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Four Different Types Of Cultural Marketing Essay

The main characteristics of family culture style are power – oriented which is headed by a leader who regarded as a caring parent, ensuring their staffs are well taken care of and have continued employment and a strong emphasis on the hierarchy and orientation towards person (Holt 1998). Secondary Problem Short Term Problem In need of a successor Being the visionary chief dealmaker and the spiritual cement of the Tata group, Ratan Tata is retiring soon and he will need a successor who holds the same values as him, in order to continue his business with his ideology. As a family culture styled managed multi-national company (MNC), it is traditional that business is handed down from father to sons or to one who is of the same blood lineage. With Ratan turning 70 years old in December; is still single and childless. His siblings are not involved in the Tata business hence there is no clear successor in sight. There is a plague of fear in the organisation that the group would break up with no central visionary figure to lead the Tata group. Pressure incurred by Corus Workers Union Tata group believes in taking care of their employees. Therefore, when Corus Workers Union wanted Tata Steel to invest additional $600 million in Port Talbot, to ensure it will remain competitive so downsizing is not required. The risk and impact of this investment is gigantic, as Corus caused $7.4billion debt and has high operations cost. The challenge posed is the need to strike a balance between their strong belief in CRS values and keeping the business impact at the minimum. Long Term Problems Over expansion of business unrelated to the core business Tata group has an over diversified unrelated investments that extend out to industry such as cosmetics, paints, cement, retail, telecom, biotech and tea. In additional, there were purchases of a slew of tony hotels; New York’s Pierre, Ritz Carlton in Boston, San Francisco’s Camden Palace. In 2004, Tyco International’s undersea telecom cables are purchased for $130 million. These investments do not have any relation towards the core business of Tata group. Related diversification enhances the corporate center to develop the interrelationships that are present among its different business and so accomplish cost and/or differentiation competitive advantages over its rivals (Markides and Williamson 149-165). Over passionate supporter of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Ratan Tata whom is zealous supporter of CSR has directed the firm into close participation in antipoverty projects all around India. Tata group spend $40 million annually providing all civic services and school to function in a better environment. Tata Steel invests millions yearly into education, health and agricultural advancement projects in eight hundreds close by villages. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is define as operating a business in a mode that aligns or surpasses the ethical, lawful, business stakeholder and community prospects that the general public has of economic business (Dahlsrud 2008). Social Responsibility is a directional belief for every conclusion drawn and in every part of a business. Therefore the arising problem from Corus has put a test to the Tata group’s generosity. Case Analysis Hofstede cultural dimensions As a globalised Multi-National Company (MNC), Tata group has a wide range of trade interests or investments in different regions of the world. Using Hofstede cultural dimensions shown below, to further comprehend the cultural differences and offer a more in depth view of the secondary problem of Tata Group based in India ( 2009) Power Distance Index It is defined as the level to which the members of the public acknowledge that authority in institutions and organisations is divided unevenly (Hodstede 1984, 83-84). People living in huge power distance societies believe a hierarchy order in which each person has a position which needs no further reasons. The Power Distance Index (PDI) scale showing 77 for India had indicated that the country has very strong sense of power distances (Lane 2009). Hierarchy system is being strap onto the Indian social group which its membership is inherited and eternal (Berreman 1960). Deriving from the figure, it has evident why Tata Group has a central decision making arrangement that shapes the management approach. Uncertainty Avoidance Index As reflected on the scale, rating 40 meaning the acceptance of risk is high for the organisations in India and Tata group reinforced in the magnitude of the investments that Tata group is involved over the years. The acquisition of truck unit, buying coal mines and steel mills has displayed the low level of uncertainty avoidance. Low Individualism The rating of 48 has shown that India practice collectivism more than individualism; decoding that into Tata Group framework reflects their dedication towards CSR both nationally and globally in the corporate culture. High Masculinity In accordance to the rating, the degree of gender differentiation exists in India greatly. In this culture, the males play the important role in the society and have power over the females. In context, successor of the Tata Group will not be passed on to a female. High Long Term Orientation High Long Term Orientation refers to the country setting the values of long terms commitment and the high opinion for tradition. Through the acquisition of automotives, steel and coal mining proven that Tata Group is more involved in long term profits than expecting immediate returns from investments made. S.W.O.T Analysis S.W.O.T analysis is used to further analysis the secondary problems internally and externally in Tata Group. According to the diagram as shown, split into four main factor ‘Strengths’, ‘Weakness’, ‘Opportunities’ and ‘Threats’. ‘Strengths’ and ‘Weakness’ are internal origin, whereas ‘Opportunities’ and ‘Threats’ are external origin. ‘Strengths’ Having a charismatic and visionary leading; Ratan Tata guiding the group is a strength factor for Tata Group. Having to succeed in many different fields of trade and industry is considered as a strength factor. Diversified strategy and vertically incorporated capable group are two more strengths factor of Tata Group. ‘Weakness’ Being a family cultured management style is considered as a weakness factor. Over passionate supporter and participation in CSR is viewed as weakness factor as it may hinder the business. Involved in too many unrelated business resulting in high debt status is projected to be a weakness factor. No specify strategy plan in unison applied throughout the organisation surely marks to be a weakness factor. ‘Opportunities’ Great potential in the steelmaker industries and automotive industries are seen as an opportunities factor for Tata Group. Rapid growth and prospect in the IT software and technology services outsourcing is considered as an opportunity for Tata group based in India as costs are lower. ‘Threats’ Possible economic slowdown for India is definitely a ‘threat’ factor for Tata group. Battling against rivals for talent and market share confirms to be a threat factor. The plague of fear arises with the retirement of Ratan Tata, uncertainty rose with the fear as there is no clear successor after Ratan Tata. Criteria for Evaluation of Alternative Strategies Incorporating acronym ‘SMART’ into objectives, goals setting, ‘S’ being specific, ‘M’ being measurable, ‘A’ being attainable, ‘R’ being realistic, ‘T’ being timely, ensure that the objectives and goals are traceable (Haughey 2010). Knowing the main pointers to prove the effectiveness of a plan is very crucial in performance targets (KPIs). Gathering information about what are the governing rules towards implementing a plan is significant as it affects how the plan will be implemented. The estimated length of time required to execute the plans or projects is known as the timeframe (Carroll 1996). Cost meaning the amount of money to implement the plans; it is essential as some decision will determine when it is being compare against the revenue of the plans. Resources signify the amount of resources necessary for the plans. Risk meaning level of the impact estimated for the implement of the plans, risk assessment is usually done to find out if the plans are feasible. Coming up with alternatives to counter the problems faced in any phase of the plan. Alternatives Short Term problems identified Short Term problem 1: In need of a successor The objective is to name the successor by the end of 6 months. The proposed strategy is to confirm a successor within a specific and realistic time frame of 6 months. Firstly, a milestone is to be marked out for Ratan’s retirement plan which is to be spread over a two years timeline. Secondly a list of potential candidate is to draft out by Ratan, the screening and selection process will follow; this process is to be completed within six months timeframe. This will fence away the fear of no successor and hurdles that rose together with fear will crumble. Short Term problem 2: Pressure incurred by Corus Workers Union The objective is to decide whether to invest another $600 million in Port Talbot in 1 month. The proposed strategy is a review of the current financial status of the Tata Group, a risk assessment on the investment in Port Talbot needs to be drawn out and make a decision to advance or terminate. A balance must be strike between the ideology of CSR and profitable strategized business. Long Term Problems Identified Long Term Problem 1: Over expansion of business unrelated to the core business The objective is to fuse core business together over five years. The proposed strategy is doing a financial review of Tata Group, redefine and align the main core business it wants to maintain in a long term prospect and focus on high margin earning business forsaking the idea of holding multiple stakes in hand. With the brought over of Corus, Tata group haven fallen into a $7.4 billion debt. Reorganising of resources and reforming of business units are needed to ease the financial burden. Making joint venture with related companies of operation if investments are needed in a different field of trade, pool resource will ease the risk impact as it is shared. Long Term Problem 2: Over passionate supporter of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) The objective is reduced CSR budget gradually over the five years milestone. The proposed strategy is to reduce the money funded to the rural development project, adjustment towards the target groups to offer aid and benchmark solar powered services at a subside rates in India. Recommended Strategy Short Term Elect a successor in a time frame of six months; mold the elected successor with Ratan Tata’s mentoring and support over time to replace him in his exclusive decision making. Long Term Fusing the core businesses together, for the timeframe being set for is five years. As it is not possible to attain the goal overnight, if it is stretched over a period of five years it is workable. Gradually reduce the budget spends on CSR activities and charged for the solar powered services at a subside rates. Doing joint venture with related company when exploring into a new or unrelated field of trade to minimise the risk involved. Justification of Recommendations Risk assessment is a tool used to assess the impact of the plan being implemented. The scorecard as shown will be used to access the various requirements of the proposed strategy. Any strategy scoring at twenty is not advised to advance, the lesser score obtain the lesser risk produced. The total scoring of the proposed strategies is reasonably low showing that the proposed strategies are feasible. Scorecard: Maximum score is twenty. Scorecard of Problem Identified Scorecard of Proposed Strategy Implementation, Control and Follow up Plot precise actions plan using Gantt Chart Excel from beginning stage towards final stage of the actions plan. This allows tracking of the action plans and exercising control upon the plans easier. Periodic reviews by management to ensure things are in place and hold respective accountable for the completion of delegated tasks.
Is the clause enforceable? Please write an essay answering this question.. I’m working on a Law question and need guidance to help me study.

Fred and Ethel, husband and wife, live together in Memphis, Tennessee. While they are married, they decide to purchase a condominium in Gatlinburg, TN so that they can have a place to start when they go to visit Great Smokey Mountains National Park, as they like to do several times each year. They purchase the condo as tenants by the entirety and pay for the condo with marital funds.
Unfortunately, in 2007, Fred and Ethel’s marriage went sour and they decided to divorce, although they maintained an amicable relationship. Since both parties wanted to continue to have access to the condo in Gatlinburg, they had their attorneys insert the following language into the divorce settlement:
“Both parties hereto agree that as long as both parties are living, neither party may sell, encumber or otherwise partition our condominium in Gatlinburg, TN without the consent of the other party.”
In 2017, Fred falls on hard financial times. He really wants the money that he could get by selling his half of the Gatlinburg condo. However, Ethel refuses to partition or buy out Fred since she wants continued access, but cannot afford to buy Fred out.
Fred brings an action to partition the property, claiming that the clause in the divorce agreement is unenforceable because it is an invalid restraint on alienation.
Is the clause enforceable? Please write an essay answering this question.
An IRAC-style essay is appropriate for this assignment.
Is the clause enforceable? Please write an essay answering this question.

CJA 305 University of Phoenix Legal Defenses Case Study.

Assignment ContentIn this week’s assignment, you will continue to gain exposure to cases and legal defenses. Use the internet to your advantage as you work on this assignment.Another week and another case for you as the paralegal. You are keeping busy and next on the agenda is for you to help the attorney you are assisting on a case to begin crafting a defense for the client. Select a criminal law case from the Opinions of the Court page of the U.S. Supreme Court website.Determine the defense that was used for the crime. Search the internet for types of legal defenses in criminal law.Write a 700- to 1,050-word defense as if you were supporting the attorney representing the client.Format your paper according to APA guidelines.
CJA 305 University of Phoenix Legal Defenses Case Study

San Jose State Hypothesis Relationship Exists Between the Variables Discussion

San Jose State Hypothesis Relationship Exists Between the Variables Discussion.

A: Type I error is a false positive while type II error is a false negative. The former occurs if we reject a null hypothesis, which is correct (Zararsiz, 2014). It leads to acceptance of the alternative and affects reliability of the tests. The latter results from failure to disapprove the null hypothesis when it should be rejected. Researchers can avoid it by increasing the sample sizes.Statistical significance refers to the probability of an association between two or more parameters. Therefore, it aids in acceptance or rejection of the null hypothesis (Mohajeri & Mostafa, 2020). Practical significance illustrate a true association between parameters that exist in real life. the analysts uses size of required outcomes and association to make conclusion. They do not focus on the p-values and significance values applied in statistical significance.Researchers require several elements to undertake any hypothesis test. First, they have to formulate the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis (Lind, Marchal, & Wathen, 2017). The hypotheses will outline the rejection and acceptance region. Second, they rely on different factors to test the hypothesis. Some of the factors include sample sizes, significance value, and test statistics. The researchers ensures the sample size is large enough to lower margin of error.————–.(Minimum 160 words) + 1 reference APA formatB:When a researcher does not agree with a null hypothesis, and the null hypothesis is the real truth about the population, it is described as a type I error associated with the testing of the hypothesis (Dutta et al., 2020). This error is also known as a false positive since it is rejected but is true. The type II error is the exact opposite of type I. this is the situation in which a researcher accepts the null hypothesis, and this null hypothesis is very wrong in the population. The other name for a type II error is a false negative since it is an accepted yet very wrong hypothesis about the population.Statistical significance is achieved During hypothesis testing when the null hypothesis is right for the population. The null hypothesis, therefore, describes that a relationship exists between the variables being tested (Mourougan, & Sethuraman, 2017). This is to means that the evidence required while conducting the hypothesis has been found therefore the test is statistically significant.Moreover, practical significance means that it tests the size or strength of the relationship between variables (Mourougan, & Sethuraman, 2017). Besides, statistical significance does not analyze the strength of the effect. With practical, an investigator will get to know if the test is big enough to have a significant value, or small enough to be ignored.Hypothesis testing entails null hypothesis and alternate hypothesis. Null describes no association between variables while alternate describes a relationship between variables being tested (Mourougan, & Sethuraman, 2017). Other elements include the significance levels of the test, the calculation of test static value, and computing conclusions to the test.————–.(Minimum 160 words) + 1 reference APA formatNote:Must be entirely focused on the specific content.Add some generic points that could applyPlease check plagiarism, GrammarlyAPA FormatRecommended Textbooks:1.Discovering Statistics, by Hawkes and Marsh. Published by Hawkes Learning Systems. Chapters 11 and 12.2.Lind, Marchal, Wathen, Statistical Techniques in Business and Economics, 16th Edition. Chapters 8.
San Jose State Hypothesis Relationship Exists Between the Variables Discussion

Goldsworthy’s and Christo Landscape Art Comparison Essay

nursing essay writing service Goldsworthy’s and Christo Landscape Art Comparison Essay. Introduction Goldsworthy and Christo are two famous landscape artists who are well known for their works. The two artists use their creativity to come up with outdoor artistic impressions which are bold and provocative. As a result, each artist has his own style which he uses to convey different emotions to specific audiences. This paper will compare and contrast the works of the two artists to show their significance in landscape art. Comparisons Goldsworthy uses brightly colored materials to make his work stand out in different environments. He uses photographs and films to record his works to show how different objects are arranged in a landscape. In addition, nature has a big role to play in Goldsworthy’s work because it allows him to use natural materials that exist in an area to develop his installations. This allows him to show the atmosphere surrounding his objects and how they connect to each other to form an impressive visual pattern. Similarly, Christo’s work uses natural colorful elements that exist in different landscapes which are recorded through photographs and films. This enables him to create artworks that show the unity between natural and artificial forms in a landscape and how they relate to each other. Goldsworthy and Christo use color liberally in their artworks to show how their objects appear in different times of the day. Color and tonal variations bring out different meanings in their art works making them more appealing to diverse audiences. In addition, they use color to show different types of moods in their work to appeal to the inner instincts of their audiences. In addition, both artists use natural light in their works to make them more realistic. This enables them to capture the essence of the natural landscapes they are portraying accurately. Contrast Goldsworthy is usually inspired by seas, rivers and other water forms in his work. These water forms allow him to think creatively about what he wants to achieve and how he is going to achieve it. Additionally, he only uses natural materials found in a particular environment to make his installations. This allows him to show the energy within and outside various objects he uses in his artworks to portray how they fit in a particular environment. Some of the key elements that stand out in his works include light, growth, motion and transformation. He uses these elements to display the fluidity with which different forms in the natural environment interact to create an unexpected visual impression. Christo’s work mainly uses fabrics, ropes and cables together with other elements in different landscapes to come up with appealing visual impressions. He wraps his fabrics around different objects making sure they portray different tonal variations to show radical changes they bring to the natural environment. Afterwards he photographs or films the artistic forms created out of his process to illustrate how they fit in a particular natural landscape. He uses external materials in close proximity to distinct natural features in vast landscapes to show how they relate. As a result, this enables landscapes to be interpreted differently by people who view them because they are able to notice the intimacy with which he brings out the tonal variations that exist between different forms. Methods and Means The movement and sound of the water stimulate Goldsworthy’s creative instincts enabling him to internalize the beauty he experiences which is transferred to the artworks he creates. He uses twigs, stones, ice and sticks to come up with attractive artworks which are either filmed or photographed for future exhibitions. The fluidity of water movements and sounds is represented in his works through constant change. As a result, this allows him to transfer what he sees to his artworks. He captures the essence of time and weather in his works by showing how they strengthen or weaken different objects that are displayed. Christo uses large scale installations to show how the progression of his ideas from abstract symbols to realistic forms. His works reveal how landscapes and natural features change when they are altered by different human activities. This approach allows him to develop different projects which have their own identities and uses photographs and films to show how they fit in different natural environments. He uses the vastness of his projects to show how different objects alter the identity of a particular landscape. This gives it a rich and distinct visual impression. Reaction Goldworthy’s landscape art shows the significance of time and how it influences the internal energy within different objects and the external energy that make them move or release different sounds. The tranquility and volatility of different water forms and how they relate to other natural forms are attributes which are effectively portrayed by Goldsworthy and they infuse the reality of nature in his works. Christo’s works focus on relationships between external materials and undisturbed landscapes. His works portray the shift from abstract ideas to reality using fabrics and ropes to create distinctive shapes that combine freely with different landscapes where they are situated. The vastness of his projects ensures relationships between natural o and artificial objects are conveyed clearly. Goldsworthy’s and Christo Landscape Art Comparison Essay

Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory. Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory Erik Erikson is a psychosocial theorist who utilized stages to analyze individuals throughout development. Psychosocial theories focus on the “psychological needs of the individual conflicting with the needs of society” (McLeod, 2018, Paragraph 2). His theory can be compared to multiple other psychologists but is applied to the lifespan in different ways. In this paper, we will discuss the general theory, observed applications, and possible future applications. Theory Details Erik Erikson’s psychosocial theory consists of 8 stages that develop upon each other throughout an individual’s life span. These stages begin at birth and end with death. Erikson’s theory is cumulative, each stage building on the previous. Each stage contains a “crisis” that the individual must overcome. Failure to complete one stage can lead to “a more unhealthy personality and sense of self” (McLeod, 2018, Paragraph 4). While the stages can still be completed after failure, it is more difficult than successfully completing the stages in order. Erikson’s first stage, occurring during infancy, is Trust vs Mistrust. This stage is dependent on the child developing a relationship with a base of care and love. This tells the child that they are deserving of the care they have received (Arnett, 2016). Another theory similar to stage one is the Attachment Theory by John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. This theory reflects on the need for an emotional attachment between a child and its caregiver. Without this attachment, the child will develop a sense of mistrust of the adults around them. Stage two develops from around 18 months to 3 years of age and is focused on control and independence. This is the stage of Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt. If the children are encouraged to explore and complete tasks on their own, they will develop a greater sense of self and become more confident. Without the encouragement, they will become “overly dependent” and “doubt their abilities” (McLeod, 2018, Paragraph 14). The love and care experienced in stage one will help encourage the child that he/she has a place in the world and can be an independent person. With criticism, they will experience both mistrust and shame. During early childhood, a child develops the ability to assert their feelings and initiate their own activities. The Initiative vs Guilt stage is crucial to learning the world around them. Questions are common and should be encouraged, rather than enforcing the sense of guilt for “being a nuisance” (McLeod, 2018, Paragraph 26). Healthy balance in this stage is important to develop a purpose of interaction. Between the ages of five and twelve, the Industry vs Inferiority stage occurs. Individuals will need to establish a peer group that provides approval to boost a child’s self-esteem (McLeod, 2018). The reinforcement from peers will make the individual feel competent and able to achieve goals. Without this, the child will feel that they will not reach their potential and cannot live up to the demands of society. The fifth stage of Erikson’s theory occurs from 12-18 years of age and focuses on identity based on values and goals. During Identity vs Identity Confusion, “adolescents must develop an awareness of who they are,” and find their place in society (Arnett, 2016, p. 23). The main identities involved are sexual and occupational (McLeod, 2018). Intimacy vs Isolation is the sixth stage in Erikson’s theory and takes place around the ages of 18-40 years. Exploring relationships to find intimate, loving commitment lead to successful completion of this stage. Avoiding these relationships leads to isolation and loneliness. The seventh stage is Generativity vs Stagnation. This stage occurs in middle adulthood (40-65) and is focused on making an impact on the world (McLeod, 2018). Making positive efforts that will benefit the collective future of others and encourage being part of the bigger pictures. Focusing on one’s own needs results in a shallow state of disconnect with the world. The final stage of Erikson’s theory starts at age 65 and ends with death. Erikson’s stage of Ego Integrity vs Despair contemplates the “acceptance of one’s one and only life cycle as something that had to be” and the sense of wholeness when reflecting on life (Erikson, 1950, p. 268). If an individual does not feel productive in life, they will feel guilt and despair. Success will lead to a sense of closure and acceptance of life and death. Theory Application Starting from day one, I have been loved on, encouraged, and cared for. The care and support of my family and others led to the successful completion of trust. The growing continued successfully through a representation of stage two. I am the youngest child of three and always desired to participate in whatever trouble my sisters were getting into. When I was around 18 months, my mom had to remove the baby gate from the stairs and help encourage my independence as I tried to climb the gate in order to chase my sisters. She realized that it was time to stop limiting my explorations and let me grow. This encouragement of independence also helped develop initiative. I loved playing and exploring. Rather than belittling my play, my parents and sisters would often try to join in. They still often set boundaries to encourage a healthy/safe reinforcement. The fourth stage occurs during elementary school years. This is hard time for many people but the school system I was placed in greatly advocates peers encouraging one another. Even when I was homeschooled for a year, the peers I had left in the school system stayed in contact and welcomed me back the next year with open arms. I was also encouraged by my educators to take pride in my work and not slack off. At the current point in my life, I feel that I have just completed Erikson’s fifth stage of finding my identity. I have found a new sense of independence being out of the house and am focused on completing my degree and continuing forward with my life. I have found the friends and significant other I would like to keep around. I am working on the completion of intimacy. It is hard to fully grasp this concept but once experiencing that relationship with someone, it is clear. If I wasn’t focused on completing my degree, I would probably already be married and starting the rest of my life with the man I love. Future Career Although being a hermit does not sound too bad, I plan to work in the medical field. I will constantly be encountering people at all stages of life. I am sure I will experience the babies who have been neglected and need to be loved and experience trust. I will experience the children who are afraid to go out on their own. I will experience the kids who are trying to “find themselves” and somehow injure themselves. I will experience the depressed and lonely who feel that they are useless because they don’t have a mate. I will (and have already) experience the end of life contemplations. The reflections of the good and bad in life, of the successes and failures. I will get to comfort and walk through the confusing stages of life with all patients and families. This is my dream and Erikson’s theory helps explain the emotions of all my future endeavors. Summary Erikson outlines a “realistic perspective of personality development” (McLeod, 2018, Paragraph 63). Rather than focusing on a specific characteristic or stage of life, Erikson takes the perspective of an everchanging and developing disposition helping to validate individuals in all stages of growth. The application of Erikson’s eight stages is not limiting in age nor careers or goals in life. References Arnett, J. J. (2016). Child development: A cultural approach, 2nd Edition. Boston: Pearson. Erikson, E.H. (1950). Childhood and society. New York: Norton. McLeod, S. A, (2018, May 03). Erik Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development. Simply Psychology. Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

“Mother Tongue,” Amy Tan.

“Mother Tongue,” Amy Tan.. Paper details In her essay, “Mother Tongue,” Amy Tan remarks that when her mother did not express herself in “impeccable” English, people assumed her thoughts were not important. What effect does our spoken and written language have on how we are perceived? Are we right to make assumptions about people based on how they speak?“Mother Tongue,” Amy Tan.