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Free Trade in Agriculture and Food Security

Introduction Food insecurity has been threatened many countries in the world with an indication the high rate of hunger, 842 million people (UN, 2014). Countries that do not have a good food security system would be vulnerable to social problems. Conversely, countries with good food security system will create productive and prosperous citizens. Some of the causes of food insecurity are limited access of food, the lack of food availability, and low of purchasing power. One solution to those problems is conducting trading activities of agricultural products. International institutions such as the WTO and FAO keep continue on encourage free trade toward developing countries. Free market means open competition. However, there is an imbalance of competition which is weak states are forced to compete against advanced states. The IMF has also imposed the Washington Consensus formula toward developing countries that was not always successful. This paper tries to reveal some of the failures of free trade in agriculture, as well as some improvements that could be done. Government subsidies in developing countries for certain sectors (education and health care) must be maintained. In addition, the supporting agricultural infrastructure in developing countries must be prepared in advance until they really deserve to compete. Developing countries should be allowed to impose tariffs when their balance of payments extremely deficit. Hunger and Food Security MDGs (Millennium Development Goals) finish in 2015. The first goal of MDGs is eradication extreme poverty and hunger. Poverty and hunger have close relationship because major cause of hunger is poverty. In other words, to alleviate hunger must eradicate poverty as well. According to the data from United Nations, the number poor people in 2010 has halved than 1990 with definition of poor people is someone lived below US$1.25 per day. However, nowadays there are still 1.2 billion people live in extreme poverty. Unfortunately, achievement in reduce of the poor people not accompanied by achievement in hunger alleviation. Roughly 842 million people are estimated undernourished and more than 99 million children under five years old are still underweight and undernourished. Food security is prominent concept in hunger issue. World Food Summit 1996 provide concept of food security when “all people, at all time, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life” (FAO, 1996). There are many aspects which have correlation with hunger issue, such as economic and security. Amartya Sen (1981, pp.1-8) said people starve because they do not have enough food entitlement. They are unable to produce foods, goods, or services which would enable them to access sufficient food. It means food security is not only about food availability, but also access in terms of household economic capacity and political condition in a particular country. One of empirical examples country which has lack food security is South Sudan. Actually, South Sudan land has good soil which 70% is suitable for farming, but only 4% were utilized. Besides that, conflict with Sudan makes food distribution not smooth (Diao et al, 2012). On the other hand, countries like Singapore and Switzerland has good rank in Global Food Security Index (GFSI), fifth and sixth position respectively. Despite both countries do not rely on their national economic on agriculture sector, those countries have good infrastructure, trading system, and purchasing power (EIU, 2014). Global Food Governance In ancient era, most people consumed what they produced, but today more people are no longer directly involved in the production of their own food. Instead, they are connected through extensive and complex mechanism of food chain distribution (Smith, 1998, p.208). Innovations in transportation, technology of food preservation, and logistics are supporting factors for the emergence of long-distance trade relations. Nowadays, international trades have been made interdependence relationship among food producers and consumer around the world. International trading, especially for agricultural products contain a series of laws, norms, customs, and contract which influence availability and security of food in many countries. There are many efforts from multiple and intergovernmental to organize and coordinate the production and consumption of food in this era of globalization. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is one of the United Nations bodies which aims to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living, increase production, processing, marketing and distribution of food and agricultural products, promoting rural development; and eradicate hunger. World Trade Organization (WTO) is the international institution which regulates interstate commerce issues. WTO multilateral trading system is governed by an agreement which contain the basic rules of international trade as a result of negotiations among member states. The approval of a contract among countries member bind the government to obey the implementation of trade policies in their respective countries. Although signed by the government, its main purpose is to help producers of goods and services, exporters and importers in trading activities. Institutions like the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and UNDP (United Nations of Development Programme) also have contribution in terms of strengthen government capacity in food security programme. Besides them, there are International NGO, such as Centre for Food Safety (CFS) and One Acre Fund (OAF). Overall, states are important actor, how they manage their country and fulfil food needs for their citizens. In competition there is usually a party who wins and loses. Conflicts between producer and consumer countries potentially threaten international organizations such as the WTO, bilateral and regional relations between countries as well. The relationship between food and agricultural trade gives an overview of the mechanisms of globalization. The food is also associated with many other sectors such as environment, biology, ecology, and human welfare and the globalization of world order any food could threaten these values (Cooke at al., 2008). Can Free Trade Improve Food Security? Trade among nations could bring good impact. According to WTO, trade gives wide range of benefits from promoting peace, reduce costs of living, until endorse practice of good governance. Like other Breton woods institutions who promote liberalization, privatization, or reduce any kind of government interference, WTO endorse free trade system. In 1996 World Food Summit made declaration in Rome. Commitment number four state “we will strive to ensure that food, agricultural trade and overall trade policies are conducive to fostering food security for all through a fair and market-oriented world trade system” (FAO, 1996). That document explains that free trade market can help many countries which suffer hunger at that time. The concept of free trade system has been existed since 18th century when Adam Smith launched his book in 1776 “An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations”. One of concept on that book is ‘invisible hand’. Smith stated that giving people freedom to produce and exchange products (free trade) and opening markets to competition would bring opulence for nations. Following Smith theory, in 1817 David Ricardo introduced his theory named “comparative advantage”. If some particular countries do not have absolute advantage products, they still have opportunity to make trade transaction with specialized themselves in particular products. At least there are five benefits of free trade: good quality products and prices, economic growth, efficiency and innovation, competitiveness, and fairness (Boudreaux, 2013). The logic thinking of free trade system assumes that competitive situation would bring many advantages especially availability of variant good quality products with affordable price. Each party (an individual, a company, or a nation) will compete to make competitive products. One way to make it happens, is create effective and efficient process of goods production. Besides that external factor like infrastructure and political stability also have influence. Shortcomings of free trade in agriculture Through World Food Summit in 1996 FAO endorse free trade. That declaration targeted the decreasing of the number of hunger people become half their present level before 2015. Unfortunately, based on global hunger index data from 1990 until 2014, only 26 countries reduced their score hunger index by 50% or more such as Kuwait, Thailand, and Vietnam. Some country like Sudan and Zambia were stagnant. Furthermore, four countries (Swaziland, Iraq, Comoros, and Burundi) even had worse condition than 1990 (IFRI, 2014). One of countries has big score of hunger index is Gambia. Rice is the main food of Gambian people. Most farmers there are women, but they did not get much benefit from their agricultural activities. This is because the transportation, marketing systems, infrastructure and subsidies for them inadequate. Between 1966 and 1984, the government of Gambia receive aid from foreign governments and international aid agencies, but it made Gambia dependence from aid. Starting in 1986, the government remove subsidies, price controls and import tariffs, and made several deregulation policy. This is a series of requirements which is imposed by the IMF for loans. As implication of lax regulation, frequency of import rice at low prices rose, consequences people prefer to buy the less expensive rice (Moseley et al., 2010). Many countries involve in free trade agreements. These agreements can be bilateral type or multilateral free trade area such as NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement), AFTA (ASEAN Free Trade Area), and GAFTA (Greater Arab Free Trade Area). Mexico is member of NAFTA since 1994, after 20 years join in trilateral free trade agreement with USA and Canada, trade volume rose significant. However, many problems appear as well, such as environment issue, wages, and economic growth for Mexico The increasing of Mexico GDP from 1960 to 1980 reached almost doubled. It is raising the living standards of Mexico people. In the early 1980s Mexico experienced a crisis, and handled by the neoliberal ways. Some ways were fiscal and monetary policy tight and provide a great space for the deregulation of international trade and investment fields. Unfortunately, that policy inhibits the growth and development of the Mexican economy. Since 2000, countries in Latin America experienced a 1.9% increase in per capita per year. As a result, the poverty rate has declined from 43.9% in 2002 to 27.9% in 2013. However, economic growth in Mexico 1% below the average of the regional countries, so these results are not significant effect on the reduction of poverty, 52.3% in 2012 and 52.4% in 1994. Without economic growth, it would be difficult to reduce poverty in a developing country like Mexico (Weisbrot, 2014). Imbalance in free trade liberalization One of popular theories about liberalization is Washington Consensus. John Williamson (2000, p.255) reemphasized and clarified his concept about Washington Consensus. Washington Consensus focus on policy reforms that reduced the role of government, through several ways such subsidies restriction, privatization, deregulation, and liberalization of finance and trade. He said that Washington Consensus not the same with neoliberalism and market fundamentalism. It does not mean liberalize as much as you can or privatize as fast as you can. For example, subsidies can still be given to push economic growth and has impact on poverty level reduction. Targeted food subsidies as well as the medical and educational program can reduce the number of poor people Based on WTO Agreement in agriculture in 1994, member countries agree to ease market access and reduce or removing tariffs. Developing countries begin to open their market and removing tariff like many developed countries did. Nevertheless, developed countries had much higher subsidies to begin with. So they still have an advantage. The industrialized countries of the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) have historically paid enormous levels of subsidies to their own farmers at levels that developing countries are unable to match for their own farmers (often because of obligations to liberalize their economies under programmes of structural adjustment) (Clapp, 2014, p.16). In fact, industrial countries still maintain high protection in agriculture through an array of very high tariffs, tariffs more than 15%. On the other hand, industrialized countries market hard to access for small scale farmers from developing countries. Furthermore, they have to survive on lower or even without subsidies (IMF, 2001). Conclusion In conclusion, based on all the things mentioned above, it is necessary caution in liberalizing the agricultural product like rice products in Gambia. International organization and the government have to anticipate the bad impacts from its policy, and make sure that the life of local farmers is protected. Common problems that occur in some developing countries are poor supporting infrastructure and political instability. Those basic problems have to be solved first before certain countries decided to join in the free market. Simultaneously, developing countries government could provide subsidies for basic sectors such as education, food, and health. International organizations such as the IMF should be cautious in giving loans, so the prerequisite of loans does not deteriorate the economy of a recipient country. Furthermore, developing countries that have involved in free trade but experienced extreme balance of payments deficit as a result of too many imported goods, can perform the review to impose tariffs. Bibliography Smith, D. W. (1998). “Urban food systems and the poor in developing countries” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers,Vol.23, No.2, pp. 207-219. Sen, Amartya. (1981)Poverty and famines: an essay on entitlement and deprivation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
NUR 674 Bowie State University Nurse Leadership Question.

Practicum Activities Reflection: what observations about leadership on leading the nursing team by example, showing credibility attitude did you observed in the nurse manager during your rotation. 
Application of Leadership: Identify three to five personal values or characteristics that you believe are critical components of a good leader, such as honesty, compassion, or fairness. How do you express those values in your professional life?
Practicum Project Preparation: How have you prepared those who will be affected (NURSES and Clinical Managers) by your project on applying EBP to clinical and management decision for its implementation?
Leadership Video Reflection: Reflect on at least two things you learned from the “Servant Leadership – Issue of Example” video.

Use the “Leadership Journal Template” to complete this assignment. 
Use four APA reference to complete assignment.   
View the “Servant Leadership – Issue of Servant” video.
Note: This is a playlist of videos pertaining to leadership. Use the Playlist button on the top-right corner to locate and view the assigned video for that topic.
URL:
https://lc.gcumedia.com/nur670/servant-leadership/v2.1/
NUR 674 Bowie State University Nurse Leadership Question

Understanding Criminal Law in Business? Week 3. I’m studying for my Business Law class and need an explanation.

APA FORMAPost a 150- to 225-word (2- to 3-paragraph) description of two business-related criminal acts—one a misdemeanor and one a felony. In your explanation, address the following:

Define each criminal act, including whether it is a felony or misdemeanor, and the actions involved in committing the act.
Provide at least one specific example of each type of criminal act.
Describe the possible consequences for the commission of each crime.
Explain how business owners can benefit from having a thorough understanding of the criminal acts you described, as well as any negative impacts that could ensue from a lack of understanding (or refusal to follow the law).
Include references to a minimum of two scholarly sources to support your response.

Understanding Criminal Law in Business? Week 3

Article Analysis and Evaluation of Research Ethics.

Search the GCU Library and find one new health care article that uses quantitative research. Do not use an article from a previous assignment, or that appears in the Topic Materials or textbook.Complete an article analysis and ethics evaluation of the research using the “Article Analysis and Evaluation of Research Ethics” template. See Chapter 5 of your textbook as needed, for assistance.While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
Article Analysis and Evaluation of Research Ethics

Chili Cook off Message

Chili Cook off Message. I’m studying and need help with a Business question to help me learn.

Looking for a tutor who can come up with a fun, creative, effective message for an upcoming chili cookoff. Here are some of the details that I want included in the message.Thank you.
The chili “throwdown” is coming up in a couple of weeks, November 19th.If you think you have the best recipe, then join the competition because it will be hot!
Here are the details for the upcoming Chili cook off & Potluck………
Last year’s winners should relinquish their Trophy and we will elect new winners….
All staff will have a vote on the best items from Chili, Side Dish, Desert……..
Tutor: One suggest side dish, condiments to go with the Chili so the cooks don’t have to bother.
The Chili Cook/Preparer can remain anonymous, although that may be hard to avoid as the cooks set-up and tend to their own chili.
There will be various cash prizes (same as last year) for the Chili cook off:

One $50 prize for the best chili.
One $20 prize for the best side dish (corn bread, baked beans, mac & cheese, etc.)
One $20 prize for the best desert.

Everyone should identify on the sign-up sheet what they plan on bringing so we know the variety of items forthcoming.
Let’s have fun and spice up the work day. May the best cook win!
Chili Cook off Message

Please based on November. stock performance and policy to write the Investment objectives. for example, what we want to Essay

custom writing service Please based on November. stock performance and policy to write the Investment objectives. for example, what we want to achieve, like the prospective earning is around 5%. and what is our strategy(based on what we boungt–I attached it.) If you have any questions, please ask me. Thank you so much!

The Long Years of Fighting with Piracy: Evaluating the Changes Essay

Table of Contents Introduction Assessing the Reasons for Piracy in Somali Considering the Court Verdicts The Evaluation of the Changes Conclusion Bibliography Footnotes Introduction In the past few years, the problem of Somali piracy raised a number of questions, making people fear the cruel robbers and causing economic instability in a number of countries. Due to the actions undertaken internationally to eliminate the Somali threat, the piracy threat has been gradually reduced. However, the economic misbalance within Somali remained on the same level, which can cause another outburst of violence from the local pirates. However, it must be admitted that much has been done since the problem emerged. With help of the decisive actions of the people involved, and the international security system together with the action undertaken by volunteer peacemakers, the problem poses great threat no longer. What must be considered at present is the state of affairs in the state of Somali, for further economical degradation might be the reason for another piracy threat. Considering the articles discussed below, one can say that they suggest a lot of food for thoughts, enriching one with sufficient background knowledge on the subject and giving examples of what Somali piracy is. In addition, the articles analyzed below deal not only with the roots of the problem, but also with the means which have been used to tackle it, as well as the advantages and the disadvantages of the measures undertaken. With help of these pieces, one can have clear idea of what Somali piracy is and what it has resulted in. In addition, the articles also give n insight on the relationships between the leading and the developing countries. Thus, the given articles shape the idea of the issue and contribute to a deeper understanding of the problem. Assessing the Reasons for Piracy in Somali The article which is dealing with the origins if Somali piracy and its reasons suggests another viewpoint to consider the problem from. With help of Robin Hunter’s article, it becomes obvious what exactly makes the Somali pirates commit crimes and rob the ships sailing by. As it has turned out, the reason for the sea piracy is old as the hills – the Somali pirates are looking for the so-called “easy money”. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It seems that this is a perfect example of the way in which time and space relationships between different countries can be traced clearly. It is evident that Somalia is distanced in both space and time from the European countries, since its economical and political systems are out of date and require considerable changes. Such state of affairs predetermines the fact that the country must be suffering severe economical crisis, which results in inflation, lack of money and workplaces. Therefore, the country is wallowing in poverty, unable to sustain the life of the people living there. Such conditions have predetermined Somalia piracy. With no hope of finding job to sustain their lives, people have resorted to the only possible means of surviving which they had at that moment. According to Susan Rice, ”Somalia’s long-standing poverty and instability have also fostered piracy, now well established in the major shipping routes off the Horn of Africa”.1 Therefore, poverty is one of the core reasons which drove Somali to such means of making money. Explaining the true conditions which caused the Somali dwellers resort to crime, Hunter also makes it clear that such detail does not rehabilitate the pirates, but helps to understand the roots of the problem to fight it more efficiently. It is clear that Hunter emphasizes the necessity to eliminate the cause of piracy first. However, the author must understand that the issues of national well-being cannot be solved in a blink of an eye. With its insightful descriptions of Somali piracy and the reasons which led to it, Hunter makes it possible to take a look at the problem from a different angle. With help of this article, one can see clearly the division of identity between the European countries and Somali. Relating to different worlds, Europe and Somali are unlikely to come to terms before Somali establishes stable economical position and starts the process of state policy renewal. We will write a custom Essay on The Long Years of Fighting with Piracy: Evaluating the Changes specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Considering the Court Verdicts Another cause for concern was the way in which the Somali pirates were treated in courts. According to what Xan Rice says, the Somali pirates will not get the proper punishment for their actions due to high rates of corruption within the Malaysian judicial system. As long as the pirates are handed over to the Malaysian court, the process of fighting piracy in Somali will go over and over again. Due to the fact that the Somali pirates bribe judges to avoid being imprisoned, they will continue their criminal actions and are likely to become even more aggressive. Therefore, the given article offers that sufficient changes should be made to the existing situation. With help of Rice’s report, one can see the drawbacks of the existing judicial system in Somali, which not only leaves the pirates unpunished, but also encourages them on further crimes. There is no doubt that something has to be done about the existing situation, the author claims. With help of Rice’s report, one can see the peculiarities of the geographical relations between the countries. What is illegal in Europe and America is treated in rather composed manner in Somali and Malaysia, which brings people to a culture clash. To avoid such problems, people have to make cultures merge and create certain law which will be efficient in all continents, Rice hints. However, the author understands that the differences in the world picture are rather hard to overcome. Due to the different world vision of the countries, it becomes practically impossible to cope with piracy in Somalia, no matter how sad this might sound. The Evaluation of the Changes Despite the efforts which have been undertaken to improve the situation, the changes which have occurred already are not enough to make the world a safe place. According to news reports, piracy still takes place in the water area around Somali, which means that the piracy has not been eliminated. In addition, the growing gap between the Malaysian and the European countries is well worth thorough considerations. Therefore, it is far too early to speak of any improvements. As Aust puts it, Today piracy is a modern, and growing, phenomenon. Although the area of sea most threatened by pirates is Somalia, pirates have operated for many years (and still operate) in other waters, not just the Caribbean, as Hollywood might like us to believe.2 Not sure if you can write a paper on The Long Years of Fighting with Piracy: Evaluating the Changes by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It seems that the process of Somalia development has been hindered so hard that it is now almost impossible to cause any positive changes. The articles above make it clear that no further efforts can improve the conditions in which Somali is at present, as well as fight the terrorism of the Somali pirates. Taking a closer look at the core of the problem, one can see clearly that the problem concerns the time and spatial gap between Europe and Malaysia. Living detached from the civilized countries, Somali is doomed to be stuck between poverty and piracy, if considering the statement made by Willinsky: With Hegel’s theory of relativity, a large part of the globe does not participate in the progress of time experienced by the West, creating a differentiating time-space continuum that further ensures the lasting division of the world in the Western imagination.3 Creating the “spatial matrix”4 which Fabian was speaking about, European countries refuse the admission of the Malaysian countries into the progressive world. Although Pickles claims that “there is a difficulty of mapping something that cannot be counted as singular but only as a mass of different and sometimes conflicting subject positions. There is difficulty in mapping something that is always on the move, culturally, and in fact”5, the piracy in Somalia still can be tracked. Looking at the maps dating 2008 and 2011, one will be able to see the level of piracy in the Somali area. Fig. 1. Image NASA. Digital Globe, 2008 Piracy in Somalia. Comparing these data to the ones obtained in 2011, one can say with certainty that the progress in fighting piracy is quite hard to spot. Despite all the attempts to make piracy cease, it continues growing rapidly, and pirates start hunting not only cargo ships, but also the yachts of the civil citizen, which means that the pirates’ cruelty has reached its top. The map below shows that the areas where piracy flourishes have grown considerably larger. Fig. 2. TerraMetric, 2011. Piracy in Somalia. Conclusion Drawing the conclusions from the abovementioned, one can claim with certainty that the time and spatial boundaries between countries were predetermined by the differences in culture, development and the pace of progress in certain countries. Due to the fact that the process of development took various shapes in different countries, conflicts are unavoidable. In addition, it is obvious that to eliminate piracy in Somalia, it is necessary to make the gap in time and space between the countries close. Since such actions are impossible at present, the rapid spreading of piracy can be hindered, but not eliminated. Though this might sound pessimistic, Somali piracy will cease only as the difference in time and space between Somalia and Europe is reduced to zero. Bibliography Aust, Anthony. Handbook of International Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Fabian, Johannes. Time and Other: How Anthropology Makes its Object. Columbia, OH: Columbia University Press, 2002. Pickles, John. A History of Spaces: Cartographic Reason, Mapping and the Geo Coded World. New York, NY: Routledge, 2004. Rice, Susan et al. Confronting Poverty: Weak States and U. S. National Security. Washington, D. C.: Brookling Institution Press, 2010. Willinsky, J. Learning to Divide the World: Education at Empires End. University of Minnesota Press,1998 Footnotes 1. Susan Rice et al. Confronting Poverty: Weak States and U. S. National Security (Washington, D. C. : Brooklings Institution Press, 2010), 8 2. Anthony Aust. Handbook of International Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Print. 3. John Willinsky. Learning to Divide the World: Education at Empoire’s End (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1998), 132 4. Johannes Fabian, Time and the Other. How Anthropology Makes Its Object (Columbia University Ptess, 2003) 5. Pickles, John. A History of Spaces: Cartographic Reason, Mapping, and the Geo-Coded World (New York, NY: Routledge, 2004), 11

Prompt For this discussion, you will analyze a case study in public health from the textbook, Master of Public

Prompt For this discussion, you will analyze a case study in public health from the textbook, Master of Public. Prompt For this discussion, you will analyze a case study in public health from the textbook, Master of Public Health Competencies: A Case Study Approach edited by Santella. Please review the following case study from this text: ● Chapter 20: Cultural Competence in Healthcare Delivery among Immigrant Populations in the United States: Identifying and Addressing the Challenges. This case study was based on real public health initiatives. Therefore, your engagement in this discussion will help you hone workforce-related skills for public health practice. For your initial/main post, please address all of the following questions: ● Part 1—Communication Strategies (150 words): ○ What communication strategies would you recommend, given this case scenario? Your strategies should include proposed media and communication channels. ○ How would these strategies consider the needs and usual practices of the target audience? ○ In what ways would health literacy levels be considered through these strategies? ● Part 2—Cultural Competence (150 words): ○ Why does cultural competence matter when delivering public health services? ○ Given this case scenario, what is the role of culturally competent communication in immigrant population health and disease prevention? ○ How would you overcome the challenges of cultural competence within future public health communication strategies? In all posts, please make certain to include in-text citations throughout and a reference list. Prompt For this discussion, you will analyze a case study in public health from the textbook, Master of Public

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