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Florida National University Ways to Solve Mental Health Problems Case Study

Florida National University Ways to Solve Mental Health Problems Case Study.

Chapter 21: Community Mental HealthYou are a school nurse in a middle school when Jamal comes to the nurse’s office requesting medication for a headache. You notice that his eyes are red, and it appears as if he has been crying. You ask if he is hurt, but he denies it. The phone rings in the office, and a teacher tells you that a female student has approached her concerned about Jamal. The teacher tells you that Jamal sent her a text message saying that he flunked his biology examination and wished he was dead.1. If Jamal shared with you a suicide plan that includes harming himself with a weapon, what would be your first nursing intervention?2. What educational program would you develop for the middle school to educate students about ways to cope with stress and how to respond if a friend needs support?
Florida National University Ways to Solve Mental Health Problems Case Study

Gulag conditions varied significantly across the time period and place, and these conditions continued to change. However, to one degree or another, the majority of prisoners faced numerous severe conditions. Housing: Prisoners lived in barracks, which were large, rectangular buildings filled with rows of double bunks. The living conditions for prisoners were brutal as the barracks were not properly built. They were poorly lit, heated, and insolated, which made it hard when temperatures dropped drastically to below freezing. It also was overcrowded and wreaked due to the ill and dying. First, fear of many diseases such as typhus forced camp commanders to order baths and delousing, although these were infrequent and ineffective which meant many of the prisoners had poor hygiene. Second, overnight, prisoners’ waste was often deposited in overflowing buckets which produced many orders. Food: Gulag prisoners faced insufficient food rations every day. Food supplies were inadequate, and consisted of mainly soup and bread. According to how much work a prisoner did would depend on how much food a prison would receive for each meal. If they were able to complete their quota they would receive a full ration, although this barely provided enough food for the prisoners to sustain difficult labor or even for survival, whereas, if a prisoner did not fulfill his daily work quota, he received even less food. However, if a prisoner consistently failed to fulfill their work quotas, they would slowly starve to death. This incentive scheme, that included both coercive and motivational elements and was applied universally in all camps, was introduced by Naftaly Frenkel. While it was effective in compelling many prisoners to make serious work efforts, it also had the adverse effect, which increased the exhaustion and sometimes caused the death of many inmates who were unable to fulfill high production quota. Varlam Shalamov was a Russian author who was imprisoned in the Gulag for more than twenty years. He wrote the celebrated Kolyma Tales, a series of short stories based on his life in the Gulag. In one section he said, “Each time they brought in the soup… it made us all want to cry. We were ready to cry for fear that the soup would be thin. And when a miracle occurred and the soup was thick we couldn’t believe it and ate it as slowly as possible. But even with thick soup in a warm stomach there remained a sucking pain; we’d been hungry for too long. All human emotions—love, friendship, envy, concern for one’s fellow man, compassion, longing for fame, honesty—had left us with the flesh that had melted from our bodies…” (V.T. Shalamov, “Dry Rations,” from Kolyma Tales.) This passage expresses the feelings that must have run through many prisoners in the Gulag. This statement is important because as soon as this is read, it articulates to the reader just one out of many treacherous conditions these prisoners went through each day. Working Conditions: Typical Gulag labour was exhausting physical work for every prisoner. This was because camp commanders were under pressure to produce, which meant they saw their prisoners as a factor of production, and drove them to fulfill quotas. In general, the central administrative bodies showed an evident interest in maintaining the labor force of prisoners in a condition which allowed the fulfillment of construction and production plans that were handed down from above. Officially established work hours were in most periods longer and days off were fewer than for civilian workers. Often, official work time regulations were extended by local camp administrators. Gulag prisoners would work up to fourteen hours per day, toiling sometimes in the most extreme climates. Within these camps there were many different types of jobs, and prisoners frequently changed their jobs. Many prisoners in the Gulags worked in mining or forestry, although there were many other kinds of work as well, which included constructing apartment buildings, railways and roads. Although, in most periods, the degree of machinery was significantly lower than in the civilian industry and the supply was short, if existent. Also, tools to perform these tasks were quite limited or weren’t accessible which meant prisoners faced a greater burden by having to do such tasks by hand. This made it difficult for prisoners to perform the task and do it properly. Although, some examples of the tools they used were using handsaws and axes to fell trees or using primitive pickaxes to dig at frozen ground. Besides a wide array of punishments for prisoners refusing to work, who didn’t fulfill their quota or even those who were too enfeebled to meet production quota, they instituted a number of positive incentives intended to boost productivity. These included monetary bonuses, since the early 1930s, and wage payments, from 1950 onwards. Plus, there were cuts of sentences on an individual basis, general early release schemes for norm fulfillment and over fulfillment, until 1939. Also, in selected camps from 1946 onwards, preferential treatment and privileges for the most productive workers. Another benefit was, some prisoners, in the 1930s and ethnic groups in the 1940s, organized to secure some of the preferred jobs as trusties. This meant these jobs were earned as a privilege and those who received these benefits were becoming more trustworthy and reliable. These jobs consisted of inside jobs such as cooking, sewing or repairing machinery. Immediately after the German attack on the Soviet Union in June 1941 the conditions in camps worsened drastically, quotas were increased, rations cut, and medical supplies came close to none, all of which led to a sharp increase in mortality. The situation slowly improved in the final period and after the end of the war. Gulag prisoners all over knew about Kolyma and dreaded a move to what they called ‘the Planet’, for its remoteness, or ‘gateway to hell’, for its conditions. Winter jobs clearing trees for new roads often left only a few survivors and thousands of frozen bodies – thus, the Kolyma Hwy linking Magadan with Yakutsk is called the ‘road of bones’. Torture: Life in a Gulag was a brutal and violent zone, every man was for themselves. If they did survive hunger, disease, the harsh elements, heavy labor, and their fellow prisoners, they might succumb to arbitrary violence at the hands of camp guards. Prisons were designed to prevent or monitor all inmate conversations. Guards in secret observed prisoners through peepholes, and even hired so-called “stool pigeons” from amongst the prison population to work as police “agents” by informing on their peers. These informers were fellow prisoners who always looked for some misstep to report to Gulag authorities. This often caused violence among prisoners as no one could be trusted. Wardens aimed at placing at least one informant in every crowded cell. Despite the present surveillance, convicts were sometimes still able to communicate in secret with one another, by tapping in code through the walls of their cells, or secretly passing on rumors or precious supplies during their daily walks to their “washroom” and exercise-courtyard. There were also punishment cell which provided even worse conditions as there were no blankets and a sub-starvation penalty food ration. Nevertheless, life in Soviet jails was typically so difficult that virtually all inmates preferred confinement in Gulag labor camps, no matter how difficult the conditions were. Trickery was also done by the guards, for example, guards would let workers leave their tools at the job sit hidden. This was so they wouldn’t have to carry tools to the living quarters and then back the very next day after a fourteen hour shift. Even though these were allowed, it was not out of humane intentions; it simply gave the guards an excuse to shoot the worker who was sent the next morning for the tools which were, of course, set beyond the logging territory as attempting to commit an escape. When investigating the shooting of these “escaping” prisoners, the position of the dead body was usually the only factor considered. That the body would lay with its feet to the camp and its head away from it was considered sufficient evidence of an escape attempt. As a result, it was common practice for the guards to simply adjust the position of the body after killing a “runner” to ensure that the killing would be declared justified. There is some evidence that money rewards were given to any guards who shot an escaping prisoner, but the official rules (as seen below) state guards were fined for escaping prisoners. Quality of Life: Prisoners competed for access to all of life’s necessities. Jacques Rossi, spent nineteen years in a Gulag after he was arrested in the Stalin purges of 1936-37. Based on his memories he became an artist and a writer. He once said, “The Gulag was conceived in order to transform human matter into a docile, exhausted, ill-smelling mass of individuals living only for themselves and thinking of nothing else but how to appease the constant torture of hunger, living in the instant, concerned with nothing apart from evading kicks, cold and ill treatment.” (Memoir excerpt by Jacques Rossi) Survival: Surviving the Gulag required prisoners to compete daily with fellow inmates for food, living space, and medical care. Some prisoners retreated into religious or intellectual contemplation to maintain some semblance of sanity. Andrei Vyshinsky, was a procurator of the Soviet Union, who wrote a memorandum toNKVDchiefNikolai Yezhovin 1938 which stated, “Among the prisoners there are some so ragged and lice ridden that they pose a sanitary danger to the rest. These prisoners have deteriorated to the point of losing any resemblance to human beings. Lacking food . . . they collect orts [refuse] and, according to some prisoners, eat rats and dogs” This statement, reveals the true pain and suffering many inmates went through, and what they would do in order to make it one more day. The Gulag drove its inmates to desperation. A great many were forced to do things they would never have contemplated in regular surroundings. Some would literally blow a hand off hoping to become injured and thereby avoid hard labor. Others gave up and tried to take their own lives. Many only mentally survived by a retreat into religious or intellectual contemplation, but nothing ultimately could save the prisoners called “goners” who reduced to digging through trash heaps or eating the rations of a dying friend in their desperation to survive. Since, the camps were not designed to exterminate prisoners, many of the prisoners found ways to survive. Their methods varied from, cheating to meet quotas, which was a practice called tufta, which the authorities sometimes chose to overlook. Others took advantage of the medical systems established in the camps, going on sick leave to miss the most terrible working days. Some painters, musicians, and craftsmen were able to employ their skills for the camps’ benefit. Others collaborated with authorities, and denounced their fellow prisoners. Some women offered sexual favors to the camp authorities in order to survive. Finally, some prisoners cooperated through friendships or national groups for support; by means of certain strategies, often of a religious nature, they kept their morale high enough to survive. Medical Care: Health care was insufficient or inadequate in the Gulags. The nature of the medical treatment of prisoners in the Gulag has emerged from accounts published by survivors. Over a period of seventy years some doctors entrusted with the medical care of prisoners failed to discharge their ethical duties, contributing to the prisoners’ neglect and suffering. The medical profession must carefully examine what occurred and properly assign responsibility for ethical as well as unethical medical acts. Understanding the history of these ominous events will alert doctors worldwide to the importance of medical autonomy in the support of imprisoned patients. Since, it was a common practice to house both ill and healthy inmates together; prisoners risked contracting a number of life threatening diseases, such as tuberculosis, HIV, and hepatitis. Also those who mined coal or copper by hand often suffered painful and fatal lung diseases from inhalation of ore dust. There is little opportunity for a prisoner to receive qualified medical assistance or even the documents necessary for them to register as disabled and be granted a pension.
Why is alignment across all elements of a concept paper important? It is important to understand the definition of research, first. Research is the systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of information (data) as a way of creating new knowledge about a particular phenomenon. A concept paper is a project idea, which is usually brief and highlights the main components of the main research project before embarking on developing a proposal. All the elements of a research concept paper are in alignment because they are interlinked to the main idea. By way of example, a flow diagram comprises several components that are aligned to a certain main idea. According to the Department of Economic and Social Affairs and the Economic Commission for Africa (2008), the components of a concept paper include the title, background information, objective(s), expected accomplishments, indicators of achievement, main activities, and relationship to the relevant conceptual framework. It is important to align all these components for the sake of showing organization and progression to the ultimate step. The research process always begins with a research question that yields to a title. Background information provides an overview of all the previous developments into the research topic up to the current time and briefly highlights the major reason for conducting the research. The problem statement stems from the background of the study, and it aims at emphasizing the need for the current study by indicating salient gaps. Subsequently, the objective(s) is the gist of the research project, and it focuses on the variables under study. Other authors and scholars advocate an overall goal that can be divided into manageable and specific objectives and/or research questions or hypotheses (Leedy
Embry Riddle Aeronautical Best Practices in Air Cargo Screening Essay.

Written AssignmentIn this activity, you are tasked to identify best practices in air cargo management in one of the following areas:Security regulation implementationAir cargo screeningSecurity plans and programsSecurity vulnerability assessmentsAirport securityUnauthorized personnel accessThird-party outsourcingIntermodal securityWrite and submit a two to three-page paper on the best practice you identified. Address the outlined components in your report. Please number and state each question/statement, and give each answer its own separate paragraph(s).IntroductionDescribe security best practiceBest practiceDescribe the regulation requirement and company or organization that developed the best practice. Describe the advantages or disadvantages associated with this best practice and how the best practice was implemented.OpinionDo you agree or disagree with the best practice? Can the best practice be implemented in all areas of the air cargo environment? Describe the results if the best practice was not implemented.Conclusion and recommendationsRefer to the Written Assignments page for specific guidelines and requirements for all written assignments.
Embry Riddle Aeronautical Best Practices in Air Cargo Screening Essay

brief essay discussing any aspect of the US economy

brief essay discussing any aspect of the US economy.

Write a brief essay discussing any aspect of the US economy. This assignment lets you demonstrate their mastery of the economic concepts learned in the course by writing a professional looking essay. The essay must be researched using business journals, periodicals and web based resources and must use economic principles learnt in class.The best approach for this assignment is to consider that you are an expert tasked with writing a brief column in your local newspaper on a current economic issue. Use a “newsy” Main title – followed by a descriptive sub-titile.The essay should be about 1 – 2 pages long and must cite the sources of information, in APA style. Use Times New Roman, 12 font size, single space. No title page required. No abstract required. Just center the title in ALLCAPS at the top of the first page.It should be written 100% in your own words, using no quotations etc. Plagiarism will result in a zero (0) for the assignment.
brief essay discussing any aspect of the US economy

MailChamp and Ning Companies: Freemium Strategy Case Study

i need help writing an essay A freemium strategy is a company’s policy when it provides some services for free, while for a premium version, customers have to pay. Freemium could be a successful strategy and bring high income. However, to benefit from it, a company has to meet certain requirements: a service should have a low-cost price; the potential audience of users should be wide; the product’s value does not decrease in time; the value of a product increases with customers’ audience increasing; a company’s product should attract and retain customers; a company should have an additional source of income. Based on this information, two companies that successfully and unsuccessfully used a freemium marketing tool could be compared. MailChamp Company is an email marketing service that allows sending emails to a list of customers. Ning is a company that provides an opportunity for other organizations or private users to create their own social networks. Both organizations tried to introduce a freemium marketing tool into the practice. The MailChimp Company was successful in it, while Ning failed. Both companies business is based on internet technologies. Therefore, the approximate costs of their services should be similar and rather low. Both companies’ stuff number is also similar. It means that both organizations did not require additional costs for salary. The value of both products does not depend on the number of customers. Even in Ning’s case, the customers’ audience does not play a significant role because the company created “private” social networks, not global ones. Thus, in these points, MailChimp and Ning were similar. According to the additional sources of income, no information about companies’ positions is available. It could be supposed that the difference in the potential customer’s audience exists. The product of the MailChimp Company is much more popular than the service of Ning. It results in a higher amount of free users: 85,000 of MailChimps users in comparison to 17,000 of Ning users. This factor might be crucial for the freemium strategy application. It was stated that for this management tool’s success, the audience should be high and better calculated in millions. The service of MailChimp is in-demand, especially in the condition of e-mail marketing growing popularity. It could be claimed that this service would be used repeatedly. The value of this product does not decrease in time. On the other hand, the demand for private networks is not that high. After creating one network, a customer doubtfully will create another one or pay for additional services. Another possible Ning’s problem is the inability to distinguish free and paid services. MailChamp limited the number of e-mail receivers for free users. The company’s position is well-determined. However, it probably was not that easy to perform this division in social networks. It could be concluded that the main difference between companies is the product’s characteristics. Initially, MailChimp provided more demanded service. The company had a higher amount of current and potential users before the freemium service introduction. Besides, the value of the MailChamp product could be considered to be higher. Thus, the company freemium approach was successful. On the contrary, the audience of Ning was and remains smaller, and the product value is lower. For this company, the strategy of charges after the free trial period is more appropriate. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More

Computer Is Derived From The Latin Term Computer Science Essay

The word Computer is derived from the Latin term computare which means to calculate. THAKUR computer is an electronic device that is designed to work with information. A computer is electronic device that does not do any work by itself but works under the instruction given by user. A computer is the combination of Hardware and Software. A computer is an electronic device that manipulates information or data provided by user and process them which can be stored, retrieved at the time of necessity. (GCF, 2013) Hardware is the physical component that can be touched, be it a digital watch, calculator, cellular phone, laptop, desktop computer or any other item that can hold intangible information (Starr, 2013). It is the part of computer that actually does the work according to the instructions provided to them. Moreover, it provides platform for software to operate on it. Hardware is a comprehensive term for all the physical parts of the computer, as distinguished from the data it contains or operates on (Open Projects, 2013). Fig1.1: Intel D975XBX Motherboard (Apoptosis, 2005) Simpson (n.d.) defines software as a general term for information that’s recorded onto some kind of medium. Software refers to programs or applications that need to be installed into a computer or hardware in order to perform certain tasks. It is a set of codes that gives instructions to the hardware. In other term software is a set of programs, procedures, algorithms and its documentation concerned with the operation of a data processing system. Fig1.2: Computer Software Computer cannot operate or perform any task by its own will; it needs someone to perform any task. That someone is called user of the computer. Thus we can concluded like this Computer System = Hardware Software User Task 1: Identify major role of computer system in bank. (1.1) (P1) (2013) defines bank as a corporation empowered to deal with cash, domestic and foreign, and to receive the deposits of money and to loan those monies to third-parties. A bank is a financial organization where people can deposit their money for safety, withdraw money and take loan to start a new project. In 1899, the United States Supreme Court defines bank as an institution, usually incorporated with power to issue its promissory notes intended to circulate as money or to receive the money of others on general deposit, to form a joint fund that shall be used by the institution, for its own benefit, for one or more of the purposes of making temporary loans and discounts; of dealing in notes, foreign and domestic bill or exchange, coin, bullion, credits, and the remission of money; or with both these powers and with the privileges in addition to these basic powers of receiving special deposits and making collections for the holders of negotiable paper, if the institutions sees fit to engage in such business.(, 2013) As bank involved in monitory transactions of public to the public security of public property is essential part of banking. Richardson (2013) says computer help bank personnel operate more efficiently and effectively and help to track transactions, help process other customer information as well. In fact computer saves time and money which aid to generate profits to the banks. Banking would be dangerous field to work in without computers, people would go to the bank carrying large sum of money and leave the Bank on next day just to finish counting the money manually but computers have made it possible that one can simply walk to the ATM and withdraw the money without necessarily waiting in a long cue to get served by the teller, getting around clients details is far much more improved than before. The major roles of computer system in banking sector are Customer Information Products Reports and Profits Transactions a nd Goals Credit Applications Delinquency Miscellaneous Customer Information The most important component of bank is to keep its customer information safely. These information is used to stay in touch with customers and notify them of any changes in bank policy. Computer stores all the information of customer which can be used in different banking functions such as Customer’s account number provides bank employees the ability to access customer information efficiently (Richardson, 2013) Products The number of products and services provided or taken by a customer is also stored in computers. Bank personnel periodically offer new products and services to its customers. Without the use of computers, it would be difficult to keep track of this information (Richardson, 2013) Reports and Profits With the help of computer, banks can analyse aging reports and track the customers who have had checks returned due to nonsufficient funds. This report can be used by the sales associates to call these customers and offer them a product called overdraft protection, which prevents a customer from over drafting their account. Computers help bank personnel generate income by targeting certain customers for sales activity (Richardson, 2013). Transactions and Goals Richardson (2013) computer helps bank personnel to keep a record of all transactions for the day which can be summarized at the end of the month or year. When customers make deposits and withdrawals, cash checks, open checking accounts or apply for mortgage loans, a computer stores and track all the information. After tabulating all the information branch manager or head of bank can see if the branch hits its goals and objectives. Credit Applications A bank can use computers for new loan applications and credit card applications; ChexSystems verification; and opening new accounts such as checking, saving or certificate of deposit accounts (Richardson, 2013). Delinquency Computers can be used to track customers who are delinquent on their loan and credit card payments. Computers can generate separate reports for customers according to age and can contact the customer for resolution, which helps keep delinquency under control. Miscellaneous Computer can keep a record of all communications that a bank employee may have with a bank customer including collection activity. A bank can also use a computer to see which safety deposit boxes are available and they can keep a record of customers who have safety deposit boxes. Task 2 Discuss and compare the different types of computer systems available in the market and recommend types of computers and software’s applicable for above environment and justify your recommendation. (1.3)(D1) Business Dictionary (2013) defines computer system as interconnected computers that share a central storage system and various peripheral devices such as a printers, scanners, or routers; each can operate independently but has the ability to communicate with other external devices and computers. A computer system is contemporary usage refers to a desktop system including computer itself along with peripheral devices such as CPU, monitor, speaker, keyboard, mouse, Wi-Fi adapter, Bluetooth adapter, modem, printer, scanner etc. Computer systems can be categorized according to their processing speed and power. Computer System Microcomputer Minicomputer Mainframe Supercomputer Notebook Tablet PC Laptop Netbooks Desktop Handheld Devices Minitower Full tower Fig 2.1 Types of computer system on the basis of speed and power Computer system also can be categorised according to work it has to perform. Computer System Entry Level Business Class Gaming System Workstations and servers Fig 2.2: Types of computer system on the basis of work. 2.1 Types of computer system on the basis of speed and power Computers can be classified based on their principles of operation or on their configuration. Configuration means their size, speed of doing computation and storage capacity (Computer Basics for beginners, 2013). On the basis of configuration computer can be classified as follows: 2.1.1 Microcomputer According to Wong (n.d.) a microcomputer is a computer that can perform all of its input, process, output and storage activities by itself. These are commonly called as personal computers. Microcomputer can be further divided into different types based on the size of CPU and major and minor components. Notebook A notebook computer is a battery or AC powered personal computer generally smaller than a briefcase that can be easily transported and conveniently used in temporary spaces such as on airplanes, in libraries, temporary offices, and at meetings (Rouse, 2007). Notebook computer is a small mobile computer, which usually weighs 2-18 pounds depending on size, materials used to make it. Laptop A laptop computer is a battery or AC powered personal computer generally smaller than a briefcase that can easily be transported and conveniently used in temporary spaces such as airplanes, in libraries etc (Rouse, 2007). It typically weighs less than 5 pounds and is 3 inch or less in thickness. It is more expensive than desktop computers and has same capabilities as of desktops. Desktop Desktop computers are the most popular computer systems because these are easy to use and more affordable. These are also known as personal computers or PC. This computer can be placed on flat smooth table for convenience and comfort when in use (Rastogi, 2009). Fig 2.2: Commodore Amiga 1000 desktop. (Obsolete technology website, 2012) Minitower These are recent modification on the system unit whereby the system unit is made to stand erect on its own and placed beside the monitor unlike desktop whicl lies flan on tables and monitors placed on it. Fig 2.3: HP Pavilion XT978 mini-tower computer( Sushi, 2013) Full tower These computers are closely related to the mini tower except that they are a bit higher and wider in physical size than the mini tower. Fig 2.4: Full tower PC (BuildIT, 2010) 2.1.2 Minicomputer Mini computers are lower to mainframe computers in terms of speed and storage capacity. They are also less expensive than mainframe computers. Typically minicomputers have been stand-alone computers sold to small and mid-size businesses for general business application and to large enterprises for department-level operations (Rouse, 2005). It is further subdivided into: Table PC A tablet allows users to compute without the added bulk of a keyboard and mouse. These are similar to PDAs and have touch screens but they are larger and contain more operating power and storage (Ilyas, 2013). It generally has pen like stylus and accept handwritten input directly on the screen. They have keyboard on the screen through which input can be provided. Netbooks Netbooks are then newest form of minicomputer. They run on OS and can perform all tasks that a laptop computer perform. Most of the netbooks lacks optical drive, Bluetooth, PC cards however external optical derive can be connected via the USB port (Ilyas, 2013). Handheld devices These are also known as Personal digital assistants (PDAs), which are small enough to fit comfortably in the users’ hand or pocket. They can easily communicate with other computers including desktop, by cables and wireless technology (Ilyas, 2013). 2.1.3 Mainframe computer Mainframe computer can process data at very high speeds i.e. hundreds of million instructions per second and they are also quite expensive (Computer basics for beginners, 2009). These are larger than micro and minicomputer in term of size and faster in term of data processing speed. It uses its power to execute many programs concurrently and in some ways they are more powerful than super computer because of they support simultaneous programs (Gandon, n.d.) 2.1.4 Super computer Supercomputer is a broad term for one of the fastest computers currently available. These are very expensive and most power computer and are employed for specialized applications that require immense amounts of mathematical calculations. It channels all its power to execute few programs as fast as possible (Gandon, n.d.). It can process billions of instructions per second and are used where intensive numerical computations such as stock analysis, weather forecasting are to be done. 2.2 Types of computer system on the basis of work With the rise in computer technology, computer is being used in different purpose nowadays. On the basis of work or task that computer should perform or assigned to do computer system extremely vary. A simple desktop computer system may not efficient for gaming purpose or vice versa. On the basis of work computer can be classified into. 2.2.1 Entry Level computer Entry level computer system is the most common systems for home and general use. This system is powerful enough to perform basic task like to run office package, simple photo edition or watching movies or surfing Internet (White, 2005). System Requirement for Entry Level Computer System Computer Processor Intel Pentium IV or Celeron running at 2GHz or better, or AMD Athlon, Duron or Semphon running at 1.5 GHz or better. System Memory (RAM) 256 MB of DDR RAM or better. Hard Disk Storage 40 GB or higher. Optical Storage. CDRW/DVDRW Monitor CRT USB Ports 2.0 standard at least 4 ports. Video At least 32 Mb-often uses system memory Audio Should be included along with speakers Network Adapter Should be included (for Internet) Table 2.1: System Requirement for entry level computer system. (White, 2005) 2.2.2 Business class computer Business class computer system is common in business such as Departmental Store, Banking Sector and Governmental Organizations etc. It is slightly more powerful than Entry level computer system because of its higher hardware configurations. System Requirement for Business class Computer System Computer Processor Intel Pentium IV or Celeron running at 2GHz or better, or AMD Athlon, Duron or Semphon running at 1.5 GHz or better. System Memory (RAM) 512 MB of error correcting code (ECC) DDR RAM or better. Hard Disk Storage 40 Gb or higher. Optical Storage. CDRW/DVDRW Monitor CRT USB Ports 2.0 standard at least 4 ports. Video At least 32 Mb-often uses system memory Audio Should be included along with speakers Network Adapter Should be included (for Internet) Table 2.1: System Requirement for Business class computer system (White, 2005) 2.2.3 Gaming computer Unlike Entry level computer system and Business class computer system; these are specially built for Gaming purpose. These computer system are highly hardware configured to match any gaming software requirements like NFS, Delta Force, Dota, CS(Counter Strike) etc. System Requirement for Gaming Computer System Computer Processor Intel Pentium IV or Celeron running at 3GHz or better, or AMD Athlon, Duron or Semphon running at 2.2 GHz or better. System Memory (RAM) 2GB of DDR RAM or better. Hard Disk Storage 520 Gb or higher. Optical Storage. CDRW/DVDRW Monitor 17 incd LCD USB Ports 2.0 standard at least 4 ports. Video At least 128 MB DDR RAM video adapter with Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) and heat sink Audio 5.1 Dolby Network Adapter Should be included (for Internet) Table 2.3: System Requirement for Gaming Computer System (White, 2005) 2.2.4 Workstation and Server. Workstation and servers are specially designed to store important data and information at single computer so that every concerned people can access them when needed. The number of clients that access Server or Workstation at a time depends upon the purpose it is kept for. For e.g. a multinational company like Nokia may have higher Workstation hardware configuration than that of local banking system. System Requirement for Workstations and servers Computer System Computer Processor Intel Pentium 4, Intel Xenon, AMD64, AMD64FX, AMD Opteron. System may support multiple processors System Memory (RAM) 256 MB to 8 GB of DDR RAM or better. Hard Disk Storage 1TB Optical Storage. Task Specific Monitor 17 inch CRT USB Ports 2.0 standard at least 6 ports. Video Task specific Audio Task specific Network Adapter High end Network Adapter Table 2.4: System requirement for Workstations and servers. (White, 2005) 2.3 Software Computer Hope (2013) defines software as a collection of instructions that enables a user to interact with the computer or have the computer perform specific tasks for them. Software is non-tangible part of computer which is set of collection of codes and instructions to be executed according to the user choice to communicate with computer and perform users’ desired task when necessary. Software provides life to the computer without it computer would have been useless machine for us. 2.3.1 Types of Software Different types of computer software are available in the global market which is used to simplify the operations and applications of computer programs. Computer software enables the computer system to perform in accordance with the given task. Computer Software System Software Programming software Application Software Operating System Malware Adware User interface Utility Programs Drivers Fig 2.5: Types of computer software. System Software System software is that software which gives life to the computer hardware such as operating system. These are the primary software which is to be installed before any other software could be installed. These are of following types Operating System An Operating System (OS) is a software program or set of programs that mediate access between physical devices and application programs e.g Unix, Windows XP etc. An Operating System is a computer program that manages the resources of a computer (Balton, 2013) Characteristics of OS (Hitachi ID Systems Inc, 2013): Whether multiple programs can run on it simultaneously: Multi-tasking Whether it can take advantage of multiple processors: multi-processing Whether multiple users can run programs on it simultaneously: multi-user Whether it can reliably prevent application programs from directly accessing hardware devices: protected Whether it has built-in support for graphics. Whether it has built-in support for networks. User interface (UI) User interface simply means by which user and computer system interact by use of input devices and software. UI refers to the parts of a computer and its software that user sees, hear, touch or talk to which allow user and computer to communicate with each other (IBM, 2013) Utility Programs Utility programs are those programs which carry out routine functions. Utility programs are designed to do one or perhaps two task very well and nothing else (Teach-ICT, 2013). Some of the well-known utility programs of Windows Operating system are Disk Cleanup, Disk Defragmenter, file compressor etc. Utility programs help in maintaining system in well condition. Drivers Driver software are very small programs that tells the computer how is should communicate with a connected peripheral devices. For Windows users, in most cases, drivers come with Windows or can be found by going to Windows Update in Control Panel and checking for updates (Microsoft, 2013). For e.g. user has to install printer driver software if he has to use printer for printing purpose, same is the case for scanner and in some cases even for speakers. Programming software This is one of the most commonly known and popularly used types of computer software by programmers. These software include text editors, compilers, debuggers and interpreters; compiler translate source code written in a programming language (C, C , C#, Java, .NET etc) into the language which a computer understands (mostly binary form), compilers generate objects which are combine and converted into executable programs through linkers, debuggers check code for bugs and debug it and finally interpreters execute programs (Oak, 2013) Malware Malware refers to any malicious software (Spyware, Viruses, Worms, Trojan horses, scareware) and is a broader category of software that are a threat to computer security (Oak, 2013). These are self-replicating software which transfers from one computer to another without the knowledge of user or by user actions through plug and play devices (Flash drives). Malware are specially designed by hackers to get important information from victim without the knowledge of victim or just to destroy victims’ data. Application software These are the most popular form of software among general users. It enables the end users to accomplish certain specific tasks (Oak, 2013). Some of the well-known application software are Microsoft office, Adobe Photoshop, MP3/video player etc. It process data for the user. Science reference (2008) defines application software as subclass of computer software that employs the capabilities of a computer directly to a task that the user wishes to perform. Adware Adware is web-based computer software with the means of which advertisements are played and downloaded to a computer (Oak, 2013). This are specially designed by programmers for companies to generate revenue by extracting user information like the websites he visits frequently and the pages he likes. For e.g: Adware is more popular in YouTube videos where ads are displayed on the sides of playing video. Beside the mentioned software types, software also can be categorise according to their licensing. Types of software according to their licensing (Oak, 2013) are listed below: Custom software Off-the-shelf software Free Software Open Source software Closed Source software Proprietary Software Shareware and Retail Software Original Equipment Manufacturer Software( Albarracin, 2008) Crippleware( Albarracin, 2008) Demo Software( Albarracin, 2008) Public Domain Software( Albarracin, 2008) 2.4 Computer System for Banking Sector Bank is the financial institution which deals with money. (2013) in 1992 Justice Atkin wrote “The bank undertakes to receive money and to collect bills for its customer’s account. The proceeds so received are not to be held in trust for the customer, but the bank borrows the proceed and undertakes to repay them. The promise to repay is to repay at the branch of the bank where the account is kept, and during banking hours. It includes a promise to repay any part of the amount due against the written order of the customer addressed to the bank at the branch…. Bankers never do make a payment to a customer in respect of a current account except upon demand.” Since bank deals with monetary transaction everyday customer information, flow of money, transaction information all should be updated regularly and should be secured. For this I recommend following computer system. Hardware Requirement for Banking System Computer Client Computer Computer Processor (CPU) Intel Pentium 4 running at 2 GHz or higher. System memory (RAM) 2GB of DDR RAM or higher. Hard Disk Storage 520 GB Optical Storage Task specific. Monitor 17 inch LCD or LED. USB ports 2.0 standard at least 4 ports. Audio Task specific. Network Adapter Must include with Hi-speed Internet Server Computer Computer Processor (CPU) Intel Pentium 4 Quad Duo running at least at 2 GHz or faster System memory (RAM) 8 GB of DDR RAM or higher. Hard Disk Storage 1 TB at least with 150 GB of database space. Optical Storage DVD RW Monitor Super VGA (800 x 600) or higher resolution USB prots 2.0 standard at least 6 ports. Audio Not recommended Network Adapter Must include with Hi-speed Internet Table 2.5: Hardware Requirement for Banking Client-Server Computer System Software Requirement for Banking System Client Computer Operating System Software At least Windows XP sp3 or Windows 7 or Windows Vista. Bitdefender Antivirus plus Antivirus or any other popular antivirus Application Software Microsoft Office Package 2007, Tally and other software according to task specific. Database Software Sql Server Express or Oracle Express Server Computer Operating System At least Windows Server 2003, Recommended Windows Server 2008 or windows server later version or Linux Server OS Database software Sql Server Express or Oracle Express Table 2.6: Software Requirement for Banking Client-Server Computer System 2.4.1 Client A client is a piece of computer hardware or software that accesses a service mad available by a server. According to Brain (2011) the machines that are used to connect to server (service providers) are clients. A client is a part of Client/Server Computing who sends request for some service among various service provided by server for its functioning. A client uses small portion of service provided by server. A client can insert, update, delete or search data stored in server database according to need. The client request a service to be performed, service might be to run an application, query a database, print a document, or even perform a backup or recovery procedure (Scomptec, 2005) In banking sector a client may be Cashier, Accountant, CEO, Manger, Branch Head etc. and each one of them may seek different service at the time and service is provided by server. Even though the job of these employee in bank varies with each other they all need almost same hardware and software system configuration computer for their job with some extra peripherals for some staffs. All client computer should have minimum above software and hardware configuration for fast, safe and proper banking functioning. 2.4.2 Server A server is a computer hardware system dedicated to run one or more services to serve the needs of the users of other computers on a network. In client/server model, sometimes server is also called as daemon (Rouse, 2008). Server once activated waits for client request and once request is done by client it provides services requested by client. A server might provide multiple services for same client like HTTP, FTP etc or only one service at a time like either HTTP or FTP. In banking sector a server computer might be one of the Personal computers of CEO or any other staff or bank may install one separate computer for server purpose. As number of client depends upon the size of organization the hardware requirement may vary with little exceptions. For e.g the number of client of Nabil Bank may is more less than that of client of Standard Chartered Bank so it is more likely that server of Nabil Bank is less powerful than that of Standard Chartered Bank. Server computer is installed in accordance with the number of possible clients at the time. In overall, for all bank a server computer with above hardware and software configuration is sufficient. Task 3 Draw and explain basic block diagram of computer system with its all hardware

Mission College Accounting Ethics and Deontology Method Discussion

Mission College Accounting Ethics and Deontology Method Discussion.

Please see the attachment for the textbook. Answer discussion 1 base on chapter 1; discussion 2 base on chapter 2; discussion 3 base on chapter 3.Discussion 1FACTS: This week your immediate supervisor assigned you as the senior in charge of an audit of an important international client in New York City because of your excellent work, and because she learned how well you performed in your Foothill Accounting Ethics course. She also made it clear that if he (the client) is not happy with you, your firm could lose the client or you could be demoted. While in New York, the client offers you box seats to a Broadway play you and your spouse (who is in town with you) have wanted to see for years, but tickets must be bought many months in advance. Further, in preparation to interact with the client, you researched the culture of his country and discovered that refusing a gift is considered an insult.DISCUSSION: Based on these facts, summarize the ethical reasoning method you would use when deciding whether to accept the tickets. The discussion must include an approach that is (i) based on this week’s assignment, and (ii) narrowly tailored to the accounting profession based on your current and a general understanding of the profession’s rules and procedures. Your grade score will be based only on part (i) of your discussion. Part (ii) of the discussion is simply to help me understand your current thought process and approach to accounting ethics. Remember the word limit. Your goal – with this and all course discussions – is to be concise yet thorough, which will require thoughtful editing.Note: Your original post is limited to 300 words maximum. You must make comment on one of your colleagues’ posts and your comment is limited to150 words.Discussion 2FACTS: You are happy to be working as a controller in the headquarter for a company, and the owner and President of the company (the “boss”) trusts you enough to handle the business’s banking account, since you did, after all, get an “A” in your Foothill Accounting Ethics course. One day the boss hands you a $225.00 receipt for dinner and entertainment from the night before. He explains it is for the entertainment of a client – dinner and the lounge at the boss’s country club – and wants you to cut him a check for reimbursement of the full amount of the receipt. Later that day, the boss’s girlfriend stops by to pick up the boss for lunch. While waiting she talks to the receptionist and you clearly overhear the girlfriend say how much she enjoyed last night’s dinner at the country club with the boss.DISCUSSION: What would you do, if any? Explain your thought process. Please make sure to use what you learned from Chapter 2.Note: Remember your original post is limited to 300 words maximum. You must make comment on one of your colleagues’ posts and your comment is limited to150 words.Discussion 3Using the book, common sense, and perhaps a bit of research, draft the steps an accountant might go through in making the decision of whether and how to be a ‘whistleblower’ regarding a perceived unethical practice of his or her employer, which is a reputable accounting firm. Note: Remember your original post is limited to 300 words maximum. You must make comment on one of your colleagues’ posts and your comment is limited to150 words.
Mission College Accounting Ethics and Deontology Method Discussion