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Flipped Classrooms’ Advantages and Disadvantages Research Paper

Introduction A flipped classroom represents an educational model of passing information and knowledge in which conventional lectures and styles of homework administration take the reverse direction of traditional teaching. Before classes begin, lecturers and instructors give students and pupils short video lectures about the topics in questions. Notably, this exposure to new resources occurs outside the classrooms. During class sessions, more time is dedicated on exercises, projects, and discussions using knowledge assimilation process. Most instructors, teachers, and lecturers pass their tutorials through videos and short clips via mailing lists or online repositories. Increase in internet connectivity continues to revolutionize this model of education with more focus on soft-copy notes. Markedly, the theory of flipped classrooms induces inspiration from lively teaching structures, learner involvement, and hybrid modes of education. This paper seeks to analyze three research studies on the concepts of flipping classroom and develop merits and demerits of this mode of instruction from the outcomes of such researches. According to Strayer (2007), the key elements involved in a flipped classroom are as elaborated in the figure below. Key elements involved in a flipped classroom The diagram below highlights the opportunities that accrue to learners and teachers in flipping classrooms. Highlights the opportunities that accrue to learners and teachers in flipping classrooms Video clips and lecture notes come in soft copy. This makes the notes and guides easily editable and re-recordable. For that reason, the students can pose and replay the clips many times to understand a concept. Hills (2013) notes that these benefits coupled by the reliability in content and convenience of access make the learning process relatively comfortable thus are increasing the chances of success. Since the notes and questions arise on an online platform, lecturers and instructors can easily develop a matrix of frequently asked questions to assess areas that require improvement. Equally, lecturers and instructors have the opportunity to develop timelines based on areas that require strong emphasis. This helps in distributing time to the topics based on the demand among the students (Risku
This dissertation aims to investigate the reasons for high levels of employee turnover in the UK fast food retail industry. It may be noted that the fast food retail sector tends to employ part time student employees, who are only using these jobs as a part time, stop gap arrangement between colleges and work anyway. Alternatively, many of these jobs tend to be low paid ones and employees seek mainly to gain some experience before moving on to other, better paying jobs. Moreover, since these jobs are service oriented and employees may need to face negative feedback from consumers, there may find their jobs humiliating and unsatisfying and may be eager to job hop. This research study proposes to examine employee turnover in the retail industry by posing the following research questions: Is employee turnover a fairly common phenomenon among employees in the fasts food ndustry? What are the reasons for high employee turnover in the fast food retail sector? 2.0. Literature Review: This literature review includes a definition of employee turnover, the effects of employee turnover upon an organization as well as the methods and techniques that can support and enhance retention of employees. As pointed out by Bartlett and Ghoshal (2002), knowledge creation and the building of learning processes is important in gaining a competitive advantage. Success for the organization rests in the nurturing of individual expertise in the people who are hired and the successful sharing of such expertise. “This requires executives in a corporation to look beyond strategy, structure and systems to a focus on the company’s purpose, process and people”. (Bartlett and Ghosal, 2002:36). When employees leave an organization, it results in a considerable loss in knowledge and expertise for the firm because all the knowledge and training that those employees possess is lost to the firm. Employee retention is the most difficult in the hospitality industry, mainly because of the negativity associated with the jobs in the fast food retail sector. In a similar manner to the hospitality industry, there is a high negative perception about the jobs [Giselli et al, 2001] and most employees perceive their jobs as “humiliating and demeaning” [Spillane, 2001]. There is an increasing tendency for employees to change jobs, for example British employees change employers an average of seven times during their lifetimes, with employees taking about twelve months to settle into their new jobs and become fully productive, which further shortens the effective working span of the average employee. In one study carried out in a British and a Greek banking institution during the period 1991-2001, about 20,000 people left the firm (, a very high rate of employee turnover. 2.1. Employee turnover: Employee turnover is the ratio of the number of workers who have to be replaced in a given organization to the average number of workers in the organization. According to Phillips and O’Connell (2003), managing the retention of employees and keeping the turnover rate below the target and industry norms is one of the most challenging issues that faces businesses today. When an employee leaves a firm, either through retirement or to join another firm, the company loses a wealth of experience and skill possessed by that employee and the Company is forced to replace the individual, often from outside (Kransdorff, 1996). Employee turnover, especially when it is voluntary, can have a damaging effect on a firm, because it does not just constitute a loss of the knowledge that the employee possesses; it also means that the operational process of the Company can suffer losses or damage while new employees are recruited to fill up the places that the exiting employees have left behind. As pointed out by Kransdorff (1996), while the advantages of frequent job turnovers are seem as bringing fresh creativity and new ideas to the organization, with the expertise of incoming employees compensating for those who are leaving, the reality is that the organization’s investment in the outgoing individual in the form of experience and knowledge possessed by that individual is suddenly lost. As a result, an organization no longer has the benefit of the hindsight that has been gained by it as embodied in the experience of the individuals who have left, unless the organization finds some way to retain the wisdom, experience and knowledge of those employees it has invested in through effective measures in terms of succession. This in turn produces an overall loss in productivity and a loss in competitive advantage, as an organization loses the benefit of hard earned hindsight embodied in the experience of its employees and is instead forced to make do with the experiences of new employees who may come from a different background altogether. Khatri (no date) distinguishes between turnover intention, which is the intent of the employee to leave his or her job and job hopping. He cites Ghiselli (1974:81) who defined job hopping as the “periodic itch to move from a job in one place to some other job in some other place”, which arises out of impulsive actions. Another reason why employees choose to leave their jobs is the turnover culture, which makes it acceptable for an employee who has been with an organization for a long time to change jobs and move to another organization. In the retail industry in particular, employee turnover may be higher because of several factors, which Booth and Hamer (2007) have identified in their study. They carried out a case study on a major retailer and their key sources of data were an annual employee survey and the internal labour turnover data for each UK unit of the retailer. Their findings suggested that environmental factors such as the nature of the local labour markets impact upon employee turnover. Secondly, high employee turnover could also be the result of organizational factors and culture, especially became management behaviour could also be a factor influencing employee decision on whether or not to leave an organization. This study was especially significant because it showed that in the retail sector in particular, the more employees become embedded and familiar with an organization; the more likely they are to leave in order to seek better prospects. This could explain why employee turnover is so high in the UK retail industry, because most employees join as novices and get trained, which in turn improves their prospects for securing better employment and thereby encourages high employee turnover. Similarly, those employees with prior experience would also seek to improve their training and experience and then move on to better prospects because on the whole, the retail industry does not pay very high wages at junior levels. It may also be noted that in the case of the fast food retail industry, this trend would be even more prevalent because most employees are likely to be part time student employees who are using these jobs as a stop-gap arrangement until they complete their studies or until they find something better. As a result, motivating employees and incorporating practices to improve employee retention is therefore very important and retention is discussed further below. 2.2. Retention of employees: According to Fuller (2004), it is the way that an organization functions which can influence employee decisions on whether or not to remain with it. If employees feel like outsiders, or inferior and unworthy, then it is likely to have a negative impact upon the employees’ physical, psychological and spiritual well being and they are more likely to leave the organization. CPA Consultant Steve Erickson recommends ten techniques to aid firms in hiring and retaining employees (Annonymous, 2007). These include (a) Making recruiting a year round process, engaging both employers and employees. (b) Building an employee referral network. (c) Differentiating the firm, by building unity within the firm and having a clear focus on internal and external service categories. (d) Working on the good clients by evaluating them and allowing employees to work with the good ones to motivate them. (e) Creating a culture of success and helping employees to feel successful due to being associated with such a firm. (f) Consistent communication which results in benefits for everyone. (g) Defining success for every employee by ensuring that each employee knows where the firm is going. (h) Setting up a reverse mentoring program, whereby the leader/manager takes the initiative to gather feedback from the employees (i) Reducing the levels of internal competition for resources by ensuring that there is an efficient system of governance. (j) By eliminating all negative talk within the firm and promoting a positive attitude in solving staffing issues. Murphy and Burgio-Murphy (2005) have laid out five important aspects which every firm should know about employee retention. Firstly, some employees in the firm are more valuable than others, therefore the greater the degree to which a firm focuses on retaining the high performing employees and eliminating the low performing employees, the higher its level of success. Secondly, different employees may be motivated by different things, therefore it is only by asking the employees that a firm can determine what those motivating factors are and act accordingly to motivate them to stay with the firm. Thirdly, the initial 90-day period after an employee joins the firm is the period where he or she is most likely to leave, therefore if the leaders/managers focus on building bonds with the new employees during this period, then there is a greater likelihood of retaining those new employees (Murphy and Burgio-Murphy, 2005). Fourthly, a firm should not be quick to allow a good employee to resign. Most employees who want to resign are looking to leave quickly and painlessly, but the manager should ask them to consider it for 24 hours and take the time to question them about why they want to resign, so that efforts can be made, if possible, to provide the employee with better conditions or benefits that will alleviate the reason for leaving in the first place. Lastly, if an employee cannot be retained and is intent on resigning, then an effort should be made to ensure that the employee leaves in good spirit and retains a good impression of the firm. Sending periodic updates about job openings is also advised in case employees wish to return or refer others to the firm (Murphy and Burgio-Murphy, 2005). 2.3. Succession of employees: The choice of whether to replace top level individuals from the inside or the outside may also be associated with the size of the corporate body. According to Dalton and Kesner (1983), larger organizations, especially those on the stock exchanges may be reluctant to go outside the organization for a replacement CEO, because of the complexity of instituting changes within organizations that are too large in size, although in some instances may be needed and it may be more difficult to bring about those changes without using an outside successor. The internal power structure within organizations may also impede the appointment of a successor from outside the organization, due to the entrenchment of interested parties who may demand replacement from within the organization. With the frequent changes in managerial leadership, corporate recruitment is now being driven from a standpoint that does not reflect the distinctive history and needs of particular organizations. On this basis, Kransdorff (1996) suggests that the experiences and memories of outgoing employees should be orally recorded and retained by the organization as a part of its succession planning, so that the repository of information that is contained in the outgoing employee is not lost to the organization. Rather, if this information is retained, it can be used to effectively induct new employees and make them cognizant of the organization’s history, policies and problems and enable the employee to perform more effectively in the service of the organization. His also helps the organization to retain knowledge of and build upon its past achievements. Maxwell (2004) points out that most firms do not plan for the human resource side of the planning process to also take into the growth and progression, or succession of employees. Succession planning is one of the aspects that can contribute to profitability by ensuring a smooth transition of employees. She recommends a series of steps in order to plan for effective succession. Firstly, it is necessary to anticipate and estimate which members are likely to leave within a year’s period, either through retirement, transfer or for personal reasons. The next step is to create a four quadrant matrix with two axes, which is to be used as a way to measure all staff members on profitability and performance. Employee ranking along these quadrants should produce 10% in the quadrant of low-performer-low-potential, and 20% of employees in the high-performer-high-potential quadrant with the rest of the 70% employees ranking along the other two quadrants (Maxwell, 2004). This matrix can then be used as the basis to determine HR needs, including training, retention and succession. Employees falling in the low quadrant are the ones who may have to be urged to improve or be booted out. Appraisal of employee performance is an important aspect in determining retention of employees, . For example, at Emery Air Freight, the Company was losing $1 million a year due to poor performance and defective practices by employees, when this was corrected, the losses were eliminated and productivity improved (Schuler and Macmillan, 1984). The 70% of employees in the middle quadrants are the ones who are likely to benefit the most from training programs or enrichments on the job. “Training of employees is an invaluable asset in providing a company with a competitive advantage. For example, Delco-Remy took up a training program for its employees and was then able to differentiate itself from its competitors” (Schuler and Macmillan, 1984:249). Other companies such as IBM and McDonalds also use training programs to enhance productivity of their firms. It is the high achievers in the Maxwell (2004) matrix however, that need to be rewarded generously and provided with opportunities for advancement, and these are ones who should also be targeted from a succession point of view, to be promoted to higher positions on the basis of their ability and potential (Maxwell, 2004). This can then form the basis on which the HR department thinks about individual employees, their abilities and positions in the organizations that they would be suitable for their job. After these discussions among HR managers, the employees can then be individually approached and consulted about their aspirations, so that discussions can be entered into on how the individual aspirations of employees can best be accommodated within the framework of the department’s goals (Maxwell, 2004). On this basis, the HR department can function more efficiently having identified the individual needs of employees, by conducting an annual review – dealing with the low performing employees on how they can improve, establishing schedules for training and staffing for the next year and making decisions about promotions and succession. Succession should be an annual process. If openings are anticipated, then staffing changes and increases should be planned well in advance, since it takes many months to fill up positions. When sufficient time is allowed to fill up positions, then the position can be suitable matched with the person possessing the most appropriate level and range of training and skills, rather than being forced to hire someone in a hurry, who may not be able to do full justification to the job (Maxwell, 2004). 2.4. Motivating employees: According to Macmillan (1983), the gaining of competitive advantage involves an understanding of barriers to response, intelligence and infrastructure systems and requirements, general management challenges as well as extensive planning practices. Several companies have successfully achieved a competitive advantage through the restructuring of their human resource management systems, as pointed out by Schuler and Macmillan (1984). In the Bairnco Corporation, bonuses were linked to performance for top level executives and the company was able to almost double its sales from $270 million to $442 million in the short span of two years. In the case of Lincoln Electric, workers receive a share in the profits, which imbues workers with a high motivation to produce. At the American Productivity Center, generalist managers are hired, so that they can be function effectively in different specialty areas, because their “appreciation system and skills span both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of productivity and organizational effectiveness” (Schuler and Macmillan, 1984:247). Motivation theories may be broadly classified according to Genetic and hereditary factors, such as Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory and Herzberg’s two factor theory. Need based theories, example: Vroom’s expectancy theory. Behavioral theories such as the Equity theory. According to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory (1970), which is a five tier system, an individual has two kinds of needs – the lower order needs which are satisfied externally, such as physiological and safety needs, and the higher order needs which are satisfied internally such as social needs, esteem and self actualization needs. The lower order needs may be classified as the extrinsic factors while the others are intrinsic factors. Herzberg further elucidated these factors in his two factor theory mentioned by Marchington and Wilkinson (2002), where in factors such as company policy, supervision and salaries play an important role in determining the kind of employees who are likely to join the organization. If, for a particular job, they are adequate, employees will be satisfied, otherwise they will not. Herzberg “argues that employees were more likely to be motivated by factors such as achievement and the work itself rather than simply money” (Herzberg 1968). Vroom’s expectancy Theory (1964) is based upon three salient beliefs: Valence Expectancy Instrumentality According to Vroom, all these three factors that are the expression of an employee’s expectations must be calculated in such a way that they are able to bring about a motivational force that will ensure maximum pleasure to the employee. It is possible to calculate this motivational force using the formula: Motivation = Valence x Expectancy (Instrumentality) When the outcome of the employee’s expectancy is satisfied to the maximum through the performance of the HR department, then the employee is likely to be highly motivated in his job. The Equity Theory is based upon the principle that in a workplace situation, the degree to which an employee experiences satisfaction at his job is determined by the extent to which he feels that he is at an advantage or a disadvantage as compared to a “referent other”, who is actually a person that is in a position comparable to the employee. [Anderson and Bedini 2002]. According to the equity theory, “input” has been described as those assets a person brings to his job such as education and qualifications. The term “outcome” has been expressed in the Equity theory as referring to the results of the input that an employee puts into a job, i.e. salary and benefits [Anderson and Bedini 2002]. Applying the Equity Theory at the workplace plays an important role in shaping human relationships at the workplace and the performance that may be extracted from the employees. It is the perception of inequity as compared to a referent “other” at another firm that motivates people to behave in such a way that the input/outcome ratio is adjusted and if this ratio is to be compatible with what management desires, then the appropriate motivation needs to be provided to the employees to address the inequity [Beauvais, n.d.]. Such factors include bonuses or special considerations to rectify the perception of inequity which creates dissatisfaction at the workplace among employees. 3.0. Methodology: This study will use a quantitative research approach, because the objective is to determine how prevalent employee turnover is within the context of the fast food sector in the UK retail industry. It must be noted however, that in determining the reasons for high employee turnover, a qualitative approach must be applied because the subjective opinions of the participants need to be taken into question. Therefore, in order to answer the research questions which have been posed in this study, the methodology used is through the Survey and questionnaire method. A Likert-type questionnaire will be used, where in responses will be assigned a numerical value on a scale ranging from 1 to 5. A lower value of 1 will indicate that the issue being examined in the question is not important at all while the highest value of 5 will indicate that the Respondent considers that particular issue very important. Additionally, a questionnaire will also be prepared which be structured on an informal basis and will be completed through an interview with selected participants. The data will then be correlated in order to study patterns and identify trends and the statistical chi-square method of analysis of data could be applied to assess the degree of statistical significance of each of the variables which will be proposed through the questionnaire. The sample survey questionnaire is provided below: 4.0. Questionnaire: JOB LEVEL:­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­_________________________ PART TIME? YES NO Criterion for measurement 1: Very Good 2: Good 3: Fair 4: Bad 5: very bad 1 2 3 4 5 1) My enjoyment at my job 2) Support from my supervisor 2) Competency of my supervisor 3) Speed in response from my supervisor on my concerns 4) Degree to which my manager does not put pressure on me 5) Degree of work regulation 6) Flexibility in work hours 7) My wages 8) Provision for bonuses 9) Convenience of working hours 10) Duration of working hours and ability to rest 11) Provision of overtime benefits 12) Satisfaction in my job 13) Personal fulfilment at my job 14) Respect I get from co-workers 15) Treatment I get from guests 16) Tips I receive from guests 17) Satisfaction with duration of hours I am on the job 18) Management policy towards guests who are unreasonable in their demands on me 19) Recognition for good work that I do 20) Overall satisfaction rating with my job The responses that are received will be rated on the basis of weightage. The maximum average number of responses received against a particular ranking will indicate the prevalent trend among the employees for that particular aspect of the job. This is a preliminary estimate of job satisfaction that can be achieved by an overall survey. The method of questionnaire is easy and convenient to use. Employees can easily tick the response they wish to make and tabulation of the responses is also facilitated by the numerical value assigned to them. 5.0. Conclusions: Based upon the findings from the literature review and the factors that have been shown to be responsible for high employee turnover in the fast food retail sector, it appears likely that the responses obtained to the survey questionnaire may also reflect similar trends. In view of the ongoing recession and the difficulties that people have been facing in getting jobs, many people have been grabbing part time employment in the fast food retail sector as a means to stay afloat, which could have produced conditions where in employees are in abundant supply rather than the other way around, making employees reluctant to leave their jobs. As a result, there is a chance that the results may show that the recession has lowered the employee turnover rates, but the general factors affecting employee turnover are still likely to be relevant and applicable.
University of California Irvine Week 7 Proposal on Impact of Advertising Discussion.

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University of California Irvine Week 7 Proposal on Impact of Advertising Discussion

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Please locate and review an article relevant to the Chapter 10: Developing Accountability in Risk Management: The British Columbia Lottery Corporation Case Study and Chapter 11: Starting from Scratch: The Evolution of ERM at the Workers’ Compensation Fund of uploaded textbook. The review should be at least 700 words,single spaced, 12 font Times New Roman and should summarize the article. Please include how it applies to our topic, and why you found it interesting. The cover and reference page must be on separate pages with at least 5 references.You should have at least one in text citation for every reference and use references other than or in addition to the uploaded textbook. Also mention the article name which you used to review and summarize.
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The Nissan Revival Plan

help writing It will be assumed that the reader is familiar with the case; hence references to the case will not always be explicit and abbreviations used in the case may not always be explained. The essay will be structured as follows: First a very short summary setting the scene of the case, then my bottom-line evaluation where I give my conclusions on the case followed by the evaluation criteria that I have used to reach this conclusion and finally a proof of the evaluation will be given. 1.1 Summary Carlos Ghosn joined Nissan as COO in 1999 at a time where the company had suffered losses for seven out of eight of the prior years. Against all odds he manages to turn Nissan profitable within two years, despite huge cultural differences. The main instruments used for this turnaround was engagement, communication, structural changes and change of some cultural areas that have been holding the company back. 2.0 Bottom-line evaluation When looking at the results from the Nissan Revival Plan (NRP) it is quite obvious that Carlos Ghosn’s turnaround of Nissan worked extremely well. The statistics from appendix 1 in the case leaves no doubt about this. I believe that Ghosn’s success with the turnover was mainly due to his excellent approach (with an overall “approach-score” of 92%, cf. Appendix A), characterized by a great deal of modesty and a willingness to understand and respect the Japanese culture, before trying to change the organization. Further he made a clever choice by claiming that he would turn the company profitable within two years or step down, and at the same time give the employees a great deal of responsibility in achieving this profitability. This way he put himself in the same boat as the employees and consequently they would either succeed together or fail together. His ability to get people engaged and motivated in the project was one of the key factors of success along with his honest and direct communication. 3.0 Evaluation criteria I this section I present and define 4 evaluation criteria in order to evaluate Carlos Ghosn’s approach to the turnaround of Nissan. Nissan was facing the prospect of either making the necessary changes to turn the company profitable within two to three years or go out of business. Hence, a large change was required which is apparent from Ghosn’s four main focus areas that deals with everything from new product development to cost reductions (everything important is going on simultaneously). Further it had to happen with a very short time horizon. Given these characteristics I would describe this as a complex change. 4 In order to be successful with such a complex change, it is vital to get the organization (i.e. the employees) to buy-in on the course of change from the beginning. One very important way to do this is by engaging the people that the change will affect and to communicate very clear. Further, it is important to be able to execute the desired change and in relation to all this being able to manage the people involved. This leads me to the following four evaluation criteria: 1. Support from organization o the overall willingness of the employees to contribute positively to the change of Nissan at all levels of the organization 2. Communication o the ability to communicate efficiently, effectively and clear with and within the organization 3. Execution o the ability to make actionable changes and implementing the desired strategy 4. Manage in a foreign culture. o the ability to successfully manage in a foreign culture where people have very different paradigms than you The following section will provide the reader with a discussion of each evaluation criteria. 4.0 Proof of the evaluation This section will consist of a discussion of the evaluation criteria introduced in the section above. Each criterion will be discussed and a rating of each action/approach will be given to give an evaluation of Ghon’s overall approach, cf. Appendix A. 4.1 Evaluation criteria #1: Support from organization “Make sure you are focused on your own people. Bring in them motivation and sense of ownership, then you can do your miracle.” – Carlos Ghosn Based on the case it seems that there were very little resistance to change from the organization, the only explicit resistance mentioned was that promotions of younger leaders over older, longer serving employees caused some problems regarding lack of cooperation (p. 553) – this is likely to take place at the middle to lower management level. The underlying cause of their resistance was probably a fear of loss of status, job, pay and also a general fear of losing face when a younger employee gets promoted over you. Further, the media and the government criticized the layoffs of employees; however this did not seem to affect the change inside Nissan. 5 To my best judgement I believe that the level of change he met was inevitable given the situation. The reason why Ghosn didn’t experience more resistance was that he took a series of very good actions to mitigate any resistance to change and get people to support the change. Ghosn chose to rely on the Nissan people rather than external consultants, by establishing nine Cross-Functional Teams (CFTs) that were to go over the business and come up with solutions for a revival of Nissan. Via this empowerment of the employees he gained motivated employees that felt an ownership of the change plus a new corporate culture in the company, that build on the best of the Japanese culture. Further, the CFTs came up with some of the tough decisions needed (such as plant closures and employee reductions) and it is quite possible that since the employees themselves came up with these solutions, the organization as a whole was less resistant. One disadvantage of choosing an internal solution is that it might be a slower process than choosing an external team of consultants with no relationships internal in the organization to consider, etc. Additionally Ghosn put himself on the line by stating that if he had not turned Nissan profitable within two years, he would step down. This statement, combined with the fact that he relied on the employees to come up with a great part of the solution, showed the employees that they were all in the same boat – either they would succeed together or fail together. This has definitely helped mitigating change resistance since the employees could tell that Ghosn was sincere in wanting this turnaround to work out. It was a very clever move and I don’t really see any disadvantages of doing this, because if he hadn’t turned Nissan profitable within the two years, he would probably have been asked to leave anyways. An external event proved helpful as Yamaichi went bankrupt just around the time he arrived in Japan, and they were not bailed out by the Japanese government. This stated a perfect example that employees could no longer be sure to keep their jobs. By frequently using Yamaichi as an example, Ghosn made the employees care about the corporate problems in Nissan thus increasing their willingness to change. Undoubtedly this made Ghosn’s job of changing the organization a lot easier, and I am certain it would not have been as smooth had Yamaichi been bailed out, though Ghosn seems like a leader that would still have done well relative to others. Another important point is that Ghosn was specifically requested by Nissans CEO, Hanawa, and therefore had the support of the top-management. This probably gave him a lot of leeway to choose his own approach to the turnaround. In all, the level of resistance to change that Ghosn encountered from middle-managers, was inevitable. The underlying cause of this resistance was fear of losing status, job, pay or face. However, Ghosn did a very good job enlisting support from middle and lower levels of the organization (he already had top-management’s support). 6 Consequently resistance to change was mitigated and instead engaged and motivated employees was doing their best to come up with a revival plan for Nissan. Nevertheless it seems quite apparent to me that things would have not run as smoothly a few years earlier, since the crack of Yamaichi served as an eye-opener for the employees and facilitated a willingness to change due to a fear of losing their jobs. Ghosn’s approach to gaining support from the organization scores 92% which is very high and leaves little room for improvement, cf. Appendix A. 4.2 Evaluation criteria #2: Communication “The single biggest problem in communication is the illusion that it has taken place” – George Bernard Shaw From the very beginning Ghosn was focused on communicating clearly with the organization. He took a number of steps to ensure that communication both from him to the organization but also within the organization would be direct and true. Very early he stated three principles (Transparency, Execution and Communication) of management that I think shined through in all his communication. It was a very clear statement of “how we do things in Nissan” and it was aimed at changing the culture of the company. Below I will go through what I see as the main communication contributions Ghosn made. Unlike any prior manager, Ghosn practiced “management by walking around” which must have been a very effective way for Ghosn to understand the employees at the lower to middle levels of the organization and vice versa. As a consequence of this, a good foundation was created for further interactions. At the same time it served as a way for him to set a good example for other managers. Further, he discussed ideas for turning Nissan around with several hundred managers which had two positive outcomes; one that he got a lot of relevant input for the strategic changes needed; two that the problems regarding the vertical communication in the organization got addressed. This way, Ghosn was able to initiate an organizational culture change where employees from top to bottom got more in touch with each other’s work and issues. The disadvantage of these two actions is that it is very time consuming, but when it comes to building trust and respect there are no shortcuts and I think he made an excellent choice in doing this. The organization reaped another benefit from the establishment of the CFTs mentioned in the section 4.1, namely that it led to a structure with permanent cross-functional departments that served one product line. This reorganization addressed the horizontal communication problems that Ghosn had encountered throughout the organization and the staff began to focus on total business success rather than keeping a narrow focus on their own department. Another structural change was the matrix-structure that was implemented for higher-level staff to improve transparency and communication which was in line with his three principles of management. 7 For an international company like Nissan with a global strategy, a matrix structure seems to be the right way to go, precisely because of its dual focus on both region and function. Further it gives you the capability to combine efficiency with effectiveness, two things that Nissan really needed for instance in regards to purchasing (efficiency) and responsiveness to customer needs (effectiveness). The disadvantage is of course the two-boss system that can create confusion and power struggles. However, given the horizontal communication problems, it again seems to me that Ghosn made the correct decision with the matrix structure. One area where Ghosn didn’t as well as in the ones above, was with the communication of four main focus areas namely (1) development of new automobiles and markets, (2) improvement of Nissan’s brand image, (3) reinvestment in research and development, and (4) cost reduction. I consider all four areas very important, however (1) seems to require a lot of cash and at that point in time Nissan was very short on liquid capital (p. 546) so maybe one could challenge this focus area on the short term. More critically I find it that no timeframe and no quantifiable goals have been attached to these four areas, thus making them non-measurable. One could argue that there is an implicit measure of success and time, namely Ghosn’s goal of turning Nissan profitable within two years. I still would have preferred if it had been stated more explicitly like in the “Nissan 180” plan that was measureable and very easy to communicate. Due to his practical approach to leading and, especially leading by moving around and the discussions with managers, it seems he earned the respect and trust of the organization at all levels. His approach to communication scores 88% which is high, but if he had attached some measurable goals to the focus areas it could have been higher, cf. Appendix A. 4.3 Evaluation criteria #3: Execution “However beautiful the strategy, you should occasionally look at the results” – Winston Churchill It is one thing to come up with a new strategy but it is quite another to execute it. Often good strategies fail because of inadequate focus on execution, or inadequate capabilities of the people in charge of the execution. Ghosn, however, was experienced in the field of turnarounds and was focused on the execution from the beginning. Some of the points made in section 4.2 above, makes sense to mention again here, since they were part of the execution strategy. When Ghosn chose “managing by walking around” he did not only do it to connect with – and understand the staff. It was also a substantive action that allowed him to become a role model. 8 The same goes for the hundreds of discussions he had with managers that, besides giving valuable input to the strategy change, served as a symbolic actions that conveyed a message to the other executives: get in touch with issues facing middle and lower management! Ghosn seemed very focused on execution and within one month he had established the nine CFTs. This was a strong signal to the organization that change was coming and actual changes had already been made. In extension of the matrix structure mentioned in section 4.2, Ghosn put emphasis on that every person should be responsible and was to be kept accountable for their actions. This was backed up by a policy of 100% accuracy in all reporting. By disciplining bad data harder than misjudgement he stimulated the risk-taking behaviour needed to change the organization. Further he introduced a performance based incentive system and by doing so, he moved the focus to towards performance which was what Nissan needed. Of course Ghosn wouldn’t have been able to execute the strategic changes without the support of the organization, so many of the points in section 4.1 is also relevant here. Especially his ability to engage and motivate the employees in the decision process seems like an excellent idea in terms of execution. Overall Ghosn’s approach to execution scores 92% which is very high and leaves little room for improvement, cf. Appendix A. 4.4 Evaluation criteria #4: Manage in a foreign culture “Seek first to understand, then to be understood” – Stephen R. Covey Ghosn had had experience managing in many different cultures before coming to Japan and seemed like the right man for the job. Maybe this was why he decided to come to Japan with very little knowledge about the culture but with an open mind, ready to learn. I agree very much with this approach, it is always a good idea to seek first to understand, then to be understood. It is quite obvious that Ghosn encountered a lot of cultural differences between his and the Japanese culture. The concept of consensus decision making (murashaki) the promotions based on seniority and education (Nennkou-Jyoretu), the extreme risk-aversion and the lack of accountability was probably far from what he was used to. However, he felt that the cultural differences could work as a catalyst for rapid innovation. He laid out a very respectful principle that no leader should try to impose his/her culture on another person who was not ready to try it with an open mind and heart. This was part of his strategy to turn the company around not by using his formal power, but rather by understanding and working through Japanese culture. However, it is a good idea to talk frankly about the cultural aspects that needs to change and follow up with action quickly. 9 Ghosn laid out the three principles of management mentioned earlier, which was very much in line with what you would expect from a western culture, and started practicing them from the beginning. Further he sought to remove the parts of the culture that was holding the company back, such as keiretsu investments, murashaki, nemawashi, Neenkou-Jyoretu. It actually seems that he was removing most of the cultural items mentioned in the case. I think this was a wise and bold move, since these were the underlying causes of many of the problems within the organization. One culture, however, he didn’t want to change was the Japanese culture of being well-organized, making the best of things and being very respectful to leadership. Rather, he used this to implement his strategy quickly. In conclusion I would say that the cultural differences between Ghosn and the Nissan organization were very pronounced and the culture was a hindrance more than a helper for Ghosn and he had to change quite a lot. However, Ghosn took his time to understand it and tailored his strategy so that it would fit the best parts of the Japanese culture, this way Nissan was able to change fast.

University of California Irvine Interviewing for Internships Online Discussion

University of California Irvine Interviewing for Internships Online Discussion.

I’m working on a communications discussion question and need support to help me understand better.

Write a post (200 words) describing your experience with interviewing for jobs or internships online. Describe what went well, what was unexpected, and what you wish you would have known/thought of before entering that situation.If you have not interviewed online, describe what you think about potentially interviewing online for professional positions in the near future. Read and respond to 2 of your classmates (50 words each). Either give them advice for their situations or respond to their experiences.
University of California Irvine Interviewing for Internships Online Discussion

Southern New Hampshire University Methods of Measuring Discussion Question

Southern New Hampshire University Methods of Measuring Discussion Question.

Discussion 1: Methods of MeasuringThe center point of research studies is the body of data collected to answer the research question. These data must be measured, which is the act of taking an abstract concept (e.g., depression, anger, etc.), sorting them out and quantifying them in some cohesive way in order to construct meaning—but how can you measure something that is not easily quantifiable?Choosing an appropriate measurement tool requires consideration of a number of different issues including reliability, validity, appropriateness for use with a specific group or culture, availability, and potential cost. Sometimes, social workers will attempt to create their own set of questions to tap into or measure a concept. This may appear to be an easy thing to do; however, writing questions to measure a phenomenon is more challenging than it would seem. For example, how do we know it measures what we want it to measure? In the first discussion this week, you will have the opportunity to create your own questions to measure a phenomenon of your interest. In the second discussion, you will compare the measure you created with an existing instrument that measures the same phenomenon.To prepare: Choose one phenomenon or issue that a client may be dealing with (for example, depression, anxiety, or family conflict). Consider how you would evaluate the client’s progress in this area. Create questions with response options that would capture this phenomenon or client issue.By Day 3Identify the phenomenon you would measure and explain how you conceptualize this phenomenon.Provide at least 3 questions you would use to measure this phenomenon and explain how these questions operationalize the phenomenon.Define reliability in 2-3 sentences and give one example of how you would establish reliability for the questions you created.Define validity in 2-3 sentences and give one example of how you would establish validity for the questions you created.Create a measurement plan to assess the phenomenon.Describe the methodology you would use to collect data using your measurement tool (your method for acquiring this research data).Explain the advantages and disadvantages of your choices.By Day 5Respond to a colleague’s post by suggesting two alternative methods for measuring their phenomenon. Explain why your suggestions have value. Please use the resources to support your answerColleague: PaulIdentify the phenomenon you would measure and explain how you conceptualize this phenomenon.The issue my client is dealing with is depression, it resulted from the loss of his wife of 28 years. I would conceptualize this phenomenon by taking a look at how it is affecting my client.Provide at least 3 questions you would use to measure this phenomenon and explain how these questions operationalize the phenomenon The first question I will use to measure this phenomenon isHow is depression changing my client’s life?How is my client overcoming his depression?How much progress has my client made in coming out of depression?The first question will help to measure the degree of depression affecting my client. The second question will measure the effort that my client is making to overcome his depression while the third question will measure the overall progress my client has made in overcoming his depression.Define reliability in 2-3 sentences and give one example of how you would establish reliability for the questions you created.The term reliability refers to the consistency in a research study or measuring a test. If findings from a research study are replicated consistently, it is considered a reliable data or findings. I would establish reliability in the questions I created by making sure that degree of depression in my client’s life is adequately measured. The true efforts my client is making to end his depression will also be measured and followed by the measurement of the overall progress my client is making in his fight against his depression.Define validity in 2-3 sentences and give one example of how you would establish validity for the questions you created.Validity refers to how accurately a method measures the things that are supposed to be measured. Validity is also a reliable measurement of things such as properties, characteristic and variation in social physical and social world. I will use established validity to measure the questions I created by making sure that the research method measure things such as the well-being of my client, his level of happiness , relationship with friends and family and the extent of his depression.Create a measurement plan to assess the phenomenon.My measurement plan will include accurate measurement of my client’s depression on a weekly basis. Things such as level of happiness and his well-being will be measured.Describe the methodology you would use to collect data using your measuring tool (your method for acquiring the research data.I will use a one-on-one interview with my client to collect data regarding his depression. I will also look at the opinions of professional such as psychologists and medical doctors to come up with a reliable data for my research.Explain the advantages and disadvantages of your choices.One of the advantages of my choice is that one-on-one interview gives me that opportunity to physically look at my client as him or her orally talk to me about his or her depression. One-on-one interview often leads to a more reliable date. One of the disadvantages of one-in-on interview is that client may not be as honest as he or she would have been when they are on a one-on –one interview. References:Creating a measurement plan (2015) Retrieved from signalinc. Com/creating-measurement-plan/.Windle, G, Benett, K. M. & Noyes, J. (2011) A methodological review of resilience scales Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 9, 2-18
Southern New Hampshire University Methods of Measuring Discussion Question