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Florida International University Age Groups Developmental Milestones Activiry

Florida International University Age Groups Developmental Milestones Activiry.

Although children develop at different rates, the CDC (Links to an external site.) has published a list of milestones that children typically reach by certain ages. Review the CDC guidelines. (Links to an external site.)Afterwards, use this milestone checklistActions to create an activity for each age group that would appropriately foster social and emotional development. For example, read the suggestions under the section for 4 month olds. Then, think about what you can do at home or in school to foster appropriate social and emotional development in 6 month olds? Do this same thing for all of the ages groups (6 months – 5 years old).
Florida International University Age Groups Developmental Milestones Activiry

Do violent movies cause people to be violent? Violence is a very delicate topic and it raises the attention of producers, because they are affecting lives around the world, the movie producers see this as an opportunity to bump up their ratings by making violence more popular. Aiming to keep profits high, they target young adults through advertisements and keeping them informed with previews about what movies are coming up next. Research has shown different aspects of violence in creation by media sources, news, publishers, and even books written specifically based on the effects of violent behavior in movies affecting people’s lives. There are diverse ways in which to consider the rating for violent movies, and different laws are passed in every country regarding the age that people are able to watch a specific violent movie. At a young age children are more vulnerable to practicing what is filmed on the big screen. Arguments are seen in the public eye, as a way to stop the creation of violent movies and create or recreate stories which are suitable for the public eye to view without endangering their way of living in a normal society. This subject also answers to what is the cause for gun violence, drugs, gangs, attempted murders, and a large variety of vicious attacks in society. It is known that the mind acts as a triggering device which takes actions based on what images or information it has received. Negative information or images are processed through and give out a harmful response to the collector or to the people around him. Harmful, downbeat or depressing movies can change a characters view on things or can change their personality. It might bring back depressing moments in someone’s living or make them feel insecure about things in life, making them choose wrong options, doing drugs, mistreating their family, breaking laws etc. These are some examples of how people react to a violent movie, by identifying the argument based on reality. FACTS On Children and Teenagers. According to research that is dated not only in present, but also in long passed years, violent movies tend to affect mostly children and young adults. Watching violent movies does not only affect the youngsters’ behavior and tendencies to violence, but it also causes lower grades in classrooms. In the article Adolescents who watch violent films get poorer grades in the classroom written by Richard Gray Science Correspondent for Telegraph.co.uk, Dr. James Sargent, a pediatrician at Dartmouth Medical Center and the scientist who led an investigation concerning effects of violent movies on children, says: “These are young adolescents who really should not be watching this type of adult material. Watching a lot of violent material seems to crank up their rebelliousness.” Violent movies disrupt sleep and leave children not so eager for hard work and concentration in classrooms, which automatically leads to a considerable drop in grades and accumulation and assimilation of knowledge. The same research also proved that students with excellent scholastic results dropped from 50% to 25% in grades. Other studies, though few of them, have compared various types of TV violence in United States, Japan, and Spain. Japanese television illustrates fewer physical of fatal injuries that the U.S. or Spain. Another study has shown that increasing violent expression of teenagers is directly linked to the violence on TV and movies in other countries. A child who is exposed to raging shows at ages 6 or 8 predicted aggression 2 years later among many boys and girls in the United States, Finland, Poland, and Israel. A new question rises: Why and how do children have access to headstrong programs? Who should be considered guilty for it? On Psychcentral.com, in an article entitled Movie Violence Can Overwhelm Children, by Rick Nauert PHD Senior News Editor, Keilah Worth, the leader of the study says: In Britain, no adolescent would be admitted to these movies unless they were 18. The R rating in this country is clearly not preventing our young people from seeing them . . . We know so much about the harmful effects of exposure to violent media content, but how much exposure children actually get has been largely ignored. Now, we’re learning more about the large numbers of kids seeing this material and who they are . . . We should re-think the current movie rating system, which has been in place for 40 years, and was designed when kids could only see movies in theaters. Ratings need to be more prominent on all movies, whether they are seen in theaters or purchased in the store, and we need clearer messages to parents. Pediatricians and child advocates should instruct parents to strictly abide by the movie-age guidelines and to closely monitor movie viewing. Is the rating system responsible for it? Is it the government’s fault for not setting stricter laws? Or the parents are guilty for a not so strict supervision of their children? This question is yet to be answered. On one hand, the government is responsible for what is aired on TV and for the ratings in theaters. Movies rated-R, such as Scary Movie, which show a high number of extremely violent acts, should not be at hand for young adolescents. Although it is contraindicated for a person aged between 10 – 14 years to be able to attend such shows, according to Extension.iastate.edu, an average of 12.5 percent of an estimated 22 million children age 10-14 watched at least one movie that is rated-R, but has a higher level of brutality. Scary Movie was watched by an estimated 10 million children (48% of 10-14 year olds). As a fact, cartoons are 5 times more violent than most TV programs. On the other hand, the technology today is so easy to use, anyone can do it. Illegal downloads take place everywhere, so it would be easy for a youngster to get anything digital. Everything is as close as the push of a button. Although punishments for piracy are severe, children are irresponsible and easily impressed by others who do it. Internet downloads fall under the “jurisdiction” of the parents. Strict supervision of the child when using a computer is absolutely necessary, until the child reaches a proper age for him to know what is good and what is wrong for himself. Culture, religion, and the way a child was educated in the family are also important, but in a lesser manner. Why do children do it? Why are they so desperate about watching violent movies? Some think that this is a ritual, some king of passage from a child to a teenager or from a teenager to an adult. Others believe that it is pure rebellion against parents and society, which is caused by violent movies (this explanation tends to be circular so some doubt its validity). In any case, what we know is that we must not encourage and we should prevent (if possible) children from watching high-ranked in violence movies, letting them lead a normal childhood and develop themselves as beautiful, well-rounded individuals. There are several problems that have draw questions upon themselves. For example: at what age should be children allowed to start watching violent movies, rating brutality in movies, which movie would be suitable for what age or the existence of “good violence”,. The term “good violence” appeared in 1960’s, when TV channels broadcasted racist violence against African Americans. Some people believe that this is not violence, because it was released under the title of “news”. Others believe that no matter why is out there, is still violence. The topic is still argued by the two sides, and it would probably be debated a long time from now. But there has been reached a compromise concerning film ratings: YMaterial – is suitable for all audiences, no violence; Y7Material – is suitable for older children, may contain fantasy violence; GMaterial – is suitable for general audiences, very little or no violence; PG – Parental guidance is suggested, may contain some violence; 14 – Parents are strongly cautioned, could contain moderate amounts of violence; MA – Mature audiences only, contains material not suitable for children; In addition to this rating system, all of the television shows have sub-ratings. The sub-ratings include “V” for violence, “S” for sexual situations, “L” for explicit language, “FV” for fantasy violence, and “D” for suggestive dialog. These ratings help parents limit what their children watch. (suite101.com pg2) How parents can help. There are many and different ways which a parent can use to get to his child, and control, in one way or another, what the kid is watching without letting it seem like a total control, which most teens and young children hate. Some examples would be: media-free bedrooms for the children, common TV areas and family TV time, lack of free and unsupervised Internet access, suggesting a change of channel when the scenes become violent, discussions concerning the subject et cetera. A parent can also use Internet to research movies and their ratings so they will know what to let their young ones watch and what not. A different approach may be needed for different persons but the key is perseverance. As a parent, you should not give up when your daughter or your son finds new ways to watch whatever they want without you knowing. There is always a solution for these problems. On adults. Any differences based on sex or race? The effects that violent movies have on adults are not as researched as those on children and teenagers, probably because as the time passes by and a person already formed his or hers personality, it is hard to change that personality through an exposition of violent moving pictures. Recent studies have shown that the impact on adults does not differ from one person to another based on race or cultural provenience, proving equality and offering a good starting point for any race, but also removing myths that said some cultures are more violent than others. On the other hand, there is, or better said, was a difference between genres. Since women began being treated as being equal to men, aggressive behavior had increased in female society. In recent years, violent female characters appeared in movies, and it became more acceptable for a women to act freely and violent. However, compulsion will increase in both genres as long as brutal models are shown and promoted by the media. Even though this kind of movies affect adults too, it is hard to deny one’s access to them. For example, a patient in a mental institute is suing United States because of the desire to view movies that contain violence, suicide and nudity. The patient, Larry Filliung, has strangled his girlfriend and was found not guilty by reason of insanity is requesting a change in rules, because the institute controls which movies can be viewed in groups and which not. Filliung’s lawyer, Mark J. Heyrman, says that people like his client will one day be released and that “sheltering him from controversial topics does not help him reintegrate into society.” CRITICS AND CRITICISM Movie critics have a compared a multitude of movies to real life incidents, or better said tragic events. By drawing parallels between those two, critics have reached the conclusion that many terrorist attacks have their roots and draw their ideas from violent American movies, such as Independence Day or The Siege.
Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Title: Radiographic quality of root canal treatments performed by undergraduate dental students Authors: Masoud Saatchi1, Golshan Mohammadi2, Armita Vali Sichani3 Dental Research Center, Department of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Isfahan, Iran. School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Isfahan, Iran. Department of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Isfahan, Iran. Summary: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the quality of root canal treatments performed by students of Isfahan University School of Dentistry between 2013 and 2015. Periapical radiographs from 784 root treated teeth including 1674 root canals were randomly selected and evaluated in terms of quality of root fillings (length and density of root fillings) and procedural errors (ledge, foramen perforation, root perforation, and fractured instrument). Descriptive statistics and chi square test were used for evaluation of the data (P<0.05). The results showed that frequency of root canals with acceptable filling was 54.1%. Over filling was found in 11% of root canals, under filling in 8.3% and inadequate density in 34.6%. No significant difference was found between Frequency of acceptable root fillings in maxilla and mandible (P=0.072). More acceptable fillings was found in canals of premolars (61.3%) than molars (51.3%) (P=0.001). Frequency of procedural errors was 18.6%, which included 12.5% ledge, 2% foramen perforation, 2.4% root perforation and 2% fractured instrument. Procedural errors were more frequent in canals of molars (22.5%) than anterior teeth (12.3%) (P=0.003) and premolars (9.5%) (P<0.001). According to the study's findings it can be concluded that educational programs in Endodontics needs to be revised in order to improve quality of root canal treatments. Key words: dentistry, procedural errors, radiography, root canal treatment, undergraduate student Introduction Root canal treatment (RCT) is an important part of comprehensive dental care (1). High prevalence of apical periodontitis in endodontically treated teeth, as reported by epidemiological studies (2-4), reveals that outcome of RCT in many populations is poor, which as a health care problem can elicit medical, economical and ethical consequences (1). Outcome of primary endodontic treatment is reported to be associated with many factors (5). One of these factors is technical quality of RCT that is usually evaluated using radiographic method (3, 6). It’s shown that the length of the root filling, relative to the radiographic apex, significantly affects the treatment outcomes (7). In addition, root fillings with an adequate density are strongly associated with a lower risk of periapical disease (8). Also, procedural errors such as ledges, zip and elbow formations, fractured instruments and perforations may accrue during the RCT. These errors may result in compromised cleaning and shaping, leakage through root filling or infection of the periradicular tissues and can jeopardize the endodontic outcomes (9). Recent studies accomplished in various population groups, show that undesirable quality is a common finding in RCTs performed by dentists and undergraduate dental students (Table 1). Therefore a worldwide enhancement in the quality of RCT is required (2) that could be achieved by means of education. Studies concerning quality of RCT are needed in order to appraise the efficiency of dental training, highlight the weaknesses and help with the planning for dental education. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate quality of root canal treatments (quality of root fillings and incidence of procedural errors) performed by students of Isfahan University School of Dentistry between 2013 and 2015. Materials and methods In this cross-sectional study, a random sample of 1200 cases were selected from the records of patients who had received RCT by undergraduate students at School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, during 2013-2015. Records with missing or unreadable radiographs due to improper imaging or processing technique, or those with radiographs that didn’t show the entire length of the root canals and 2mm of periapical area, were excluded. Finally, 784 treated teeth including 1674 canals were evaluated. The RCTs were accomplished by fourth, fifth and sixth year undergraduate dental students according to the fallowing protocol: after taking medical and dental history and diagnosis of palp and periapical disease, local anesthesia was injected and the access cavity was prepared. An aseptic technique with rubber dam isolation was applied and working length was determined using periapical radiographs. Canals were prepared using step back technique by means of stainless steel k-files of 0.02 taper (Dentsply, Tusla, USA or Mani, Tochigi, Japan). In some case Gates-Glidden drills (Mani, Tochigi, Japan) were used for preparation of coronal third of the canals. Canals were irrigated by 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. Obturations were carried out using lateral compaction technique with gutta-percha cones (Ariadent, Tehran, Iran) and a ZOE based sealer. Teeth were temporarily restored and referred for permanent restorations. For root canal treatment of each tooth, 4 periapical radiographs (preoperative, working length determination, master cone and postoperative) were taken by the bisecting-angle method using De Gotzen dental radiography machine (De Gotzen, Roma, Italy) and E speed size 2 intraoral films (Primax, Berlin, Germany). Developing solutions (Champion, Tehran, Iran) were used to possess the radiographs in a time-temperature technique. Endodontist academic stuff supervised all the treatment steps. Average academic stuff: student ratio has been 1: 6 at the time of the study. In order to evaluate the quality of each RCT, at least 3 radiographs including preoperative, working length determination and postoperative, were examined. Evaluations were made in a dark room under even illumination and 3x magnification. Radiographs were mounted in a cardboard slit to exclude the extraneous lights. Measurements were done using a transparent ruler of 0.5 mm accuracy. In cases that the radiographic images were taken with an alternation in horizontal angulation, it was supposed that they were exposed with a mesial angulation. Two individual investigators (GM and AV) securitized the radiographs of each record. The results were compared and in case of disagreement a third investigator (MS) was asked to examine the records, and a final agreement was achieved. Before the study, investigators were calibrated and Inter-examination agreement was determined by evaluating 30 radiographic records that weren’t included in the study. For establishing intra-examiner agreement, each investigator re-evaluated the same radiographs after 2 weeks. Evaluation of quality of RCTs was accomplished by examining radiographic quality of root fillings and detection of the procedural errors. Root canal was considered as the unit of evaluation. Quality of root filling in each canal was categorized as acceptable and unacceptable based on the following criteria: Acceptable root filling: root filling ending 0-2 mm from radiographic apex without any visible voids in the filling mass or between the filling mass and root canal walls. Unacceptable root filling: Overfilling: root filling that extends beyond radiographic apex. Undrefilling: root filling ending shorter than 2 mm from the radiographic apex. Inadequate density: root fillings with visible voids in the filling mass or between the filling mass and root canal walls. The criteria for the detection of procedural errors in this study, were as follows: A ledge was identified if the root filling in the final radiograph did not follow the curvature of the main canal path in working-length radiograph. Root perforations (including furcation perforation, strip perforation and lateral perforations of the root) were detected when extrusion of the filling materials was identified in any area of the root except the apical foramen. Foramen perforation was diagnosed when the apical termination of the filled canal appeared as an elliptical shape transported to the outer wall. Fractured instruments: was detected by observing a part of instrument in the root canal or in periarticular area in the final radiograph. Statistical analysis Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 21 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA). Descriptive analyzes were used for expressing frequency of radiographic criteria of quality of RCTs. Pearson’s chi square test was used to compare the results among tooth types and locations and also academic year of students. P-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Inter-examiner and intra-examiner agreement was evaluated using Cohen's kappa (k) values. Results From 1200 collected records of endodontically treated teeth, 416 cases (34.7%) were excluded and 734 teeth including 1674 root canals were evaluated. 52% of treated root canals were in maxilla and 48% were in mandible. Canals of molar teeth comprised the most frequent treated root canals (68%), followed by canals of premolars (22%) and anterior teeth (10%) . 6th year students performed RCTs on 49% of root canals. 5th and 4th year students treated 32% and 19% of root canals, respectively. Anterior teeth and premolars constituted the teeth treated by 4th year students while 5th and 6th year students treated premolars and molars (Table 2). Technical quality of root fillings According to length and density, acceptable fillings was found in 54.1% of root canals. From treated maxillary root canals, 56.2% and from treated mandibular root canals, 51.9% were acceptable. Rate of acceptable root fillings wasn’t significantly different between the two arches (P=0.072). Among tooth types, canals of molar teeth exhibited lower ratio of acceptable root fillings (51.3%) compared to premolars (61.3%) (P=0.001). Rate of acceptable fillings in anterior teeth (57.7%) wasn’t significantly different from molars (P=0.430) and premolars (P=0.128). Inadequate density, overfilling and underfilling was found in 34.6%, 11% and 8.3% of root canals, respectively. In both arches inadequate density consisted the most common cause for unacceptable fillings. In maxilla overfilling consisted the second frequent cause for unacceptable fillings, followed by under filling, However, underfilling was the second common cause of unacceptable fillings in mandible and overfilling was the least frequent cause (Table 3). From the root canals treated by 5th year students 46.1% had acceptable fillings which is significantly lower than canals treated by 4th year students (55.6%) (P=0.007) and 6th year students (58.8%) (P<0.001). No significant difference was found between frequency of acceptable fillings performed by 4th and 6th year students (P=0.339) (Table 4). Procedural errors: Procedural errors were found in 18.6% of root treated canals. Incidence of procedural errors between 5th year students (22.2%) and 6th year students (19%) wasn’t significantly different (P=0.149). Students of 4th year had created less procedural errors (11.6%) than students of 5th year (P<0.001) and students of 6th year (P=0.003). Ledge was the most frequent procedural error and was identified in 12.5% of root treated canals. Foramen perforation, root perforation and fractured instrument were detected in 2%, 2.4% and 2% of canals, respectively (Table 5). Incidence of procedural errors wasn’t significantly different in canals of anterior teeth (12.3%) and premolars (9.5%) (P=0.341). These errors were significantly more frequent in canals of molars (22.5%) than anterior teeth (P=0.003) and premolars (P<0.001). The k-value for inter-examiner agreement was 0.87 for detection of acceptable root fillings and 0.81 for identification of RCTs without procedural errors. For intra-examiner agreement k-values for detection of acceptable root fillings and identification of RCTs without procedural errors were 0.93 and 0.87 for first and 0.84 and 0.81 for second investigator, respectively. Discussion This study was designed to evaluate the quality of root canal treatments accomplished by undergraduate dental students at School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Periapical radiographs taken during the RCT procedures were used for this investigation. Root fillings were considered acceptable if terminated 0-2 mm from radiographic apex and had no voids. This criteria is extensively documented to be associated with improved periapical health (4, 5, 8). In order to limit inter-examiner and intra-examiner erraticism, the radiographic criteria were strictly defined and two investigators were calibrated before the study. It’s reported that great variations could exist between investigators regarding assessment of technical quality of RCT (22). In the present study, the k-value of 0.87 for detection of acceptable root fillings and 0.81 for identification of RCTs without procedural errors, exhibit good agreement between the investigators. Also values for intra-examiner agreement were found to be greater than 0.81, which shows reliability of each investigator. Acceptable root fillings according to length and density was found in 54.1% of investigated canals. Comparing this result to the findings of others is rather difficult due to differences in level of practitioners (undergraduate students, general practitioners, and endodontists), techniques and materials used for preparation and obturation of the canal and also evaluation criteria used to assess the quality of RCT. For example, in the study of Bierenkrant et al. (18) who investigated root canals treated by endodontists, 91% of root fillings had adequate quality which is greater than the present study and other studies investigating quality of RCT performed by undergraduate students and general practitioners (Table 2). Among the studies concerning quality of RCT performed by undergraduate students, frequency of acceptable fillings in the current study is comparable to the findings of Eleftheriadis
ENG 200 University of Phoenix Finding Information Easier & Efficient Discussion.

I’m working on a english discussion question and need an explanation to help me learn.

This is 2 student statement class discussion, i just need a response on facts and opionions,agree or disagree. I need 50words for each post.1)I think the most valuable thing I learned this week is the University Library as a whole. While the library has many features and tools to help and make finding information easier and more efficient, I think the best feature is the library itself. The library has access to an abundance of information from many viewpoints and across many platforms. I use the search feature a lot to find more specific information about what I’m researching. The use of the search feature along with filters can narrow down a search to almost exactly the information you want to find. I would tell others that the best tips for good research is to look at multiple different sources and viewpoints to find a contrast of information that can be helpful in drawing a proper conclusion and allows for a more thought out research paper and argument.2)The most valuable thing I learned about the University Library this week is that it will help me with the APA formatting that I’ve struggled with for the past couple of classes. I honestly had no idea that the library contained so many helpful resources because I didn’t explore it in depth until recently. So the tools and features I found that will improve my skills are definitely the Reference and Citation Generator in the CWE, Research Database, and the How Do I sections of the library. It’s like a google for students, while I’ve been using Google! I guess a research strategy and tip I would share with others would definitely be to explore the resources that are available within the University Library, and use the search feature, as well as the FAQ section and How Do I database to figure out anything that you may be stuck on or confused about. I searched for APA formatting and it brought up multiple different articles, publications, and FAQ related content that guided me to the answers I needed. The Center for Writing Excellence helps a great deal with writing and formatting assignments correctly.
ENG 200 University of Phoenix Finding Information Easier & Efficient Discussion

A Forensic Approach to Perform Android Device Analysis

A Forensic Approach to perform Android Device Analysis Abstract— Android smartphones are providing a lot of interesting shreds of evidence to perform forensic investigation. Every installed application has log files which provide some valuable information. Android device can provide potential shreds of evidence which include internal and external storage data, shared preferences, internet artifacts, user data, application data and hidden directories etc [1]. To perform a complete forensic investigation to an android device, the tools available for mobile forensics are highly cost effective. And there are some open source tools which are having limitations i.e., we can read the data in the mobile but we can’t extract the data and to proceed for forensic investigation. The forensic investigators will rely on commercial tools which will analyze the entire device and generate the report which is used for further forensic analysis. In order to perform complete analysis of an android device, a forensic approach is proposed which completely based on a command line tool provided by android developers apart from existing commercial forensic tools in the market. This paper presents a forensic analysis using ADB (Android Debug Bridge) tool, which analyses both volatile, non-volatile and network data of an android device. In general, android stores the data in .sqlite files format. In this paper, a tool DB Browser is used for analysing the .sqlite files of an android device and for capturing the network packets to and from a device, the network tools TcpDump and Wireshark is used. The analysis results also present the logs of WhatsApp and facebook applications, which are potential evidences to identify the root cause of the crime. Keywords— mobile, android, forensics, ADB, application, non-volatile, volatile, network, analysis. I. Introduction The Androidoperating system is an Open source, Linux-based and Fully-open mobile platform [3]. It is designed for devices like smartphones, tablets etc. Android was initially unveiled in 2007 and the first commercial Android device was launched on September 2008 by GOOGLE [3]. Later on, Google developed Android TV in support of televisions, Android Auto designed for cars and Wear OS on behalf of wrist watches. Each of them is having their own user interface. As the Android OS is an open source, the code developers are allowed to play with the code as per their needs. Presently Android has the largest community of Application Developers writing and developing a number of applications to aid the functionality of the device. Google introduced different versions of Android and named with desserts such as Cupcake, Donut, Eclair, Froyo, Gingerbread, Honeycomb, Ice Cream Sandwich, Jelly Bean, KitKat, Lollipop, Marshmallow, Noughat, Oreo, and the latest Android version is Pie. [4] The Android platform is mostly composed by using SDK (Software Development Kit). The SDK is a set of tools provided by Google that provides advanced background for creating Android compatible applications. Android applications are written in Java programming language using Application Programming Interface (API). To make an android application a Java source code is developed, compiled and formatted into a bytecode. The renewed code is executed in a virtual machine called Dalvik-VM [5]. Dalvik was designed by Dan Bornstein, which is integrated in the software stack that builds up the Android platform. Dalvik VM is an open source that executes the files in .dex format. The bytecode is translated to Dalvik bytecode and stored in .dex (Dalvik executable) or .odex (optimized Dalvik executable) files with respective bytecode conversions. The dxtool will convert the multiple class files into a .dex format [6]. The Dalvik executables may be customized again when installing onto a mobile device. Dalvik was designed in a way that it permits a device to run multiple instances of the VM efficiently. Dalvik VM was no longer at runtime in newer Android versions because every aspect of Android OS has been changed moreover Dalvik virtually remains same since day one and considered to be slower when compared to renovated versions of Android. So Dalvik was replaced by ART (Android Run Time). ART translates the application’s bytecode into native instructions that are later executed by the device’s runtime environment. Because of native execution, it uses less CPU usage which results in less battery drain. ART is the fastest runtime than Dalvik VM because ART does ahead-of-compilation which converts Android apk to .odex to improve Application performance [7]. ANDROID SOFTWARE STACK: The Android software stack comprising applications, an operating system, run-time environment, middleware, services, and libraries. Each layer and the corresponding elements within each layer are integrated to provide the optimal application development and execution environment for mobile devices. Figure-1: The components of Android Operating System [8] 1) LINUX KERNAL:- Linux is an open source platform which provides core features like security, process management, memory management, network stack and driver model. So Linux is used to create Android Operating System. Linux kernel exists at the root of the android architecture . 2) LIBRARIES:- The Android framework was developed various C/C core libraries with many open source tools, which is running on the top of the kernel. a) The surface manager was responsible for rendering windows, surfaces of various apps on the screen. b) The media framework is responsible for media codecs i.e., audio and video. c) The Sqlite is used to store database which leaves memory footprints and task execution. d) The Webkit Library is responsible for web browsing support. e) The OGL (open graphics library) and SGL (scalable graphics library) are responsible for rendering the graphic libraries for 2D

Classical Theories And Crime Prevention Criminology Essay

professional essay writers Crime is one of the greatest challenges the world is experiencing today. Crime rates have continually shot up at the same time taking new dimensions. People faced by the challenges of accomplishing their responsibilities under various economies, environmental situations and mental psychology often end up in committing crime. The society in response to this has stipulated several lawful mechanisms to arrest the situation, punishment being the utmost resolved means. Punishing the criminals without identifying the root cause of the crime does not necessary solve the vice, more approach is directed towards establishment of the ‘why’ question the individual ended in committing crime. Societies have therefore formulated various criminological theories intended to gauge crime and criminals in passing out sound judgments. Each theory is applied in accordance to its relevance to a particular case since different criminological theories base their arguments on a different societal set up and varied environmental/social conditions. This paper examines the application of classical choice theories in crime prevention. Introduction Classical choice theory dates back the 18th century and probably forms the bases of other theories too. This school of thought find it context by basing an argument that people are at liberty in decision making and therefore will behave in a manner that best suits their desires (Ambroise, 2006). The theory attributes that crime can be curbed to greater extent if there is a mobilization in societies to avert from getting influenced by their desires and pleasures in taking an action course. Crime can be contained by ensuring that punishment outweighs the pleasures derived from the crime committed (Siegel, 2008). This concept therefore, is a framework that tries to understand the behavior of people, the reasons that drives them in committing crime and various approaches to prevent a person in making choices that leads to crime. This theory was first developed in the 18th century by European philosophers who were criticizing the corrupt and authoritative arbitrary nature of their legal system. The ideas about people and the criminal behavior in determining crime came up when these philosophers were changing the legal system thus referring it as choice theory. On the other hand classical theory is based on arguments that the law should not be discriminative and should be applied equally amongst all (Cullen

In this research paper, respond to the prompt below: Analyze the DOE report and the models of bilingual education Essay

In this research paper, respond to the prompt below: Analyze the DOE report and the models of bilingual education Essay. In this research paper, respond to the prompt below: Analyze the DOE report and the models of bilingual education available to public schools in New York City. Based on your analysis, choose a school in New York City of your choice and recommend a type of bilingual education best suited for the school to support the students who report being bilingual. If your chosen school already has a bilingual education in place, discuss whether or not it is the best program for that school. Why or why not?In this research paper, respond to the prompt below: Analyze the DOE report and the models of bilingual education Essay

Module 04: Discussion Forum (Managing Perform)

Module 04: Discussion Forum (Managing Perform). I’m studying for my Management class and need an explanation.

Chapter 3 discusses various aspects of strategic planning and how it is important to link performance management to strategy. Imagine you are the HR executive of your organization (or any organization you are familiar with) and are responsible for aligning the performance management system to the strategic plan. How would you ensure that your employees’ goals are aligned to the mission and vision statements of your organization? Why will job analysis and developing suitable job descriptions be helpful? What would you do to gain employee support for your new performance management system?
Embed course material concepts, principles, and theories, which require supporting citations, along with two scholarly peer-reviewed references in supporting your answer. Keep in mind that these scholarly references can be found in the Saudi Digital Library by conducting an advanced search specific to scholarly references.
Be sure to support your statements with logic and argument, citing all sources referenced. Post your initial response early and check back often to continue the discussion. Be sure to respond to your peers’ posts as well.
Answer all questions posted by students and your professor. These post replies need to be substantial and constructive in nature. They should add to the content of the post and evaluate/analyze that post answer. Normal course dialogue doesn’t fulfill these two peer replies but is expected throughout the course. Answering all course questions is also required
Module 04: Discussion Forum (Managing Perform)

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