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Florida National University Causes of Epigastric Pain & Information Discussion Paper

Florida National University Causes of Epigastric Pain & Information Discussion Paper.

J.G. is a 42-year-old white man presenting with a 2-month history of intermittent midepigastric pain. The pain sometimes wakes him up at night and seems to get better after he eats a meal. J.G. informs you that his doctor told him that he had an infection in his stomach 6 months ago. He never followed up and has been taking over-the-counter Zantac 75 for 2 weeks without relief. He takes no other medications. He is concerned because the pain is continuing. He has no other significant history except he is a 20 pack-year smoker and he drinks 5 cups of coffee a day. He eats late at night and goes to bed about 30 minutes after dinner. He is allergic to penicillin.Diagnosis: Peptic Ulcer Disease: Answer the following questions in full sentences using APA citations. List specific goals for treatment for J.G.What drug therapy would you prescribe for J.G.? Why?Discuss specific patient education based on the prescribed therapy.List one or two adverse reactions for the selected agent that would cause you to change therapy.What would be the choice for second-line therapy?What lifestyle changes would you recommend to J.G.?
Florida National University Causes of Epigastric Pain & Information Discussion Paper

Southern New Hampshire University Popular Culture and Society Discussion.

Having developed a definition of popular culture in the last module, this week we’re turning to how popular culture applies to you personally. This could be related to your personal experiences (such as your fandom) or things you’ve observed about those around you (for instance, how your family members interact with popular culture). Based on the module resources and your own research, write an initial post that addresses the following:

Describe a popular culture artifact that either you or someone around you finds especially interesting. What resonates with you about the artifact? How does experiencing that artifact help contribute to your understanding of society?
Share a current issue related to popular culture that you have found interesting or that has personally impacted you. Post an article from a news source. How does popular culture help you better understand this issue?

In responding to your peers, provide feedback about the examples utilized and the feedback loop being created. Are there other feedback loops being created through these examples (i.e., is there more than one message being presented)? Make sure you support your response with information from the readings, this module, and any additional resources as needed.
To complete this assignment, review the Discussion Rubric PDF document.
Rubrics
1st classmate response needed 
Pop Culture Artifact & Connection To Society
Laura Mills posted Jul 4, 2021 10:26 PM
Hello Everyone!
       Welcome to the Module 2 discussion! I hope you all had a great first week in the course, getting to know what we will be covering, along with knowing what to expect for our final project. It was great reading some of your responses and getting to know some of you, which is one of my favorite things when starting a new course. In this discussion topic, we are looking at how personally and those around us use and interact with pop culture. I am excited to read responses to this because of how different it will be for us, and I am curious to read what subjects you are fans of in your personal lives. I hope you all enjoy this discussion, and I look forward to reading your responses!
       In this discussion, we are selecting a pop culture artifact that not only we love but that we have in common with other people. I am picked Taylor Swift as my pop culture artifact because I have been a big fan of her and her music since she came out with her first song on the TV channel CMT and her first album being in the country genre. Even today, it has not changed; I am still a huge Taylor Swift fan (or Swiftie) of her, her music, and how she wants to empower others. I also love that there is at least a song someone can relate to or connect to. It could be because of something that happened to them, or they love the song. She also seems to be a humble and wholesome person, which is why I have been a fan of hers all of these years later from when she first started.
Experiencing this artifact helps contribute to my understanding of society that Taylor talks about topics that I believe hold accountability in society and bring awareness and visibility to it. For example, in an interview she did with CBS Sunday Morning in 2019, she about how there is a difference between men and women being in the music business. Specifically, saying, “A man does something, it’s strategic. A woman does the same thing, it’s calculated. A man is allowed to react, a woman can only overreact” (CBS Sunday Morning, 2019, 2:06-2:15). This sexism that she brings up in the interview is something that I feel women can relate to in daily life or even their own professional life, whether in the music business or not. My overall point is that she opens up about topics that need to be visible in present-day society topics. Topics include support and equal rights for the LGBTQIA+ community, empowerment, politics, sexism, and hypocrisy.
A current news article I found that relates to pop culture that is interesting and useful is called “Pride Month is over. Here’s how to be an ally to the LGBTQ community the rest of the year” (Yasharoff, 2021). Here is the link: https://www.usatoday.com/story/life/2021/07/01/lgbtq-community-how-to-be-an-ally-year-round-show-support-donate/7809211002/ I chose this because Pride Month did just ended and the topic of the LGBTQIA+ community is a subject that Taylor Swift discusses. It is meaningful to me because I know people and being a fan of celebrities that are also a part of this community. They deserve visibility and all the love and support, so this article plays into that aspect. 
Pop culture helps me better understand this subject that, as I stated, Pride Month gives visibility to all of these different people. Whether they are public with how they identify or whom they love or not, it is a celebration for people being their unique selves. It also helps to learn how to be a better ally, supporter, and friend to the community. Everyone deserves to have the opportunity to choose how to identify with themselves and whom they choose to love, which is what I hope people gather from reading this linked article.
I want to hear your thoughts! Do you have a favorite Taylor Swift song? If so, which one is it and why? What is something you admire/like about Taylor Swift? Is there another celebrity that you feel possesses these same traits that Taylor Swift has? 
Reference:
CBS Sunday Morning. (2019, August 25). Taylor Swift on “Lover” and haters [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nDzhoofkRJI
Yasharoff, H. U. T. (2021, July 2). Pride Month is over. Here’s how to be an ally to the LGBTQ community the rest of the year. USA TODAY. https://eu.usatoday.com/story/life/2021/07/01/lgbt… 
2nd response needed
2-1 Discussion: Popular Culture and You
Michael Oglesby posted Jul 5, 2021 3:52 PM 
Hello Class,
The popular culture artifact that has really caught my interest is the television show Narcos on Netflix. Narcos is a television show on Netflix that shows the rise of the cocaine trade and stories of various drug kingpins, the biggest being Pablo Escobar. Narcos doesn’t glorify drug kingpins, it also shows all the innocent people who unfortunately get caught in the crossfire in the war on drugs. Watching this show helped give me a better understanding of the war on drugs and how many lives it has changed for the worst. One of my good friends is from Colombia and he’s told me some stories about the violence he experienced, watching the show gave me some insight as to what he was going through. 
On March 11, 2020, the NBA announced the suspension of the season because a player had caught coronavirus.  This is significant to me because I wasn’t didn’t think coronavirus was a huge issue until it actually affected something important to me. All the major sports leagues ended up shutting down and coming back a couple of months later, but sports were effectively shut down for about 3 months and sports are important to me so I was pretty disappointed. The shutdown gave me a better understanding of why I should take the coronavirus serious, and after I took the best precautions I could to protect myself.
Here is a link to an article talking more about the shutdown:
https://www.nba.com/news/coronavirus-pandemic-causes-nba-suspend-season
Southern New Hampshire University Popular Culture and Society Discussion

CNL 500 Female Latino Depressive and Anxiety Disorders Case Study.

I’m working on a psychology writing question and need support to help me study.

Cognitive, Cognitive Behavioral, Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy, and Reality Therapy CNL-500 ASSIGNMENT Read the “Case Study Analysis.”Select one of the following theories that you feel best applies to treating the client in the case study:CognitiveCognitive behavioralRational emotive behavior therapyReality therapyWrite a 1,000-1,500-word analysis of the case study using the theory you chose. Include the following in your analysis.What will be the goals of counseling and what intervention strategies are used to accomplish those goals?Describe the process of treatment using this theory. This should include a description of the length of treatment, the role of the counselor, and the experience of the client as they work from beginning to termination of therapy.How does this theory address the social and cultural needs of the client? (Cite specific research findings)Describe the role of choice and decision making within the theory you chose regarding the efficacy of treatment. How can a counselor assist their client in using these concepts more effectively?How can a counselor implement cognitive processes in counseling without undue risk to the client or the counseling relationship?Include at least six scholarly references beyond the textbook in your analysis.Each response to the assignment prompts should be addressed under a separate heading in your paper. Refer to “APA Headings and Seriation,” located on the Purdue Owl website for help in formatting the headings.Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.This assignment is informed by the following CACREP Standard: 2.F.5.a. Theories and models of counseling.AttachmentsCNL-500-RS-CaseStudyAnalysis.docxTEXTBOOKS Murdock, N. L. (2017). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy: A case approach (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. ISBN-13: 9780134240220.URL:http://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/pearson/2016/theories-of-counseling-and-psychotherapy_a-case-approach_ebook_4e.php
CNL 500 Female Latino Depressive and Anxiety Disorders Case Study

An essay about a dream job (CEO). Help me study for my English class. I’m stuck and don’t understand.

The essay structure:
Paragraph1: Define the job. Define the duties. Job is Adj1 and Adj2
Paragraph 2: Adj1
Paragraph 3: Adj2
Paragraph 4: Explain how i am Adj 1 + Adj 2 (eg. how i have the characteristic that will make me able to become a CEO)
Paragraph 5: Bring it all together as a conclusion

My dream job is a CEO now write about CEO’s job in the same method explain above. you can choose any other job if it will be easier to write about. NO Resources write from your own words. Academic essay.
Thank you!

An essay about a dream job (CEO)

Image in Williams’s “The Young Housewife” Poem Essay

Table of Contents Introduction The General Analysis of the Poem The Choice of the Narrator’s Point of View The Concept of Voyeur Metaphor and Metonymy in the Poem Conclusion Works Cited Introduction Poetic works by William Carlos Williams are known for their unique representation of many images and relationships with few words. Some critics compare Williams’s creations to movies for their expressiveness (Miller 160). “The Young Housewife” is one of the most popular poems written by Williams. In this piece, the author depicts a seemingly brief situation: a male observer’s description of a female character. However, there is a deeper meaning behind this short observation and the nonverbal greeting of the driver who passes the woman by in his car. The imagery effects of the poem offer deep grounds for the analysis of the house’s inside, the woman’s feelings, and the passerby’s attitude toward her. The poet does not reveal any of these issues directly, but he gives numerous hints for the reader to analyze. Thus, the concept of image in “The Young Housewife” is employed as a means of representing the features not pronounced in words but implied by the author. The General Analysis of the Poem “The Young Housewife” is a rather short poem, containing three stanzas only. These stanzas are of different lengths: the first one has four lines, the second – five, and the third one has three. Despite the brevity of the poem, the author managed to include a whole range of feelings and emotions in it, which become evident to a keen observer. The main character of the poem, the housewife, is represented as a vulnerable creature. Such a deduction can be made from the line “her husbands’ house” – the poet emphasizes the fact that the woman does not consider that house hers or theirs (Williams 3). Age is the only characteristic the reader receives of the woman. In the title, Williams mentions that she is young, and there are no other features describing the female’s appearance throughout the poem. It is possible to assume that the narrator can see the housewife’s body since she is wearing a “negligee” – a piece of clothing that presupposes transparency (Williams 2). However, the author does not express any thoughts on this part, so one cannot identify whether the woman is beautiful or unattractive. In the first stanza, it is mentioned that the young housewife is “behind / the wooden walls of… [the] house” (Williams 2-3). Also, the time of the day is stated: “ten a.m.” (Williams 1). Thus, it is viable to assume that the narrator knows about this woman’s routine activities and the way she looks in the morning. The narrator’s assumption proves to be true in the second stanza when the lady goes out of the building. By comparing the woman to “a fallen leaf,” the narrator may mean two things (Williams 9). On the one hand, he may consider that the woman is detached from her husband, like a leaf that falls from the tree and does not have any connection with it any longer. On the other hand, the emphasis on the word “fallen” should be scrutinized. In connection with the fact that the young housewife is wearing transparent clothes and calls “the ice-man” and the “fish-man,” the word “fallen” may be viewed as a disapproval of the character’s demeanor (Williams 6). The process of “tucking in / stray ends of hair” supports the double nature of the stanza (Williams 7-8). It may be concluded that the lady feels either ashamed of her behavior or uncomfortable and shy in the house where she is not understood. The third stanza is largely focused on the narrator who describes the “noiseless wheels” of his car, the “crackling sound” they make, and bowing and smiling to the woman as he passes her (Williams 10-12). In this part, it becomes evident that the man either visits the place frequently and is acquainted with the woman or that he feels self-assured and presupposes some sexual context of the situation. Thus, it is necessary to analyze the poem more thoroughly, taking into consideration the identified elements and the selected point of view of the narrator. The Choice of the Narrator’s Point of View The present analysis of the poem will be performed from the point of view of a speaker possessing the features of Don Draper, a character of the show Mad Men. Don Draper is known for his self-assured nature and the refusal to give credit to any of the women he has relationships with, including his wife. The man has numerous affairs, and he is not ashamed to express his opinions on females. As Renieblas remarks, Don Draper “acts as a boss” both at home and in the office (35). He hardly ever shares his plans or actions with his wife, so she is not aware of what he does during the daytime or even at night (Renieblas 35). In the office, the man’s superior treatment of ladies is reflected through his relationships with his secretaries. Therefore, Renieblas concludes, Don Draper is the personification of “male empowerment” over “female submission” (35). Taking this view as the basis for the poem’s narrator’s opinion, the analysis will be performed on the assumption that the housewife is being treated by him as an object. The Concept of Voyeur There are many indications of the fact that the narrator enjoys watching the young housewife’s private behavior or even gets sexual pleasure from doing so. He is sitting in his car, in safety, and he can drive away as soon as he notices anything suspicious or dangerous. The young woman, on the contrary, is vulnerable; she is as if on display, available for the narrator to observe. As Crawford remarks, Williams finds it easier to deal with the difficulty of “detailing perceptions, thoughts, and encounters while physically moving through a landscape” (180). Therefore, as the scholar concludes, Williams frequently incorporates the element of traveling by car and watching people through the windshield in his poems (Crawford 180). The poet is a part of “a human-car assemblage” with fleeting and rapid perceptions (Crawford 180). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In “The Young Housewife,” the Don Draper type of a man is observing the woman not only outside but also inside her house. The fact that the narrator knows what is happening “behind / the wooden walls” allows presuming that the man has been in the house before at the time in question (Williams 2-3). The young housewife’s detachment from her home testifies that she is disappointed or dissatisfied with her family life. Thus, Williams suggests the idea that the woman may be having an affair. The way she dresses adds to the impression since normally, a married female does not walk around in clothes that let others see her naked body from under the transparent parts of a negligee. As Driscoll notes, Williams communicates a strong sympathy toward the woman (144). However, this sympathy is complicated through the “erotic lens” through which the author encourages the reader to view the female (Driscoll 144). Williams himself treated “The Young Housewife” as a straightforward tribute to the young lady, stating that seeing “a beautiful woman” is the reason to create poetry (qt. in Driscoll 144). However, several decades later, a cardinally different interpretation was suggested by Perloff. The critic argued that comparing the housewife to a fallen leaf represented the “fantasy of violent possession” on the part of the narrator (Perloff 847). Perloff exemplifies the mentioned fantasy by the narrator’s “rush[ing]” over the leaves (Williams 11). Thus, it appears that subjugating the leaves, them being compared to the housewife, presupposes the subjugation of the woman herself. Driscoll argues that “The Young Housewife” is the celebration of “the privilege and power of the male gaze” (145). The advantage of “effacement” enables the man to see the woman while she cannot observe him (Driscoll 145). The “god-like penetrating vision” gives the narrator the possibility to see the woman even when she is not physically visible (Driscoll 145). Thus, the author depicts the concept of voyeur by empowering the narrator to see the young housewife both inside and outside the house, along with perceiving her thoughts and feelings. Metaphor and Metonymy in the Poem Considering the stylistic devices employed by Williams enhances the understanding of the poem’s imagery. Driscoll views “the wooden walls of her husband’s house” as a metonymy of “the domestic limits” of the young woman’s existence (145). Indeed, the female seems to be depressed by her recent marriage and is thus inclined to seek attention from other men, be it a salesperson or a random (or even not random) driver passing by in his car. The metaphorization of the poem is reflected through a striking division between the woman and the man watching her. The narrator operates a “mechanical” sort of power (Kinnahan 64). While the housewife remains in the house or close to it, her observer has the ability to move and view the situation from different angles. When the man “rush[es] with a cracking sound” over the leaves in the street, he metaphorically emphasizes that he has the power to conquer the woman (Williams 11). As Kinnahan remarks, this claim of mastery is the metaphor of “a form of destruction” rather than the treatment of the housewife as a “fallen” creature (65). Thus, unlike Driscoll, Kinnahan considers this part of the poem not as the issue of subjugation but rather as the possibility of subjugation whenever the man decides he feels like it. Conclusion The concept of image in William Carlos Williams’s “The Young Housewife” is employed to represent the features not pronounced in words but implied by the author. Various critics interpret the author’s images differently, but one issue is evident: Williams’s richness of expression is by no means overshadowed by the brevity of the poem. The young woman, who is the main character in the analyzed poem, is perceived as a defenseless creature who has failed to find satisfaction or happiness in her marriage. The narrator is a keen observer of the lady’s life or even a participant in it. By employing such devices as metonymy and metaphor, Williams manages to present the issue of voyeur not in an entirely negative and brutal manner but, rather, in a way which invokes sympathy and eroticism. Works Cited Crawford, T. Hugh. “Williams, Science, and the Body.” In The Cambridge Companion to William Carlos Williams, edited by Christopher John MacGowan, Cambridge University Press, 2016, pp. 176-187. 180. Driscoll, Kelly. “Williams and Women.” In The Cambridge Companion to William Carlos Williams, edited by Christopher John MacGowan, Cambridge University Press, 2016, pp. 143-160. 144-145. We will write a custom Essay on Image in Williams’s “The Young Housewife” Poem specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Kinnahan, Linda A. Poetics of the Feminine: Authority and Literary Tradition in William Carlos Williams, Mina Loy, Denise Levertov, and Kathleen Fraser. Cambridge University Press, 1994. 64. Miller, Stephen Paul. “The Abstract Expressionist Housewife: Fracture, Transposition, Williams and the Three Phases of Modernism.” William Carlos Williams Review, vol. 32, no. 1-2, 2015, pp. 159-196. Perloff, Marjorie. “The Man Who Loved Women: The Medical Fictions of William Carlos Williams.” The Georgia Review, vol. 34, no. 4, 1980, pp. 840-853. Renieblas, Susana Sánchez. “Women at Home and Women in the Workplace in Matthew Weiner’s Mad Men.” Investigaciones Feministas, vol. 3, 2012, pp. 33-42. Williams, William Carlos. “The Young Housewife.” N.d., Web.

Stereotypes Of Mental Illness Sociology Essay

online dissertation writing Stereotypes of mental illness form through personal experiences combined with the influence of external sources, the most influential probably being the mass media. Theoretical conclusions suggest that the media has a powerful influence over society, but they do not consider the types of media and the varying audience associated. This study will attempt to examine whether Disney’s portrayal of mental illness affects how society perceives mental illness. This research will be analysed using secondary data. The research is completed through a reviewed selection of Disney films and examination of how characters are assigned mental illness traits. The characters are then compared to how people in similar situations would be accepted in society, and compare whether the Disney films have influenced this acceptance. Results of the study indicate that more research is needed. OMIS2 Low Risk Research Ethics Approval Where NO human participants are involved and/or when using secondary data – Undergraduate or Postgraduate or Member of staff evaluating service level quality Project Title Does Disney’s portrayal of mental illness affect how society perceives mental illness. Principal Investigator Certification I believe that this project does not require research ethics approval. X I confirm that I have answered all relevant questions in the checklist honestly. X I confirm that I will carry out the project in the ways described in the checklist. I will immediately suspend research and request a new ethical approval if the project subsequently changes the information I have given in the checklist. X Principal Investigator Name: Stephanie Sandall Date: 13/06/2012 Student’s Supervisor (if applicable) I have read the checklist and confirm that it covers all the ethical issues raised by this project fully and frankly. I confirm that I have discussed this project with the student and agree that it does not require research ethics approval. I will continue to review ethical issues in the course of supervision. Name: Thomas Thurnell-Read Date: 22/08/2012 Introduction The Walt Disney Corporation is an American mass media company which is most famously known for children’s films (Booker, 2012). This dissertation will explore the influence of the media on the audience, more specifically to examine whether Disney’s portrayal of mental illness affects how society perceives mental illness. I have identified common features in literature regarding the influence of media and public opinion, and relevant sources will be applied to this study. The Oxford English Dictionary defines mental illness as “a condition which causes serious disorder in a person’s behaviour or thinking” (2012), this does not necessarily mean that society shares the same understanding. Mental illnesses are variations of behaviours that are not considered acceptable in society, a process of socially diagnosing people that deviate from society’s norms and can easily be affected by social change (Scheff, 1975). Stereotypes of mental illness form through personal experiences combined with the influence of external sources, “shared patterns of behaviour and interactions and affective understanding learned through the process of socialization” (Damen, 1987), implying that society’s norms and values are what carve our individual personas. Negative stereotypes can also lead to the process of stigmatising, isolating members of society, sometimes even institutionalising members in order to force conformity. Terms associated with mental illness are reduced to casual insults rather than official medical terms as society constructs those with abnormal behaviours to be mentally ill (Scheff, 1975). Previous research implies that the most influential external source to shape public opinion to be the mass media (Breslow, 2002). The Walt Disney Corporation is the world’s largest media conglomerate, primarily based in film and television sectors of the media industry (Best Communications Degrees, 2013). Approximately 200 million people will view a Disney film in a year (Giroux, 2002). Due to its large scale availability and popularity, this study aims to examine whether Disney’s portrayal of mental illness affects how society perceives mental illness. The Walt Disney Company influences how children are introduced to norms and values of society through its attractive magical image associated with its films. Disney films are considered as a normal form of entertainment for children by society, allowing Disney’s perception of society to be taught without challenge, as a result socialising the audience into what Disney finds to be an acceptable ideology (Giroux, 2002). The purpose of this study is to examine whether Disney’s portrayal of mental illness affects how society perceives mental illness. This research has practical relevance which hopefully through its findings and conclusion will add to the scientific knowledge, and make society more aware of any effects the media has on the perception of mental illness, most specifically Disney films. In order to understand how Disney movies present mental illness to society through its characters, I will conduct a literature review to gain a stronger background of knowledge on the subject before writing a methodology that will be used to investigate my research question. To assess the research question, I will primarily analyse secondary data and combine this with a personally reviewed selection of Disney films to investigate how characters are assigned mental illness traits. The secondary data will be formed of quantitative and qualitative approaches. I find this technique will allow me to gain a better and deeper understanding of the subject. I will then compare the Disney characters to how people in similar situations would be accepted in society, and whether the Disney films have influenced this acceptance. Literature Review Society is dependent on the media for information and entertainment due to its easy access, as well as its ability to be culturally encoded for all to understand. According to Breslow (2002), the mass media perform three major functions in society, these are: educating, shaping public relations, and advocating a particular point of view across society. The Walt Disney Corporation is an American mass media company which is most famously known for children’s films and is the world’s largest media conglomerate (Best Communications Degrees, 2013). Due to Disney’s large scale popularity, this study aims to examine whether Disney’s portrayal of mental illness affects how society perceives mental illness, since the coverage of mental health in the media is a controversial subject and it is deemed as a sensitive topic by some individuals in society. Audience Research It is not only the media source itself, but the audience that needs to be considered. Disney films are generally intended for a younger audience. Evidence demonstrates that children are the main viewers of Disney films (Booker, 2012). Children can be easily influenced by media consumption as they easily accept and internalise media messages, this is shown by Bandura’s Bobo Doll Study (1963). Bandura divided 48 girls and 48 boys into 3 experimental groups and a control group. The groups were subject to different conditions associated with a Bobo doll. The first group witnessed an adult become aggressive towards a Bobo doll in a live scenario. The second group viewed a film of the adult acting aggressively to a Bobo doll. The third group watched a cartoon animal act aggressively towards a Bobo doll. The children watched the aggressive acts individually, preventing an influence of opinion or distraction off other children in the group and allowing individual differences of opinion to emerge. After observing the models, each of the children from the four groups were individually put in a room with an experimenter where they were exposed to a mildly frustrating situation to elicit aggression. After this, the children were sent to play in a room of toys which included a Bobo doll. Researchers covertly observed the children, noting any interaction with the Bobo doll. Results showed that the children who had been exposed to the aggressive behaviour, exhibited nearly twice as much aggressive behaviour than the control group. The results demonstrate that media can be influential on the behaviour of children, therefore implying that Disney movies may affect a child’s behaviour. This study can be criticised due to having a small ethnocentric sample size, so the results cannot be generalised to the wider society. However, it must also be considered that children may associate adults as disciplinary figures, so the children mimic the behaviour shown as if they are trying to conform to adult behaviour. Despite this, this study is appropriate to the research as it demonstrates the influence that media and adult role models have on children. Audiences may also interpret results differently, as Thompson (1995) argues that audiences do not automatically passively accept information but actively select and interpret, resist or even challenge the media, affected through individual differences and experiences. In contrast, McQuail (2005) suggests that the media can have ‘planned’ and ‘unplanned’ effects on the audience, with short and long term effects. McQuail does not generalise the audience to be a mass being, as he finds these factors to be heightened by individual differences. Therefore, there is a fragmentation of the audience, in this example Disney films are primarily associated with a younger audience (Booker, 2012). As a result, there is no single mass audience, people may choose to watch a programme at a later date and media messages may not spread throughout society. Furthermore not everyone in society will view the media, so people will not share the exact same values. Despite this, the audience is widely dispersed and the media is easily able to control the audience and spread messages (McQuail, 2005). Contrasting to this perspective, Disney may be more focused on capitalism than social control, as found by Fiske (1987), Disney’s content could be influenced through the structured media market-led environment through the consumer choice of media and globalisation. The media is a business and the audience is the consumer. Public interests are subordinated to private capitalistic interests. It could be further considered that the media has become a form of ‘ideological apparatus’ (Milner and Browitt, 2002). The media narrative is constructed to encourage the acceptance of social positions, leaving the individual to emotionally invest in the source through identifying similar personal traits. The perspective associates the audience as a passive being, as the media is dominant and ‘positions’ the audience through an emotional connection. Ctausse’s (1968) Schema of Differential Audience Reach finds that not all members of the audience accept the media values transmitted. Ctausse displays how media messages go through a process of being offered, receivable, received, registered, before being potentially internalised by the audience. This is further examined by British Cultural Studies, who investigate the way audiences decode media messages. They find the decoding of media messages varies on primary definers and individual differences, such as social and linguistic differences (Hall, 1973). Three types of decoding were proposed by Hall (1973). Dominant decoding views that the audience acknowledges media values and easily accepts the media discourse. Negotiated decoding, detects that the audience recognises the media has interpreted the events in a certain way, the audience is not completely passive to media messages. Oppositional decoding, finds that the audience challenges media authority. An example of oppositional decoding would be the feminist approach to a male presented dominated programme. This is significant to the research as it implies that the Disney audience have individual differences and not all will decode the content in the same manner. However, this research is opposed by cultivation theory. Cultivation theory suggests that the more time spent by the individual watching television, the more the viewer will come to view reality through ideologies imposed by the media (Gerbner et al, 2002). This is reinforced by social learning theory, which implies that learning is influenced by people and events presented in the media (Bandura, 1994), finding media to be a large scale influence on how people perceive society. False representation of mental illness reinforced through the media can encourage the audience to conform and accept stereotypes. This may result in the possibility of negative attitudes towards individuals with mental illnesses obtained during childhood persevering into adulthood. Stuart Hall’s Reception Theory finds the media to have a polysemic structure, the producers of the media encode a message for the audience to decode (Kitzinger, 2004), implying that the audience are in control. This is further developed by Hall’s (1973) Encoding and Decoding model which considers the media as a process whereby messages are sent and received with certain effects that alter how the audience perceives things. As a result, media messages can be interpreted differently by audiences and may not be understood in the way desired by producers (Hall, 1973). It can be argued that this process encourages maximum potential of audience involvement, as the media acts as a socialising force, in the case of Disney it allows the development of marketing off the characters’ personas to society. In support of this, Fiske examined the notion of semiotic negotiation and resistance; the audience has the ability to shape media meaning to the self. This means that the audience can subvert conformity, they are not a slave to the media, and therefore Disney films do not necessarily affect how an individual views mental illness (Fiske, 1987). In contrast, Lazarsfeld and Merton (1948) perceive the media to be a form of entertainment, which allows the audience to escape the hardship of reality and simultaneously integrates society. However, it must be considered that this is only a theoretical perspective, it is formed of hypothesise and not first-hand research. Challenges to this theory include the Marxist perspective, which was further developed by the Neo-Marxist perspective as the media was not far developed in Karl Marx’s lifetime. As we have seen earlier, it can be considered that Disney has a capitalistic nature and linguistic intentions may not be to harm the audience, but rather captivate them. The media, according to Baudrillard (1989), has created a new form of reality ‘hyper reality’ where an image is produced by the media that is more real to the individual than the item is initially supposed to represent. This theory is further supported by Giroux (2002) who classifies Disney films as “teaching machines” (p. 100), enabled through marketing and globalisation. Overall, the media should be used to teach awareness of mental illness and not reinforce negative stereotypes (Stuart, 2006). Media Coverage of Mental Illness It must be considered that the media is used as a form of entertainment. The Uses and Gratification Model finds that the audience is an active force, who use the media for their own pleasure (Fiske, 1987). The media and its producers do not have power over the audience, it merely provides the audience with entertainment and diversion from reality. This is challenged by the Frankfurt School, who find the audience to be passive to media effects. They produced the ‘hypodermic syringe’ model, which metaphorically analyses the audience as accepting an injection of information from a media source; the audience accepts the norms and values prescribed by the media. The model believes that there is a direct correlation between violent behaviour in the media and violent behaviour in reality, which could be applied to violent Disney villains (Haney, 2005). The Shift Media Survey of 2005 assessed the media coverage of mental health issues. The Shift Media Survey of 2005 conducted primary research, included the use of focus groups, interviews and using a range of media samples. It found only one example which concentrated on the negative stigma experienced by people with mental health problems, with the rest of the articles more focused on the issue of violence. This research can be applied to Disney movies, as villains are generally classed as being violent and acting deviant of social norms. The results of the focus group found that most individuals took the media at face value, highlighting the mass effect of the media and its ability to reinforce prejudices in society. This suggests that the negative stigma attached to mental illness by society is not based on any real knowledge, but on what society have been informed of via the mass media. However, the data of this research cannot be generalised to everyone due to its small specific sample, and correlational data does not imply causation. However, the problem with focus groups is that some participants may either hold back due to the lack of anonymity and confidentiality due to being in a group with other participants, or participants may attempt to answer the moderator’s questions with answers they presume the moderator wants to hear. Furthermore, the interpretation of focus group data may also vary between researchers. Though this research does no directly apply to Disney media production, it’s results can be assessed to understand whether the media has an impact on public opinion. Overall, the research finds that media generally portrays mental illness through a negative stereotype, used mainly to reinforce and sell stories associated with criminal or deviant behaviour. These negative stereotypes can also be used in children’s films to differentiate between good and evil characters, as shown by Robinson et al (2007) who discovers that a large percentage of older Disney characters are associated with these negative stereotypes surrounding mental illness. This is further researched by Sadler (2005) through the notion of cultural sanctioning, the media reinforces cultural ideals, which at the same time maintains viewership through familiarity. Beveridge (1996) focused on the portrayal of mental illness in four classic Disney films: Dumbo, Alice in Wonderland, Mary Poppins, and Beauty and the Beast. Beveridge examined that sane characters that reacted strongly to a situation were negatively labelled as being mad. This is demonstrated in Dumbo through Dumbo’s mother defending her son against bullying, she is judged to be mad after her outrage and is subsequently locked away from society, implying that mental illness should be kept from society. McKie (2003) further argues that the negative perception of madness in children’s films is providing children with false impressions of mental illness. This article may not be an academic source, but it is an example of mass media implying that children’s films have an effect on the perception of mental illness, nevertheless it is supported by Mind (2011). Research completed by Mind (2011) suggests that the media is failing to give mental health enough consideration, as demonstrated by 45% of the people questioned couldn’t recall seeing any reports about mental health in any media over the past twelve months. Only 33% of the participants could remember observing a newspaper report associated with mental illness, 25% could recall seeing a documentary broadcast directly based on the subject, and 22% viewed mental illness being addressed in television dramas. This data may not directly apply to Disney films, but it demonstrates how the media has a large scale impact on the public’s recall and opinions. It can be criticised that these statistics are based on the memory and recall ability of participants, therefore the results may not be entirely accurate as some individuals may have forgotten about seeing some mental illness related reports, and this can affect the reliability of the data. Madness is the implication of an individual being in an idiosyncratic state, where people do not immediately understand or make sense of an individual’s behaviour (Pilgrim, 2009). This can result in the implication of alienation, as demonstrated by Madhouses in Victorian society, which fuelled negative stereotypes of mental illness in society. Negative stereotypes may put people at risk of social exclusion and can lead to people feeling stigmatised by society. As a consequence, the individual may develop what Goffman (1963) calls a ‘spoiled identity’ and demonstrate further abnormal behaviour in society. Goffman (1961) primarily writes about patients being institutionalised and the implications of psychiatric hospitals, but the writing can be applied to the treatment of Disney characters. For example, it can be related to a scene in Beauty and the Beast, where Maurice is locked away from society by the townsfolk as society doesn’t accept his behaviour or opinions, this will be analysed further in the discussion section of the dissertation. Lawson and Fouts (2004) found 85% of 34 animated films produced by Disney between 1937 and 2001, contained references to characters with mental illness. There was an average of 4.6 references per film alienating characters, furthermore 21% of principal characters were being judged to have a mental illness. The research concludes that the use of terms such as “crazy” “mad” and “nut” allows a segregation of characters, separating them from what is classed as normal. This can provoke alienation and associate fear with characters deemed as being mentally ill. However, this study does not consider the appearance of characters, which could further affect the audiences’ perception of a character. This research may be dated due to more Disney films being released, it displays how frequently Disney refers to mental illness. It must also be considered that there is a time limit in the media when divulging a story, therefore the use of stereotypes to portray characters allows easier association with the viewers’ daily life (Signorielli, 2001). In contrast to the research discussed, Booker (2010) finds that Disney encourages individualism that people do not need to change who they are to be accepted in society. Characters appear to suffer negative treatment by society until they learn to accept who they are. For example, this is shown through Dumbo learning to embrace his differences and proving himself to society. This could suggest that mental illness is related to moral failures. Medicine has adapted Disney characters to mental disorders, implying that science finds the Disney characters to be associated with mental illness. The psychological and personality disorders named after Disney characters, include: Peter Pan Syndrome, Sleeping Beauty Syndrome, Rapunzel Syndrome, and Cinderella Complex. These conditions imply that Disney characters have had a direct impact on mental illness. Peter Pan Syndrome, according to Kiley (1983), demonstrates the alienation of men failing to confront the emotional realities of society through their narcissistic nature, women are found accountable of accepting immature behaviour. The psychological condition finds that some members of society, like the fictional character, remain in a childish state, failing to accept appropriate adult roles in society. The work primarily focuses on men and shows how women mature faster. This is similar to the Disney film which shows Wendy to grow up and teach the other children how to behave. Sleeping Beauty Syndrome is a disorder that involves people uncontrollably sleeping for days at a time. Rapunzel Syndrome often affects those with mental illness, as the Rapunzel character is implied to be suffering severe depression, it involves people eating their hair (Singla et al, 1999). Cinderella Complex finds women conform and lower expectations in order to fit into society, young girls have no aspirations, conforming to a stereotypical housewife lifestyle (Kerr, 1985). The research may be dated, but it supports the thesis of Disney affecting society’s perception of mental illness. The medical model defines mental illness through classification schemes. There are several weaknesses of this model including the validity and reliability of diagnostic criteria (Sadler, 2005). The model ignores individual differences and classifies people into categories in which they might not belong. In opposition to this, Szasz (1961) puts forward the Myth of Mental Illness which contemplates whether mental illness actually exists, due to the overuse of the notion associated with ‘problems of living’. However, the existence of mental illness has been around for a long time and in a variety of cultures, implying that mental illness is not socially constructed, but that society can manipulate how mental illness is perceived. Szasz (1961) further examines that the label of mental illness allows the power of social control to discipline and manage those who won’t conform. This includes state legislation, such as the Mental Health Act 2007 (CPS, 2013). Conclusions Whilst conducting the literature review, it has been understood that Walt Disney himself was associated with mental illness. His mother died when he was young, coincidently he was obsessed with the concept of “family”. This could have impacted the structure of Disney productions, as most Disney movies begin with the mother dying or already dead. However, this may not account for movies created after his death that contain references to mental illness, unless Disney are intending to stick to storylines that Walt Disney would find acceptable. Not all texts address mental illness in association to Disney films, as shown by Deconstructing Disney (Byrne and McQuillan, 2000) and Mouse Morality: The Rhetoric of Disney Animated Film (Ward, 2002). These books cover themes such as sexuality, race and gender, but fail to consider the implications Disney films have on mental health. The disregard implies that it is acceptable for Disney to stigmatise those who are mentally ill. The research discussed suggests that there has been little social change in regards to how the media portrays mental illness, there is a negative stereotype and this is presented in the selection of Disney films studied. However, I feel that there is only a limited number of studies and this is an area that needs to be examined in more detail. Each source analysed highlights a negative connotation attached to mental illness which has produced a stigma in society, reinforced by the media discourse. Wahl et al (2003) reach a concerning conclusion that future generations will be continually exposed to negative images and views of mental illness unless children are introduced to “destigmatising” programs. Instead of labelling someone as insane and producing a negative stigma, the media and society should focus on the specific problems and behaviours of the individual, fixing the negative stereotypes attached to mental illness (Jorm, 2000). While none of the above theories offer a solution to the negative association of mental illness, they do demonstrate awareness. There is no perspective that can be absolute when analysing social actions. Methodology This section will reflect how evidence will be collected to support the arguments of my research question. As discussed in the Literature Review, the majority of the previous work in this area has concentrated on stereotypes and the audience. In order to find out whether the public’s perception of mental health is affected by Disney films, I need to establish initially how the public perceive mental health in order to reach a context specific definition of mental illness. The NHS is the largest publicly funded health service in existence, therefore I feel that they have a high enough influence to be regarded in this research in order to gain an understanding of mental health. I will use a publically available NHS document, in order to gain an understanding of what the British health system classifies mental illness as: “Mental well-being crucially affects healthy functioning of individuals, families, communities and societies. It fundamentally affects behaviour, social cohesion, social inclusion and economic prosperity. Underlying social, economic and environmental dimensions that can affect a person’s well-being relate to factors such as employment status, education, health and household/neighbourhood characteristics.” (NHS Confederation, 2012). To find out whether the public’s perception of mental health is affected by Disney films, I will conduct a content analysis to identify what terms related to mental illness are used in Disney films, I will then consider the contextual intentions of Disney. I will use theory to further analyse my results to gain a well-rounded view of the subject. I will also examine behavioural responses to Disney through the use of secondary research such as The Shift Media Survey of 2005 to examine my data. There is a mixed methods approach to the research, it is not specifically focused on quantitative or qualitative methods, allowing a continuum of the two. Selecting the Sample In order to examine whether Disney’s portrayal of mental illness affects how society perceives mental illness, I have decided to base my research sample on the most popular Disney feature length films. I examined the success rate of films from each of them based on their profit, which combined with the availability of films, the following films were included: Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937), Pinocchio (1940), Dumbo (1941), Cinderella (1950), Alice in Wonderland (1951), Peter Pan (1953), The Jungle Book (1967), Beauty and the Beast (1991), Aladdin (1992), The Lion King (1994), Toy Story (1995), Hercules (1997), Tarzan (1999), The Emperor’s New Groove (2000), The Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl (2003), Alice in Wonderland (2010). In total my sample consisted of sixteen Walt Disney Pictures, with only two films not being of an animated nature. Procedure To begin with, I viewed my selected films and took general notes which allowed me to create a basic coding scheme. I then re-watched the films to ensure reliability, I also re-recorded the occurrence of the selected terms associated with mental illness across a range of Disney films. The coding scheme included references to behaviour and the physical description of characters, such as “mad” “insane” and “strange”. I will also note the contextual circumstances of which the references were made. The coding scheme will initially exclude character names, but these will be noted for later consideration, e.g. The Mad Hatter. The context of code will be considered before recording to make sure the term is being used an appropriate sense. Once the coding was complete I noted the main themes that had emerged in order to aid my future analysis. Visual representations are also important to consider when studying mental illness in the media to examine how characters conform to stereotypes, as I found through my literature review that there was a lack of regard to character appearances. Analysis A content analysis describes what is there, but does not provide underlying reasoning, so I will be combining my research with a theoretical analysis. This will consist of selecting and discussing theoretical material and a detailed comparison of applicable theories. This will aid us in understanding whether certain theories help us to comprehend particular patterns of social behaviour. This approach will allow me to assess contrasting sources, allowing a more critical attitude. However, a content analysis describes what is there, but does not provide underlying reasoning. Data collected from a variety of sources, such as

HSA 510 SU Convergence of Health Care Financing & Economic Trends & Forces PPT

HSA 510 SU Convergence of Health Care Financing & Economic Trends & Forces PPT.

The Convergence of Health Care Financing and Economic Trends and ForcesInstructionsNote: Use the textbook, course readings, Strayer online library, and other reputable online sources to complete this assignment.Prepare a 15–20-slide PowerPoint presentation with detailed scholarly speaker notes in which you: Compare the three current health care financing and funding models (i.e., employee based, government-based, and individual-based) used with the health care delivery system of the United States.Compare and contrast key economic goals of public and private health insurance plans. Evaluate the success potential of key economic goals in terms of populations covered, services included, financing arrangements, reimbursement strategies, and economic competition policies.Analyze the key effects of labor market, insurance market, and competitive market factors on health care delivery requirements at your current or previous organization of employment.Determine what changes are occurring in the economy or concerning labor and regulatory factors that must be considered in the future.Suggest the key national trends that you believe currently affect competition and pricing initiatives. Justify your response.Determine the main quality indicators that typically affect health insurance pricing at the local level. Justify your response.Use a minimum of six reputable references sources including three sources from peer-reviewed journals.This course requires the use of Strayer Writing Standards. For assistance and information, please refer to the Strayer Writing Standards link in the left-hand menu of your course.The specific course learning outcome associated with this assignment is:Assess current U.S. health care financing and funding models, including economic goals, market impacts, economic and regulatory changes, and national trends.
HSA 510 SU Convergence of Health Care Financing & Economic Trends & Forces PPT

Project Marketing

Project Marketing.

Marketing Mix – PlacePlace The place should describe how you will distribute your product to your customers. If your product is a tangible good, what will be your distribution channel strategies(i.e., Direct, on-line sales; find a wholesaler or agent to contract with retailer, etc.) and describe why you think that channel choice (or choices) is the best for your product (i.e., talk about your competition, limited resources, production capabilities, etc.) If you are a retail business, the place should describe where you are opening your retail location and why you chose that location (i.e., highest concentration of your target market; new retail strip mall development with a good anchor store, etc.). Describe your retail location (i.e., hours of operation, layout, staffing/training of personnel) and any other features of the business establishment. If you are services business, the place will have less importance because it will most likely be a direct distribution. However, if you are planning to subcontract, or be a subcontractor yourself, talk about the potential partnerships you could develop to help bring in more sales or clients.must be in apa formatAatteched is a company that i made up
Project Marketing

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