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Fluctuating Prices and Declining Income of Farmers

INTRODUCTION Farming is the growing of crops and the rearing of animals. Major agricultural products include; fish, cereals, cattle, vegetables, oilseed, poultry, potatoes, sheep. Farming contributed £5.6 billion to the UK economy in 2006. In the last 25 years, farming in Britain has transformed a lot. Farming provided employment for quite a number of people, but nowadays, with the help of machinery and equipment, and the problems associated with farming, only a few people remain on the farm. The total labour force employed in agriculture in the UK is 541,000, of whom 190,000 are employees and the remaining 351,000 are self-employed farmers, partners, directors and spouses. Overall, 1.8% of the UK’s workforce is directly employed in farming .The UK food chain accounts for almost 8% of the total economy (RuSource, 2008). However, farmers have always faced problems such as Increasing population growth, water logging and salinity, converting the arable land into non-agricultural uses, high cost of production, fluctuating prices, declining income, increased tax etc. But this article will focus mainly on why farmers have been facing fluctuating prices and declining income over the years. PRICE AND AGRICULTURE Price is the amount of money needed to purchase something or the quantity of payment or compensation for something. A price fluctuation is a change in the price market. Agricultural experts and businesspeople have blamed fluctuating commodity prices, difficult capital accesses and poor development of downstream industries for poor performance of the country’s agricultural industry. Some of the causes of price fluctuations in agriculture includes; seasonal change in supply which is adversely affected by natural or climatic factors, lack of finance, use of crude implements, seasonal shortage of demand, etc. The market structure of a farm which is perfect competition also affects the price. The market structure is such that the farmer cannot influence the price. The price is determined purely by the forces of demand and supply. According to PT Perkebunan Nusantara (PTPN) IV executive director Dahlan Harahap,  fluctuating prices influenced the agricultural industry’s performances because most of the companies relied on their revenues on exports. Several major commodities which are mostly exported include crude palm oil (CPO) (77 percent exported), rubber (83 percent), cacao (86) and coffee (70). INCOME AND AGRICULTURE Income is the consumption and savings opportunity gained by an entity within a specified time frame, which is generally expressed in monetary terms. However, for households and individuals, “income is the sum of all the wages, salaries, profits, interest payments, rents and other forms of earnings received in a given period of time. For firms, income generally refers to net-profit: what remains of revenue after expenses have been subtracted. Farmers have faced declining income over the years due to high cost of production and low return to investment. According to Dahlan, high bank interest is one of the factors impeding the country’s agricultural industry. Indonesia, he added, sets the highest bank interest rate in Southeast Asia. This however affects farmer’s income. UK farming incomes are defined at the industry level by a measure known as Total Income from Farming (TIFF) and at the farm level by a measure known as Net Farm Income. Both measures have exhibited long term decline since the 1960’s, reaching a low point in 2000 with average Net Farm Income at just £8700. Governments of many countries have felt it expedient to intervene in agricultural markets, and have resorted to different forms of controls and subsidies. These have often led to the accumulation of vast surpluses, which have sometimes rotted in storage and sometimes been sold abroad at subsidized prices. The theory of demand and supply can be used to understand why farmers face fluctuating price and declining since Price is a reflection of supply and demand. DEMAND AND SUPPLY IN AGRICULTURE The agricultural sector is a very unique sector in economics because it displays characteristics in terms of the demand for and the supply of its goods not seen in any other sector. The principal characteristics of demand are that it is both income and price inelastic and it has high dependency on population and tastes which cause demand to be static in both the short and the long run. On the other hand supply is very volatile in the short run due to extraneous factors because supply is a biological process though in the long run due to technological advances we tend to observe an increasing trend. Also, because agricultural products are perishable and because the production period is long, supply will be inelastic so producers will have to supply in the short run even at very low prices. Another characteristic of supply is its atomistic structure and asset fixity. These basically imply that there will be a large number of insignificant producers and that most agricultural asset will be fixed. These have various implications for prices which are very unstable in the short run and in the long run present a declining trend. Similarly farm incomes tend to be unstable in the short run and converge in the long run though it must be noted that this is also due to extensive government subsidisation of agriculture. DEMAND Demand refers to how much (quantity) of a product or service is desired by buyers. The quantity demanded is the amount of a good that a consumer is willing and able to buy at a given price over a given period of time. Demand curve is a graph showing the relationship between the price of a good and the quantity of the good demanded over a given time period. Price is measured on the vertical axis; quantity demanded is measured on the horizontal axis The law of demand states that the quantity of a good demanded per period of time will fall as price rises and will rise as price falls, other things being equal (ceteris paribus). Demand on price and income According to Richard and Chrystal (2007); Agricultural production is subject to large variations resulting from factors that are beyond human control. For example, bad weather reduces output below that planned by farmers while exceptionally good weather pushes output above planned levels. Inelastic demand De E Elastic demand D1 Price Inelastic demand P0 Elastic demand Quantity 0 q1 q0 q3 Unplanned changes in output . Figure 3.1 Unplanned fluctuations in output (Richard and Chrystal 2007) Because farm products often have inelastic demands, large price fluctuations causes unplanned changes in production which in turn affects farmer’s income. Stabilization of agricultural prices: Farmers are allowed to sell their whole crop each year. When production unexpectedly exceeds normal output, the government buys in the market. It allows price to fall, but only by the same proportion that production has increased. When production unexpectedly falls short of normal output, the government enters the market and sells some of its stocks. It allows price to rise, but only by the same proportion that production has fallen below normal. Thus, as farmers encounter unplanned fluctuations in their output, they encounter exactly offsetting fluctuations in prices, so that their revenues are stabilized. In effect, the government has converted the elasticity of demand from being inelastic to being unitary. With a unit elasticity the total revenue of sellers does not change as quantity changes, because given percentage changes in quantity are offset by equal percentage changes of price but in the opposite direction. Figure 3.2 Income stabilization (Richard and Chrystal 2007) Income stabilization is achieved by allowing prices to fluctuate in inverse proportion to output Appropriate government intervention in agricultural markets can reduce price fluctuations and stabilize producers’ revenues.

The Maori and Pakeha of New Zealand Conflicts Case Essay (Critical Writing)

There are several cultural conflicts in the world today, and one example is the case of the Maori and Pakeha of New Zealand. This conflict is always brought about by differences in organization culture of communities in question. There are different elements of organization culture, which bring communities into conflict. According to Weeks, the physical artifacts, which are the physical layout and use of facilities that represent a symbolic expression of an underlying meaning or values and beliefs as exhibited in the case of the Maori and Pakeha, is one of the major causes of conflict (1994). Ngaire, like all other Maori, believed Marae was a prestigious place to hold Hui because wharenui in Marae was named after an ancestor. The Maori like other communities, believed in ancestors and hold such a place with high esteem. The Pakeha on the other hand saw Marae as a less prestigious place and her manager did not see Marae as a place that could befit such a high profile occasion. Language and metaphors is another element of the organization culture which often causes conflict among communities (Shellemberg, 1996). Language is a medium of communication for all humanity, the meaning of words used in the language always carry a lot of weight and always express the deep seated values that the organization or community hold dear. For example the name given to the meeting place in Marae (wharenui) did carry a lot of meaning and significance to the Maori people. Flannery (n.d.) says stories, myths and legends always epitomize the unwritten values and morals or the cultural life. The Maori people believed that the place named after one ancestor was a very significant place. They believed that People who go inside the wharenui would be taken into the body of that ancestor and protected. This are the cultural believes that are reinforced by stories and myths and they strengthen their belief in the process. Bilikopf (n.d.) argues that Ceremonies and celebrations are other elements that signify organization culture which cause conflict; this is where people participate in their cultural ceremonies. There are different roles played by different people that signify different aspects of their beliefs and these serve to reinforce their cultural believes. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The organizing of Hui by Ngaire for the Maori women is such an example. Another organization element which causes conflict is the behavioral norms (Flannery (n.d.). Norms reflects the typical leadership in the cultural organization. The Hui was to be organized according to the accepted Maori ways with different people playing different roles designated by the society; the norms will dictate how people communicate in the society. It is the differences in these norms that bring about the conflict. The Maori community has their own communal behavioral norms which differ from the Pakeha behavioral norms. The shared believes and values are one other organizational element that makes communities to collide. These shared believes are values that hold communities together and indentifies them. This is what makes communities to refer themselves as ‘we’ and others as ‘them’. These believe and values make communities see others as outsiders, this is the major cause of collision between communities. The Maori community see themselves as indigenous and sees the Pakeha as foreign community with westernized culture. These differences collided in many ways as seen in the case of selecting a venue for holding the Hui ceremony. Ngaire is in dilemma not knowing what to do since as a Maori she would have wanted the Hui to be held in marea, where the Maori people find to be prestigious and in honor of their ancestors at the same time his manager does not recognize the Maori believes and finds Marea less prestigious. The participants too seem to be of the idea of having the Pakeha style hotel venue as a place to host the Hui. Ngaire should not have resigned from her job of organizing Hui for the women because of the dissenting opinions. She ought to have gone ahead and strike a balance between the two differing opinions and find a neutral position that would be acceptable to the two sides. Further still, she ought to have sought the opinion of different people to find a suitable place that would be perceived as prestigious. By resigning, this didn’t solve any problem, and this shows that she lacked both leadership skills and managerial skills. We will write a custom Critical Writing on The Maori and Pakeha of New Zealand Conflicts Case specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As a manger there are different solutions and strategies that can be adopted to resolve conflict in an organization or a community. The manager has to take a neutral position without favoring either side. No one culture is superior to another, although members of either side may perceive their own to be superior. The manager’s role is to identify the points of conflict. always each of the conflicting parties have a valid point and the manager has to consider this points without taking sides or being biased and try to find a solution , without being seen as favoring one side. The interests of the whole community should be taken into consideration without favoring one single community. As a case of Maori and Pakeha a manager should consider the prestigious place held by each and the reasons why they hold such opinions. Out of that try to find out a solution that would leave each side contended. Always the interest of the whole society should override the interest of the one group. One other strategy is to be aware of the diversity of the communities, and therefore have to engage both parties in a series of brainstorming and in the process of resolve the differences. When the conflicting parties are actively engage, they get to understand each other well. A manger should not engage one group independently, instead both parties should be present and all sides allowed air their views. This strategy always serves the purpose of cooling down the rising temperatures and always results in a big success. When each group is engaged separately it will result in suspicion and friction between the conflicting groups. The manager should always try to involve both parties and emphasize, that each community is different in their own ways but they can coexist peacefully. The philosophy here is unity in diversity (Laurence, n.d.). The manager should be a negotiator that can bring mutual understanding and respect among the potential enemies or rivals. The manager should not impose his will on the warring parties. He has to listen keenly to what each party has to say and out of that negotiate skillfully for a lasting solution. His role is to make the parties to understand the need of unity, and what they will gain by working together. The potential losses arising from conflict should be emphasized. The manager has to make people understand the importance of peace and the need to respect each other. It is the mutual respect for each other that communities would prosper and achieve a lot in development. Negotiation is the most effective way of resolving conflict in different parts of the word and its widely employed strategy. Another strategy is to create a compromise between the conflicting views. This is achieved by making both sides realize their differing views and the need for an alternative view that will accommodate both sides. A compromise is always effective when the involved parties realize their difference and the need for an alternative solution. Not sure if you can write a paper on The Maori and Pakeha of New Zealand Conflicts Case by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The compromise solution will contain some of the views of each party and the extreme views always not taken into account when developing a compromise solution. This has been found to be one of the best strategies of resolving conflicts. If well executed, it will provide a long lasting solution to conflict. Besides all these strategies employed in conflict resolution, there are many others which have been used to some extent. For example use of force, though not very popular it has been used in some cases. Conflict has been part of human societies throughout history, some conflicts have been resolved successfully and some have gone without being resolved. Lately there has been a tendency to resolve virtually all the conflicts; this has largely been because of globalization and the interest of some countries seeking peace everywhere in the world. Reference List Bilikopf, G. (n.d.). Conflict Management Skills. Web. Flannery, B. (n.d). Conflict Resolution Strategies – Skills for Resolving Conflict. Web. Laurence J. P. (n.d.) Conflict Resolution: Global Strategic Dispute Management. Web. Schellemberg, J. (1996). Conflict Resolution: Theory, Research and Practices. NewYork, NY: SinyPress. Weeks, D. (1994). The Eight Essential Steps to Conflict Resolution. NewYork, NY: Tarcher.

CNCC Role of Information Technology in Policy Decision Making Paper

essay help online free CNCC Role of Information Technology in Policy Decision Making Paper.

Your final research paper assignment is to write a research paper that explains how Information Technology (IT) promotes getting people who are affected by policies involved in the policy-making process. Cite specific examples. To complete this assignment, upload a Microsoft Word document (.doc or .docx) that contains your complete paper. Remember that your paper, including your list of sources, must be in APA format, and you MUST cite your reference in the body of the paper using APA in-text citation format. A source is any paper or article that you will reference in your paper. If you need more information on APA format (for references list AND in-text citations), visit this reference:…This assignment must be YOUR OWN WORK! This is an individual assignment. Plagiarism detected in your work will result in a grade of zero for the entire paper. Here are a few details about the overall research paper . You must reference two (2) peer-reviewed articles or papers that support your thesis statement. One of these papers may be from your annotated bibliography assignment. The final paper must be at least 500 words in length. (DO NOT exceed 500 words by a material amount. Excessive words or too many references will NOT impress me.) So in summary, here are the research paper requirements:2 peer reviewed resources (articles or papers) (1 may be from your annotated bibliography assignment)Paper MUST address: How Information Technology (IT) promotes getting people who are affected by policies involved in the policy-making process. Cite specific examples.Cited sources must directly support your paper (i.e. not incidental references)At least 500 words in length (but NOT longer than 1000 words)If you are not sure how to identify peer reviewed papers or articles, please visit the following resources:……
CNCC Role of Information Technology in Policy Decision Making Paper

DVC When Using Racist Define Your Terms & Racist Is a Tough Little Word Questions

DVC When Using Racist Define Your Terms & Racist Is a Tough Little Word Questions.

Part 1Read the two articles posted here on this Canvas page, 1) “When Using Racist, Define Your Terms,” and, 2) “Racist Is a Tough Little Word,” then answer the two questions below.If you prefer to read the articles online…Here is a link to the first article: “When Using Racist, Define Your Terms (Links to an external site.)”Here is a link to the second: “Racist Is a Tough Little Word (Links to an external site.)”For a bit of backstory on one of the major references made in the two articles, here is a link to an article (Links to an external site.) that may clarify things.QUESTIONS TO ANSWER1. (Question for “When Using Racist, Define Your Terms”): Why does Friedersdorf believe that it is important for journalists to use a “coherent, easily discernible” definition of the term racist? Use specific evidence from the article to support your answer. (1-2 paragraphs). For full credit on this question, please make sure your response is developed (detailed) and well-supported.2. (Question for “Racist Is a Tough Little Word”): In what way(s) is racist a “tough little word”? Use specific evidence from the article to support your response (1-2 paragraphs). For full credit on this question, please make sure your response is developed (detailed) and well-supported.Part 2After you’ve read the two articles on the word “racist,” answer the question below on this discussion board. I look forward to reading your responses! Also, please do keep your comments mindful and respectful. For full credit, please also reply briefly to at least one other response.Question for discussion:Do you think the term “racist” needs more precise clarification and cohesion in today’s world? Support your response with evidence from either of the articles we read and/or any of your own experiences or outside reading. Also, how did you personally react to the ideas presented in the two articles? Is there anything else you’d like to add to this conversation? (1-2 paragraphs)
DVC When Using Racist Define Your Terms & Racist Is a Tough Little Word Questions

Trending Project

Trending Project. Paper details . Select a sport psych topic that interests you…feel free to use the syllabus as a reference point for topics. 2. Select a journal article from an academic, peer-reviewed source that pertains to your selected paper. LET ME KNOW IF YOU NEED HELP WITH THIS!!! 3. Based on your selected journal article and other course materials, provide- -your reason for selecting the chosen topic and its place in college athletics -a summary of the article -a game plan for a student-athlete struggling with the topic you selected. Three-page max. Please cite. Example: Topic: Failure Journal Article: Mummery, W. K., Schofield, G.,Trending Project