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Frederick Douglass and Malcolm X Comparison Essay Nneoma Okeoma Sept. 28, 2011 2a Frederick Douglass and Malcolm X Comparison Essay Draft 1 Can one think undergoing suffrage of unjust slavery and being held in a penitentiary be compared? In the excerpt of Frederick Douglass (Learning to Read and Write) and in Malcolm X (Learning to Read): both dealt with the oppression that the white race as brought to them. Douglass lists the ways which he learns how to read and write. He discusses how everyone is vulnerable to corruption under slavery.

In the excerpt of Malcolm he tells the reader how he first started reading and he describes how the white man has always had the upper-hand when it comes to non-white people. Frederick Douglass and Malcolm X both uses different yet similar elements of style such as tone/attitude, organization, and subject matter. In both excerpts the tone/attitude is noticeable throughout the whole story. It was evident due their circumstances. In Learning to Read and Write it states, “I will be a slave for life! one can understand how emotional he is. In Malcolm X’s he proclaims, “Who in the world has played a worse “skin game” than the white man? ” one can tell that he is also emotional. Contrasting details are that Douglass was more reserved with his hatred towards whites while Malcolm was bitter and held resentment en route to whites. They were both emotional because they were in complicated positions. Douglass felt the oppression firsthand because of slavery, meanwhile Malcolm accumulated the year white races had been treating non-whites.

These two authors had more resemblance than one would think but yet the way they put it on paper is different. The organization of both texts is very clear. Both of these authors use descriptive process analysis on ways they learned how to read/write. While on the other hand Malcolm used cause and effect while Douglass used exemplification. Both writers went into detail when they began to describe the ways which they learned how to read. Malcolm would study the dictionary then copy the words.

Douglass would ask the whites boys and cram in private. Malcolm X uses cause and effect learning process because he wanted to emulate, and then surpass his acquaintance Bimbi. In result he received the motivation to do so. Frederick uses exemplification on the other hand to describe those injustices that occur in his time of slavery. Both uses of organization were very much similar on how they went about gaining their education. The subject matter of both excerpts can be easily compared.

It seems like Malcolm X went through a lesser version of what Frederick went through. Both writers access to a sense of freedom when they began learning how to read and write. It is obvious that Malcolm would spend a portion of his excerpt talking about the time he spent in jail while Douglass would talk about the burdens of slavery. Learning how to read and write was like a forbidden apple to both writers. So getting that first bite opened their eyes to all the things around them that the whites tried to conceal.

Frederick Douglass had spent his early years in slavery and the harsh conditions of slavery cannot in be compared to jail, where everyone (black or white) is treated like a criminal. Both writers, Malcolm X and Frederick Douglass both use similar yet different subject matters in their excerpts. Malcolm X and Frederick Douglass both used elements of style in Learning How to Read and Write and Learning how to Read that could be compared and contrasted. This includes tone/attitude, organization, and subject matter. Although the style they went about it were different there were many ways where it was very complementary.

Running Head: INTERNATIONAL TRADE 1 INTERNATIONAL TRADE 4 International Trade strategic focus



International Trade strategic focus on the development of


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China has a large rare earth industry that is important to the nation and worldwide. These rare metals consist of 17 elements found dispersed in low amounts of concentrations and are expensive to extract. The rare earths are used in the manufacture of high-tech products including components used in military jets, hybrid cars and smart phones. The rare earth industry in China contributes 97 percent to the worldwide rare mineral trade. This is largely attributed to the country’s well planned growth of its capacity in the rare earths mining and processing sectors. This has made it a major controller of the rare earths supply globally supplying 85-95% to the global market.

The overwhelming presence that China has in the global market has become a concern to many international users. The US military, which relies on China for its rare earths used in constructing missiles and other military hardware, has become concerned.

The presence of China’s dominance in the rare earth market was unnoticed for several decades because of the availability of cheap and abundant supply of the product. In 2009 and 2010, China enforced strict export quotas, leading to a shortage of the rare earth minerals as well as the by-products used by technology oriented companies and companies producing high-end products globally. This caused a spike in the prices of rare earth products globally. For example, the price of dysprosiumoxide, a rare earth byproduct, increased from $166 per kilo to about $1,000 per kilo between 2010 and 2011. China claimed that the move was aimed at conserving and protecting its environment, as the process of extracting and producing rare earth was energy-intensive and toxic (Mancheri, 2015).

The move by China led to the development of illegal groups that conducted mining and selling of rare earths at high prices, making huge profits. Corruption at the governance levels in the country increased.

This became a global concern and a complaint was filed in the World Trade Organization by US and major markets like the European Union and Japan. After investigating that took for several years, the World Trade Organization ruled in favor of the complainants. China was found to be violating its free trade commitments. China announced that it would lift theexport quotas it has set in early 2015.

However, the international complaints had left the globe with concerns of the vulnerability of the rare earths of China. China seemed to be a ‘monopoly’ of the market. The dominance of China in the rare earths market does not result from the shortage of the product outside the country. Extensive planning and investment enables China to produce the commodity on a large scale and more cheaply. China has a highly developed industry with lower labor costs. This has priced out other companies that deal in rare earth mining in other countries globally.

The US can implement measures to protect itself by recycling rare earth products that consumers have discarded. Scientists can research more on composite materials that can replace rare earths minerals in manufacture of electronic products. (Taylor & Feenstra, 2014).


Mancheri, N. A. (2015). World trade in rare earths, Chinese export restrictions, and implications. Resources Policy, 46, 262-271.

Taylor, A. M., &Feenstra, R. C. (2014). International trade (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Worth Publishing.