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Foreign Policy of the US

Foreign Policy of the US. Scholars have described foreign policy in a number of ways, highlighting its different aspects and roles; therefore, to quote on definition does not fulfill the purpose. Following are definitions by some prominent scholars: According to Charles O. Lerche, Jr. and Abdul Aziz, “Foreign policy of a state usually refers to the general principles by which a state governs its reaction to the international environment” (Abegunrin, 2003) On the other hand Kenneth W. Thompson and Roy C. Macridis state that: “Foreign policy refers to the way in which policy-making institutions and official actors define their positions and that of their states vis-a-is the outside world over a period of time” (Abegunrin, 2003) In the words of Cecil Crab, “Foreign policy consists of two elements: national objectives to be achieved and the means for achieving them. The interactions between national goals and the resources for attaining then are perennial subject of statecraft. In its ingredients the foreign policy of all nations, great and small, is the same” (Abegunrin, 2003) Howard Lenther states that, “Foreign policy lies at the intersection of the domestic and international aspects of a country’s life” (Abegunrin, 2003) According to Joseph Frankel, “Decisions taken on foreign policy differ from those in other fields in that they are subject to a unique interplay between domestic and foreign environments. The person involved usually occupies certain official positions of trust and importance empowering them to act on behalf of their society in its external relations.” (Abegunrin, 2003) From above definitions it can be concluded that foreign policy of any country is vital for protecting its interests; political, economic, social, and above all physical security. It is formulated by individuals working in specific institutions of state and having distinct ideologies. Tools of foreign policy There are basically following three tools of foreign policy through which it is implemented: Political Economic Military In political tools there comes alliances, diplomatic efforts; negotiations, mediation, bargaining, confidence building measures etc (Goldstein, 2004). However, in economic means the sanctions, trade terms, quotas, customs unions, protectionism, grants and aid are popular choices. Military tool is considered as last resort when all other tools are exhausted and only option for achieving foreign policy goals is the use of armed forces. Military measures include full scale wars, humanitarian interventions, alliance formation, use of air, land, marine and intelligence forces in some capacity. Four principles of US FP According to Walter Russel Mead, there are four prominent principles of US foreign policy which can be traced from its behavior over the years (Singh, 2003). These principles are based on ideologies of different presidents who have significant impact on US foreign policy. The following table highlights these principles: Table 2.1 Four Principles of US Foreign Policy Source: Singh, R. 2003. In American Government and Politics: A Concise Introduction (pp. 262-282). London: SAGE Publications Inc Hamiltonians believe that America should integrate in Global economy as economic prosperity is very crucial for it being a super power internationally and also for domestic prosperity. To achieve this there must be a strong bond between federal government and business elites. Wilsonians are more liberal in nature and are driven by the principles of US president Woodrow Wilson. They advocate the notion of democracy, human rights and respect for social value not with in America but throughout the world. To ensure this principle, US must play a leading role in international community. Jeffersonians are peaceful in nature and are concerned more about domestic issues rather international responsibilities of the US. They argue that America should only focus on promoting and maintaining democracy at home and should not indulge in war for the promotion of democracy. Jackosonians have realist tendencies as they believe in physical security of the country and also domestic prosperity. According to then America should work wholly to achieve those objectives. Formation of US Foreign policy: The formulation of foreign policy is quite different from the formulation of domestic policy. A sharp contrast is found in authorities and its process. Foreign policy is actually a bargain between different departments with their selfish interests which balance the actions and avoid exploitation (Reveron, 2004) .The following pyramid describes the hierarchy in foreign policy formulation with presidential powers at the top. After president, the decisions are in order influenced by the national Security Council (NSC), executive agencies; Department of State and Department of Defense, Congress, media, interest groups and public opinion. Figure 2.1 Hierarchy of US Foreign Policy tools Source: Adapted from Singh, R. (2003). In American government and politics: A Concise introduction (pp. 262-282). London: SAGE Publications Inc President The President of United States has two designations; Head of State or Head of Government and also Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. Article II of the Constitutions bestows the powers to president to enforce and implement laws created by Congress and to sign or veto the bills passed by congress but congress can override president’s veto by two-third of majority in both houses (The Executive Branch, 2012). To carry out regular federal administration tasks, the president appoints the heads of fifteen executive agencies from his cabinet and also has the command over other executive agencies such as CIA or Environmental Protection Agency. Moreover, the president appoints the heads of 50 independent federal commissions, ambassadors, federal judges and other federal officials. (Starling, 1982) National Security Council The office of National Security Council is next to White House and so is its importance in foreign policy after the president. The staff of the council is appointed by president himself which brief and suggest him about foreign policy as well as security issues of the country. Therefore, ideology of the council is similar to the president. NSC sessions are either conducted by the NSC Advisor or the president himself. Its usual attendees are Vice President, Secretary of State, Secretary of the Treasury, Secretary of Defense, Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of and Director of National Intelligence. The heads of other departments are also invited when appropriate. (National Security Council, 2012) Executive Agencies Most influential executive agencies in foreign policy are considered to be Department of State and Department of Defense. The Department of State plays a leading role in devising and executing the foreign policy of President. The Major duties of the agency include the US representation abroad, military training programs, foreign assistance, countering international crime, and a wide range of services to U.S. citizens and foreign nationals in quest of entering to the U.S (The Executive Branch, 2012). The Secretary of State is also appointed by the president and comes next to him in succession matters and protocol. In theory the president relies more on Secretary of State for foreign policy matters but in reality according to recent phenomenon, the president depends more on NSC Advisor. The Department of Defense (DOD) is the largest government agency which provides physical security to the state by waging or deterring war, providing armed forces and participating in disaster relief services, peacekeeping and humanitarian assistance. Pentagon is the Headquarter of DOD and also a mighty military symbol of America. The DOD consists of “the Departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force, as well as many agencies, offices, and commands, including the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Pentagon Force Protection Agency, the National Security Agency, and the Defense Intelligence Agency”. (The Executive Branch, 2012) There is intense competition among different agencies, such as Department of Defense is an antagonist for Department of State and tries to maximize its influence on foreign policy. This competition keeps a check on foreign policy but sometimes can also be waste of resources. Congress Congress is the legislative branch of US and consists of two houses; House of Representatives and Senate. Under Article I of the constitution, the congress has the right to ratify bills, declare war, oppose president’s decisions challenge his appointments and also to use its substantive investigation powers (Starling, 1982). The House of Representatives consists of 435 members elected proportionally from 50 states of the US according to their population. The Speaker of House, elected by representatives, presides the sessions and is third in the line of succession to the Presidency. The House also includes six non-voting members which represent six territories of the US such as District of Columbia and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. (The Legislative Branch, 2012) The Senate ensures equal representation from all states; therefore, there are two senators from each state thus making a total of 100 senate members. These members are elected by popular vote for six years tenure. The Vice President of US preside the senate and can use his vote in case of a tie. Senate has the exclusive power to ratify treaties and confirm president’s appointments. In case of a new legislation, the bill must be passed by majority votes in both houses before the final approval from the president. Congress has a contested role in foreign policy and enjoys fewer powers in high politics or security issues. However, after Vietnam War the powers of congress are extended which challenge presidential powers directly and keep a check on them. War powers – Congress VS President As US is aggressively using military interventions to achieve its goals, the question erupts who has the power to declare war? The constitution is murky about this matter and no absolute power is mentioned which creates complexities and confusions. The power and decision making authority is thus divided among different institutions to keep a check and avoid futile decisions. The separation of powers among congress and president in foreign policy can be explained by following table: Table 2.2 Comparison of US Presidential and Congress Powers Adapted from Singh, R. (2003). In American government and politics: A Concise introduction (pp. 262-282). London: SAGE Publications Inc From the above table, it is obvious that neither legislative nor executive branch is given expressed, exclusive power to declare war; therefore, both claim to have enumerated powers which results in a lot friction among institutions with endless confusions about how war is actually declared. Initially, the congress was given authority to decide about war matters and once it has approved war, the president would guide forces and execute war. This division of power ensured that there are no power abuses from any end. However, the things changed entirely when President Polk in 1846 waged war without congress approval. The trends changed after this and almost all presidents especially after President Roosevelt used armed forces in some capacity and without congress approval. When President Nixon launched the covert bombings on Laos and Cambodia, it was last nail in the coffin after which congress took action against unchecked presidential powers in using force. As a result War powers resolution in 1973 was jointly passed over the veto of President Nixon which is effective till today. According to War Powers resolution, the president can only use force without congressional approval if there is a threat to US security or existence also in dire emergency. But this use of force must be reported in next 48 hours to the congress and if congress does not approve this military action then president is bound to call back forces within sixty-days of action (Singh, 2003).There are disputed views about this resolution as one group considers that it curtails presidential powers and hinder in actions; however, the other group takes it as an incentive or regulator which keep a check on powers. However, it is clear that in domestic policy the congress is main authority for passing laws and taking decisions as president is just the part of the process. But in foreign policy, the president is the main authority and congress is just a formality with no concrete role in decision making, thus president ahs different roles at both fronts. History of US Military Interventions In the first decade of independence, the US used massive force in North American continent and Caribbean as it was moving towards its Manifest Density, a popular belief that it was the destiny of America to spread across continent, from sea to shining sea (Scott, 2003). In that course, the force was used in Cuba, Hispaniola, New Orleans, Spanish Florida and Puerto Rico against Spanish, British, French and Mexican troops (DeRouen, 2000).In the first half of nineteenth century, US started using force for protecting its shipping interests and exhibited forces in Sumatra, Barbary Coast, Fiji Islands, Drummond Island, Samoa and Johanns Islands (DeRouen, 2000). To save American continent from race of territory among colonial powers, US President James Monroe introduced Monroe Doctrine in 1823 which promoted isolationist policies under which European powers did not intervene in American continent and America did not intervene outside its continent. In later half of nineteenth century, US militarily intervened in newly independent states of Latin America such as Nicaragua, Mexico, Panama and Uruguay. The US also played an active role in suppressing revolutionaries in Chile, Nicaragua, Syria, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Colombia, Honduras and China. (DeRouen, 2000) The Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine later declared that US would intervene in Western Hemisphere to protect its interests. Under this new doctrine major targeted areas were Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, Honduras, Cuba and Haiti. (Scott, 2003) In twentieth century, the US took part in two world wars and proved itself one of the main powers of the world which is adopting internationalism. After World War II, the US used excessive military power to contain communism and Soviet Union in a bipolar world such as in Korean War and Vietnam War. After Cold War, the use of force did not come to a halt but it was used under the umbrella of humanitarian interventions as in Kosovo, Kuwait and Somalia. The US military interventionist policies in twentieth century were shaped by 9/11 terrorist attacks on US soil after which policy makers are more willing to use force for the protection of US security and interests. In the wake of these policies, three major interventions occurred in ten years period; Afghanistan War, Iraq war and Libyan intervention. This interventionist thrust shows that the US is more rapidly using military as a mean to achieve its political end and making it an important part of its foreign policy (Brown, 2003). This brief history of US military interventions shows that force and military tools were always popular among presidents in one way or the other. The next chapters will therefore apply the mentioned foreign policy principles on two recent military interventions by the US. Foreign Policy of the US
HHS497 Week4 Discussion. I’m studying for my Health & Medical class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study?

Discussion 1 Prior to beginning work on this discussion forum please review the required chapters in the book Implementation of Mental Health Programs in Schools: A Change Agent’s Guide: Leadership for Implementation and Change and Selecting Interventions: Intervention Characteristics and Implementation. Please also read the article Relieving Human Suffering: Compassion in Social Policy (Links to an external site.).
Discussion 2 Prior to beginning work on this discussion forum, watch Resume Basics (Links to an external site.) and How to Write a Resume that Beats the Automated Tracking System (Links to an external site.) videos. Preparing a resume that will get you an interview requires careful analysis of a specific job description. After identifying a specific job description in the health and human services field, you will need to optimize your resume for applying to that position.
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HHS497 Week4 Discussion

PAD 525 Strayer University Constitutional and Admin Law Pad Paper.

Constitutional and Admin Law PAD 525Please answer the questions in a minimum of 150 wordsAfter reviewing the case summary, People v. Howard, if you were an Illinois state legislator, would you support a bill in response to People v. Howard that provides that only conduct specifically prescribed by a state law may be a determining factor for defining official misconduct? Why or why not? In the text, the section of “Insincerity Seemingly Is Rewarded in the Adversarial System” gives a precursor to the trial system. Discuss whether the need for lawyers to act zealously to win cases explains why lawyers act in sometimes “immoral” ways.
PAD 525 Strayer University Constitutional and Admin Law Pad Paper

Table of Contents Course Commentary Thesis and basis of the book On authority On perspective On originality On the rest Works Cited Course Commentary The book entitled The Business of Women: Marriage, Family, and Entrepreneurship in British Columbia, 1901-51 by Melanie Buddle highlights some of the most important contributions of women to the Canadian business and history. Particularly, the book explores women in business cycles, and how this has generally translated to improvement of business in Canada. Perhaps, the issue of women’s contribution to the economy of the country has been given prominence in the book bearing in mind that “…women sole proprietors (are) the fastest growing segment of the Canadian small business landscape” (Buddle 2). The book is more or less of a call for women to continue with their efforts to not only build themselves economically, but also develop their respective countries. Another point of consideration from the highlights of the book is that women are not only engaging in business for the purposes of developing themselves and the country, but are also enrolling in educational sectors for purposes of becoming business professionals. This book fits well in the course under study that is Northern Enterprise: Canadian Business and Labour History. Development of Canadian business requires participation of all stakeholders. The fact that women form a large segment of the Canadian population, they are indeed expected to act as cornerstones in the growth and development of various sectors in business. The book also attempts to fully explore as well as analyze the role of women in Canada and especially those that are either directly or indirectly aligned to business management. As a matter of fact, the author is quite categorical that indeed, women have crucial role to play in business development since they are well placed in society with the much needed business knowledge. However, it is apparent that the book significantly portrays women as major contributors of business in British Columbia. In addition, the book notes that women who are in self employment while at the same time running various business units have been fully recognized compared to their male counterparts (8). Therefore, it is imperative to mention that the book offers relevant piece of information especially for women who are interested in engaging themselves in the business world. It is also an important starting point for Canadian government in building a good history and business development in the country. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thesis and basis of the book Over the years, women have been victims of inferiority complex. However, they are slowly coming out to assert their relevance in society. One of the most important steps that they have taken is to start off business projects and other income generating activities. The bottom line is that women have slowly been pushed from their inferiority positions into entrepreneurial careers (Brush 67). In addition, Brush asserts that 45 percent of women entrepreneurs who have become successful have excelled because they have enrolled themselves into various academic fields (67). For this reason, therefore, education is an important component of success in women business. Canada is not an exception, and in essence, the book by Buddle Melanie incorporates this fact of education and women in business. The basic point that is brought out by Buddle Melanie in her book the business of women: Marriage, Family, and Entrepreneurship in British Columbia are the assertiveness of women in entrepreneurial business and importance of education in making their business in successful. Therefore, “…the profile status that comes of women in business is of people who cannot succeed; however, with incorporation of education and devotedness to succeed, women are coming out…” (Buddle 76) Women have come to own businesses in various parts of the world (Kurtz

Personal Values And Prejudices In Social Work

For this assignment I will explain personal values, prejudices, ethical dilemmas and the impact they have had on social work practice by reflecting on one of my beliefs and how I had to challenge myself to overcome it. Using Marxists and Feminists views of oppression I aim to identify, recognise, respect and value diverse individuals for which I will give an example of which happened to me and how I had to challenge discrimination towards others. I will also discuss theoretical frameworks to tackling oppression and discrimination by using the PCS model and how people can become empowered through groups, advocacy or legislation. Personal values, Prejudices, Ethical Dilemmas, Conflict of Interest and their impact on Social Work Practice A value is something that concerns someone or a belief they hold, this determines how a person behaves, values do not determine if something is said whether it is right or wrong in today’s society. However, a person’s belief’s can affect how they behave towards others. “Prejudice is a term which has rather negative connotations and is normally taken to mean a hostile attitude towards a person or group” (Billingham et al. 2008. Pg. 196) One of my values and a prejudice of mine is that any job I am employed in will eventually go to people working in a foreign country, especially India. This all stems from when I worked for a third party credit card processor, after giving them nine years of service I was going to be made redundant and my job would be actioned from people in India. For the next two months I would have to train people from there all the applications I was currently or had worked on. This gave me a dilemma do tell them all the information I knew or just some of it? I had to be professional, so I gave them as much information on the applications for which I knew about, I even created user guides to aid with the training and they could use when I had left the company. When talking to the people I found that we had things in common with each other and they were saddened that a person would lose their job. It wasn’t their fault I was being made redundant but the companies in which we worked for. I had successfully challenged the new belief that had risen from a sad situation. “Values are only as good as the actions they prompt” (Preston-Shoot, 1996. Pg 31) When working with people from other countries I will need to put my own values and prejudices aside, as everyone deserves help and advice in their lives no matter where they come from in the world. If I fail to put my values and prejudices aside whilst working with them it will affect the help they will receive from me, I need to be open minded to all cultures. Thompson (2005) explains that there is a need for genuineness (congruence) to be achieved in social work, that a positive working relationship between service user and social worker is needed based on trust and respect for each other to develop. Identify, Recognise, Respect and Value Diverse Individuals Thompson (2006) describes discrimination as “to identify a difference and is not necessarily a negative term”. But when used in terms of legal, moral or in a political sense it is referred to as being unfair e.g. being unfairly treated for your sexuality or ethnic origin. If this occurs it can lead to a person being oppressed. When looking at oppression from a Marxists view D’Amato claims that people are oppressed because of the class in which they live in, that women, homosexuals or people of non-white skin are subordinate to the Bourgeoisie and Capitalism is needed in society as it shapes and depends on oppression for its survival. Marxists argue that if racism, sexism or homophobia was to be embraced it will mean that a capitalist government would need to be overthrown and that oppression is essential to the struggle of socialism. From a Radical Feminists view Zeiber (2008) argues that women are oppressed within the patriarchal system, that marriage and the family are a result of capitalism. Holmstrom (2003) speaks about Socialist Feminism, agreeing that women are oppressed by the dominance of men and of the economic inequality because of the positions of power males have within society. I work on a farm where we often have Polish as well as British people working there. One year a colleague was making cruel jokes towards the Polish people, as others were making fun at their culture, and their Catholic beliefs were wrong. I could see that something was wrong, so I spoke to them; they told me they felt they were being discriminated against and started to feel very oppressed because they were not British. Then I spoke to my manager about the situation which was happening and he left me to “deal” with. I had to think about how I was going to approach it so both parties would be happy with the outcome. So I asked the perpetrator to come outside and talk with me. I told him that the Polish people were unhappy the way in which he was treating them. He was shocked as he thought they were all “having a laugh” with each other. It was hard for me to confront the perpetrator as it was my father, a man I looked up to. Reflecting on what had happened I knew I had said the correct things to my father as they continued to work with each in harmony, not wanting to offend each other, enabling a good working environment for all. Discrimination can be found in institutions like the church, prison or by a person in a position of power. It can be covertly actioned by using disguises like the Klu Klux Klan in USA wear masks concealing their identity or overtly actioned like apartheid in South Africa or the BNP in Britain. Theoretical Frameworks for Understanding Discrimination and Oppression Thompson (1997) shows how oppression can be analysed using the PCS model and there are three levels: Personal (P) – an individual’s views e.g. prejudice against a group of people. Cultural (C) – shared values between others, what is wrong or right, this in turn forms a consensus. Structural (S) – how oppression of society is formed through institution who support cultural norms

HURL 102 St Cloud State Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr Questions

help writing HURL 102 St Cloud State Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr Questions.

I’m working on a writing question and need support to help me learn.

The questions are belowand there is a video so by watching that you have to write a paper- 2 page paper on Plot to Kill and Blank Panther White Lies video-2 page paper on Nick Estes and James Baldwin video- 1page paper on Race the Power of an Illusion, part 2- 1page paper on Race the Power of an Illusion, part3*I will send the video too after the question get accepted and the video are too short so it won’t take that long to write paper also
HURL 102 St Cloud State Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr Questions

Epidemiology of Pancreatic Cancer Essay

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Introduction Pancreatic cancer is the most lethal and hard to diagnose type of cancer and thus often called the “silent killer”. Currently, no early detection method and no effective treatment are available for pancreatic cancer. Moreover, out of all patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, 75% will die within the first year where most within 3-6 months (Klein, 2013). While it is practically impossible to tell what person will develop this type of cancer the essential pathophysiology of cancers can help with understanding the origins and reasons for pancreatic cancer development. Like most cancers, pancreatic cancer is caused by damage to DNA leading to its mutation. These mutations can be originated from different sources which can be categorized according to the nature of the occurrence. Three main categories of mutations have been universally recognized: inherited mutation, age-related, carcinogen caused or due to human behavior (Klein, 2013). The outcome of the exposure to one or multiple DNA mutation causes may be the formation of the neoplasms in the pancreatic tissue which may progress to actual pancreatic cancer where initial growth of the tumor is silent; therefore, symptoms are usually a sign of advanced disease. The objective of the present research paper is to highlight the epidemiological facts related to pancreatic cancer (i.e frequency, distribution and determinants of health) and identify the public health authorities’ approaches towards management and control of this devastating health condition. Frequency, Distribution And Determinants of Health According to Canadian Cancer Registry age-standardized incidence rated (ASIR) of pancreatic cancer has been declined for men by 0.46% on the course from 1991 to 2007 with 11.2 case per 100,000 population in 1991 and 10.5 cases in 2007 respectively. However, during the same period of time the ASIR of pancreatic cancer for women per 100,000 population remained steady with a slight fluctuation hovering around 8.5 case. The prevalence rate in United States and Europe has been calculated to be about 99,901 cases before 2012 with an incidence of 37,685 new cases in 2012. Despite the fact that some significant progress in cancer survival rate has been attained the projected 5-year rate of survival remained persistent slightly rising to 5.4% since 1975. Such poor outcomes are mostly due to the fact of the nature of the cancer where more than 80% of the patients presenting with already advanced stage and metastatic aetiology (Klein, 2013). However, despite the poor prognosis of 5 years that has been shared by researches conducted both in US, Europe and Canada the age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) in Canadian men has declined substantially by 0.61 percent since 1992 lingering around 8.9 cases per 100,000 in 2009 (95% confidence interval). With regards to women ASMR the data from Statistics Canada claims the decrease of 0.2% for the same period of time which attests to the stability of rates in women (Zaheer

HCA 340 Indiana Wesleyan University Jerry and the new EKJ Management Question

HCA 340 Indiana Wesleyan University Jerry and the new EKJ Management Question.

Read Chapter 15 and Chapter 19 of HCA-340: Governance and Organizational Structures in Healthcare.Read the ‘Case Example’ at the end of Chapter 15 of HCA-340: Governance and Organizational Structures in Healthcare, concerning Jerry and the use of the EKG.Write a paper that answers the following questions from the textbook:What is the main problem in this scenario and what should be done about it?How should this hospital organize for quality?How do accreditation and adherence to standards mix with quality/performance improvement activities?Your paper should identify, analyze, and communicate key ideas in a concise and precise manner as well as show a high level of engagement and original critical thinking.Your paper should have a title page, body and reference page. The cover and reference page will not count toward the length requirement.Organize your answers in the following manner:IntroductionBodyClosingYour paper should be 800 to 1000 words in length. Use proper spelling, grammar, and APA formatting with in-text citations and references as needed.
HCA 340 Indiana Wesleyan University Jerry and the new EKJ Management Question

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