper format for this paper 5. Use at least level one headings, and include citations, and references. 6. Please be sure to use proper Grammar and syntax: Observe norms for grammar, punctuations, language. 7. Submit as a single Word document: Title (cover) page, the body of the paper, reference page(s) Body of paper 1. No opinions – this paper is not an editorial or commentary format 2. Direct quotes are NOT permitted 3. Avoid personalization: Avoid I, my, or we What to Include in this paper: 1. State policies and regulations of your discipline or the one you are working toward, and the National policies and regulations for Remote Patient Monitoring (RPM) and Telehealth Services for your discipline 2. CompareCompare

Psychodynamic, humanistic and cognitive behavioural

Outline the major differences between psychodynamic, humanistic and cognitive behavioural approaches, ensuring that historical perspectives are included. Over 400 approaches to counselling and psychotherapy have been presented/promulgated in the last 40 years. In this essay I will be outlining just 3 most historically prominent approaches, considering their historical creation, and finally major differences in their theory and delivery. The BAC (British Association of Counselling) defines counselling as: “When a counsellor sees a client in a private and confidential setting to explore a difficulty the client is having, distress they may be experiencing or perhaps their dissatisfaction with life, or loss of a sense of direction and purpose.” (BAC, 2009) Much can be determined from the Greek words ‘psychi’ (meaning soul/mind) and ‘dynami’ (force) that make up Sigismund Freud’s (1856-1939) psychodynamic approach. The idea of forces and the mind’s unconscious are evident throughout his work. Although many of the ideas that Freud worked with were around at the time, he was the first to put these into a model that can be used. His original model arose from work with a patient, Anna O, who was suffering with ‘paralyses’ and ‘mental confusion’. Freud and Viennese physician Josef Breuer worked together developing an approach using hypnosis which they called ‘cathartic’ (purging of the emotions). This approach suggested that psychic trauma that was painful was ‘suppressed’ into the unconscious, where their energy caused the symptoms they saw. This was revolutionary, although the unconscious had already been coined; it was seen as ‘a passive dustbin where everything that we no longer had any need to remember could be thrown.’ (Dryden, 1999, p.29) However, Freud’s peers were not convinced; sometimes hypnotism could not be induced. Searching for an alternative he developed ‘free association’ where the client is encouraged to say whatever comes into their thoughts. Freud believed we censor our dialog; if speech is uncensored the ‘repressed’ will surface to the conscious and can be explored. Freud also pioneered a model of the mind. The mind has 3 elements; Id- pleasure (principle) seeker, basic biological drives, completely unconscious. Superego- morals, demands from the outside (e.g. Society’s rules), partially conscious. The Ego- rational thinking, sense of self, memory functions, mainly conscious, is seen as a regulator of the primitive Id and superego. ‘The poor ego…serves three masters and does what it can to bring their claims and demands into harmony’ (Freud 1933, p.77) Freud also believed to be able to lead comfortable lives this ‘ego’ employed ‘defence mechanisms’. His theory was that they sometimes caused and maintained psychological problems. Examples defence mechanisms are repression, denial, reaction- formation, projection. Freud also described 5 stages of psychosexual development; oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital. In the therapeutic relationship he also talked of transference which can be explained as: ‘A client attaches feelings towards the therapist that were previously unconsciously directed towards a significant person in their life, who may have been involved in some form of emotional conflict.’ (ITS Dictionary, 2009) The name Person-centred illustrates the need for the client to be the focal point of therapy. Rogers (1902- 1987) who pioneered this approach believed that if the correct conditions were created, the client themselves would be able to find their own way forward, removed from any constraints and therefore overcome any psychological problems. The main emphasis of this approach is therefore not expertise or techniques of a therapist but the relationship between the client and the counsellor. Whist working in child study Rogers became increasingly unhappy with how scientific practice was, and with ‘tools’ such as interpretation. He experimented with more subtle interpretations, and whist working with a mother of a ‘problem child’ she began to tell him about her sense of failure of her own marriage. This had not arisen in the formal notes from the analysis. Rogers did not attempt to interpret but let her take the direction of the conversation, this proved successful. He later put forward a paper to the University of Minnesota ‘Some newer concepts in psychology’, which placed more emphasis on the emotions and the therapeutic relationship. He was the first to use the word client instead of patient; it showed more equality and didn’t imply that the client had an illness that needed expert help. Although Rogers did not believe in strict theories he did realize some structure would be necessary. He developed three core conditions which he must be present for therapeutic change to occur; Congruence described as being genuine or transparency, this gives the client the understanding that it is alright to be in connection with their inner selves is good. Unconditional positive regard described as offering a non-judgemental blanket of acceptance and respect, free from any conditions of worth. Empathy: ‘To perceive the internal frame of reference of another with accuracy and with the emotional components and meanings which pertain thereto as if one were the person, but without ever losing the “as if” condition.’ (Rogers, 1980, p. 140) He believed a sense of ‘Self’ is present from birth and develops independently of interaction with others. However, the self-concept is developed from interaction with others, ‘Composite of beliefs and feelings that is held about oneself at a given time, formed from the internal perception and perceptions of others’ reactions.’ (Anon, 2009) Probably the most famous of his developments was the ‘actualizing tendency’, all living things drive towards fulfilment of ‘all that it possible for us to become’. A common phrase he used was ‘maintains and enhances’; maintaining holds the idea ‘to keep in existence, to preserve’ whilst enhancement is considered as ‘growth and development’. He believed that we could never reach actualization, or fulfilment. He believed it was blocking of the actualizing tendency by the overwhelming need for positive regard, which cause conflicts between the self and self-concept, if persistent, could cause psychological problems. There is no distinct Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, but several different techniques. I believe the most influential of which is Rational Emotive Behavioural developed by Albert Ellis (1913- 2007). REBT deals with present thoughts and reactions to present events. It believes the person has almost complete responsibility of their feelings; it is not an event itself but perception of an event that can be distressing. It is the role of the therapist to identify and initiate change any ‘irrational thoughts’ usually through ‘homework’. He also believed we had two biological innate characteristics, the predisposition to think ‘irrationally’ and that we can ‘exercise choice’ to change our thoughts. Before coining his theory Ellis trained as a psychoanalyst. Whilst in practice he found patients gained successful insight to their difficulties they still continued to have emotional problems. He began seeing clients, giving interpretations much earlier on in therapy and began ‘giving clients a new way to think’ he found it was very easy for clients to hold onto ‘irrational thought’ especially it had been reinforced from birth. Ellis created ABC model to explain relationship between thinking, emotion and behaviour. “ ‘A’- Activating events, Clients disturb themselves about key aspects of a situation. ‘B’-Beliefs, our emotions are primarily determined by beliefs we hold about the activating events ‘C’- Consequence of the beliefs at ‘B’, When the client hold a belief about ‘A’ they will experience emotion, she will tend to act in a certain ways and they will think in certain ways. ‘D’- Disputing In REBT we challenge or dispute our clients irrational beliefs ‘E’-Effects of disputing. When effects of disputing are successful, the client experiences more constructive emotive, behavioural and cognitive effect about ‘A’ “ (Dryden, 2003, p.112) With this model behaviour seems deceptively simple and independent; ‘A’ event, ‘B’ we have a belief, ‘C’ we feel or act a certain way. However we tend to do something, and then have thoughts and feelings about it, almost A-B-C- BA, this may then affect our ‘C’ differently. Ellis believed that there were two types of emotional disturbance, maintenance of ‘irrational thought’; ‘ego disturbance’- ‘Realties to the demands individuals make about themselves, others and life conditions. When they fail to live up to the demands they make about themselves, they rate themselves negatively’ (Dryden, 1999. p.112) and ‘discomfort disturbance’- the idea that an individual may forgo a long term goal to refrain from short term discomfort when they possess absolute personal comfort. This is also linked Low frustration tolerance where they believe they cannot tolerate any frustration, and would rather remain as they were than go through pain to change. Beck furthered Ellis’s work, introducing ideas such as the ‘negative triad’, and developing ‘Cognitive Therapy’ which is still used today for depression and illnesses such as chronic fatigue syndrome. The first comparison is the therapeutic relationship as they each have emphasis on different parts. The three core conditions literally underpin the person-centered; the egalitarian relationship is the main ‘tool’ the therapist uses. Although CBT still believes in using the core conditions, the therapist is more authoritative, teaching relationship. The psychoanalyst being, almost the ‘detective’, making the (using Rogers) ‘client’ feel safe enough to discover their unconscious feelings towards the world; using three completely different concepts to the other two; abstinence, anonymity and neutrality to encourage free association. Another notable difference it the structure of session; in the person-centered the sessions are client-driven, the therapist may prompt, but will not be as direct as other approaches. Psychoanalytic is very structured, the therapist directs the session, as is CBT, very structured. There is also a stress on life forces in the psychodynamic approach, described as the libido/Eros (Love) a ‘driving force’ along with and Thanatos (Death). The person-centred also describes the actualizing tendency, however CBT does not talk about any major force. The psychodynamic also lays out defined stages of development and emphasises the importance of the past, usually in the terms of the unconscious. This differs as the Person-centred finds it impossible to fit people into ‘boxes’ as everyone is different. Although it acknowledges the importance of the unconscious, the tense is very much on the present problems, the ‘here and now’. In CBT is similar to this as it concentrates on the present, it does though lay out a few stages of development, such as; by the age of two the child is able to formulate thoughts and theories. Another difference is how deterministic the psychodynamic approach is; everything has a cause, and is determined by prior occurrences (except if it’s a cigar of course, which he allegedly never actually said).The behavioural part of CBT is seen as deterministic, the cognitive part as mechanistic, which can be deduced to being deterministic in some ways, however Ellis did say that we have an innate choice to change cognitions. Whereas humanistic exercises that we have ‘free-will’. Rogers was always in the search for a ‘final confirmation’ of REBT as a ‘scientific discipline’, i can therefore determine it is not fully scientific. However whether psychoanalysis is scientific has been a debate for some time; however, can human behaviour ever be fully scientific? Thought echoed by the humanistic approach. The last difference I will highlight is in assessment. The psychoanalyst uses a very thorough assessment by the therapist to determine psychological disturbances, in REBT initial assessment is sometimes taken by the client filling out 2 forms. However, in the person-centred approach, no formal assessment is made. This may sometimes seen as a limitation and contribute to its infrequent use in the USA. Due most insurance companies require an assessment to be made before any payment is made. Therefore, I must conclude that there are some major differences between the 3 approaches I have outlined however many writers agree that this is what makes them suitable to the wide range of clients’ and inevitably the ever increasing spectrum of clients’ psychological afflictions. References BAC, 2009. The BACP definition of counselling [online] Lutterworth,Leicestershire: BAC [Accessed 20 November 2009]. Dryden, W., 1999. Four approaches to counselling and psychotherapy. Florence, KY, USA : (s,n). Freud, S. 1933. New introductory lectures on Psychoanalysis. Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Vol. 22, Edited and translated J. Strachey (1964), London: Hogarth Press and institute of Psychoanalysis. ITS, 2009., Definition of Transference [online] ITS tutorial school (s.l.) : (s.n.). [Accessed 21 November 2009]. Rogers, A., 1980. A way of being. New York, New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. ANON., 2009. Key Definitions [online] (s.l.) : (s.n.) [Accessed 21 November 2009]. Dryden, W., 2003. Albert Ellis Live! (s.l.) : Sage Publications Ltd. Bibliography Jacobs, M, 2004. Psychodynamic counselling in Action. 3rd ed. London: Sage Publications Ltd. Masson, J., 1989. Against Therapy. Fulham, London: HarperColinsPublishers. Trower, P., Casey, A., and Dryden. W., 1988. Cognitive- Behavioural Counselling in Action. London : Sage Publications Ltd. McLoed, J., 2009. An Introduction to Counselling. 4th ed. New York, New York. Open University Press.

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