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Five Axioms of Urban Economics

Economics is a science of scarcity and it is bound by rules and principles like other sciences. Arthur O’Sullivan’s five axioms of urban economics are the guiding principles for urban economic theory. In this essay, the author will define and discuss O’Sullivan’s five axioms of urban economics, and then explain the existence of cities utilizing the five axioms of urban economics. The Five Axioms of Urban Economics The first axiom of Urban Economics is stated as prices adjust to achieve locational equilibrium. What this axiom means is that prices change based on the desirability of the area until individuals no longer desire to leave their current occupied area of residence. Locational equilibrium is what keeps Dallas residents living in Dallas. South Dallas and Oak Cliff may be rough areas to live in, but property values are cheaper because of the perceived value of present characteristics of these areas. Down Town, Dallas is an expensive area in which to live, but wages are higher. Fewer people want to live Oak Cliff or South Dallas when compared to Downtown, so homes are priced lower in Oak Cliff or South Dallas than in Downtown. Prices for housing, land, and wages are always adjusting to make urban areas equally appealing. People will not place the same values on all cities equally, but with a multitude of cities and variance in individual circumstances, cities can reach equilibrium. The second axiom of Urban Economics is self-reinforcing effects generate extreme outcomes. This axiom means that if one type of person or group moves into an area, then that area will become more attractive to the same types of people or groups. Think about places around the Dallas area. Are there areas known for rich people the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area? What about trailer parks or areas specifically known for high poverty in North Texas are there any that come to mind? Is there any certain street where you might find a surplus of car dealerships, gas stations, or restaurants? These are all examples that could be considered extreme outcomes. These outcomes happen because of self-reinforcing effects, or changes that lead to similar changes. When a trailer park locates in a city, for example, the area right around that park becomes an excellent spot for a new trailer park, and this creates even more appeal for a third park, and so on. Soon the area has additional stores and services targeted at people living in trailer parks, adding to the appeal for future expansion. The same outcome is true for any group of people where there is a higher concentration or that group, such as African Americans concentrated in South Dallas. The third axiom is externalities cause inefficiency. An externality is a cost or benefit that is passed on to someone outside of a transaction. There are two types of externalities, positive and negative. A negative externality, or external cost, is an economic activity that imposes a negative effect on an unrelated third party (Urban Economics, 8E). A positive externality, or external benefit, is the positive effect an activity imposes on an unrelated third party (Urban Economics, 8E). For example, if a widget business expanded into a widget factory, then a negative externality of this expansion would be the increase in pollution that a factory would produce. Positive externalities of the expansion would be the improved effect in production of widgets through research and that the laborers’ work became easier and less dangerous. Both positive and negative externalities can occur on either the production or the consumption side (Urban Economics, 8E). Externalities cause inefficiency because they incentivize people to do too much or too little of something. The fourth axiom of Urban Economics is that production is subject to economies of scale. The higher the volume of production of a firm, the lower the production cost. If the firm makes only one widget it will incur the total cost of buying the needed supplies, research and development of making a widget, and time cost of producing the widget. The cost would be very high. If a widget factory made millions of widgets, it may receive cost reduction for buying supplies in bulk, and through higher production of widgets the production process could be streamlined and cut costs. By principle of scale of economy, the cost of making the millionth widget will be less than the cost of producing the first widget. The fifth and final axiom of Urban Economics is that competition generates zero economic profit (Urban Economics, 8E). Where there are profits, there are people interested in getting their share (Urban Economics, 8E). This axiom of urban economics says that in real life businesses try to maximize profits by trying to mimic ideal economic model conditions. Firms analyze where to derive profits and wherever profits are found, new businesses with lower prices drive down the prices and the profits for the industry. The result is efficient for consumers, who can buy what they want at optimal prices. Take our hypothetical scenario: you have complete working knowledge of the production of widgets, the market is profitable, and the starting capital was given to you. Therefore, you open your own widget making business. For most people, the answer is easy. Assuming all widgets are created equal, to be competitive in the market, you charge you lower price than your competitors charge. In the widget industry where price makes the difference, a competitor might respond by lowering their price as well. You would have no choice but to lower your prices again to remain competitive. Eventually, firms in the widget market will lower price levels to the point where there is no more profit and firms are only covering costs of production. Competition would have created a situation where there is no economic profit and no room for new firms to enter into the marketplace. Why Cities Exist According to the Axioms of Urban Economics Since modern society seems to focus on cities, it may seem strange to the modern Americans that cities actually are very young and a new idea in terms of history. Cities are where we work and live, cities host our governments, and cities are where firms choose to be to do their business. Urban Economics by Arthur O’Sullivan States “cities exist because human technology has created systems of production and exchange that seem to defy the natural order…The transformation of a rural society into an urban one occurred because technological advances increased the agricultural surplus, increased the productivity of urban workers, and increased the efficiency of transportation and exchange” (Urban Economics, 8E). Recently in history, society has shifted from an agricultural focus to a focus on industrialization. Obviously, we all could not live in cities or there would be no one to raise crops and ranch livestock. According to the first axiom of urbanization, a locational equilibrium has been established by making land cheaper in the country to offset the lower wages of farming and ranching so not everyone will move into the cities. Thus, land and housing would be more expensive the closer you come to the heart of a city to offset the high wages available in the urban setting. According to the second axiom of self-reinforcing effects generating extreme outcomes, industrial firms that produce industrial goods will centralize themselves in the city, and farms and ranches that produce agricultural goods will develop side by side in the countryside. The fifth axiom states that firms will develop near like firms and will do so until there is zero economic profit. This situation means that industrial firms will develop in the city and agricultural firms will develop in the countryside until there is no more profit to be made. The fourth axiom of the scaling effect would allow for specialization in both the countryside and the city. This would set up a comparative advantage economy between the countryside and the city where the city can trade their industrial goods for the agricultural goods of the countryside. Cities were born from efficiency, hard work, and ingenuity. Without inventions like the cotton gin or the tractor, Americans might still find themselves living on the farm today. Instead, only 5 percent of the population grows food that feeds the entire country with more to spare; and the rest of us work to produce something worthy of trading for that food or for some other good or service (Urban Economics, 8E). Therefore, cities exist because it is beneficial to produce what you specialize in and use trading firms to lower costs and trade with other cities and areas that may specialize in goods and services desired or needed. Second Essay Starts Marginal costs and benefits are utilized as a form of measurement of costs and benefits at a specific level of production and consumption.Everyday individuals, groups, and institutions make decisions based on our marginal evaluations of the alternatives. They do this by asking questions: “What will it cost to produce one more unit”, and “What benefit will be received by acquiring one more unit”? In this essay, the author will define and discuss marginal costs and benefits and their effect on market efficiency in the presence or absence of externalities. What Are Marginal Costs and Marginal Benefits? Marginal benefit is the gain you receive for doing anything one more time (Urban Economics, 8E). Marginal benefit is typically measured in terms of revenue or what price level the free market places on the next unit you produce (Urban Economics, 8E). Imagine you are the proud owner of a widget making shop, and you could sell an unlimited number of widgets for 10 dollars, then your marginal benefit for each additional widget you produced would be 10 dollars. Realistically though, there is a limit on the amount of any item you can sell at a given price. If your market is saturated, to sell another widget you may have to lower your price to 8 dollars. Therefore, your marginal benefit for the next widget you produce will be only 8 dollars. Consumers experience marginal benefits as well, but the value of these benefits are not generally measured by the measurement of revenue. If a customer, values a widget from your store at value laden 20 dollars, based on its perceived value and consumer satisfaction from a purchase of a widget from your shop, then they will buy one. However, once they have one, they will only consider buying a second widget at 20 dollars. If they buy a second widget from your shop, it is based solely on the value-laden perception that the widget’s benefit is worth the 20 dollars. If the consumers do not perceive that the widget has 20 dollars benefit or use, they will not purchase another widget at the 20-dollar price level. Therefore, if your shop wants the consumer to buy widgets, the owner must either lower the price or offer some other promotional benefit. Consumers’ marginal benefit is also referred to as “marginal utility”(Urban Economics, 8E). According to the law of diminishing marginal utility, “as a person increases consumption of a product, while keeping consumption of other products constant, there is a decline in the marginal utility that person derives from consuming each additional unit of that product” (Urban Economics, 8E). As the marginal benefit for widgets declines among your customer base, so does the price they are willing to pay which in turn affects your marginal benefit as a widget producer. “Marginal cost is the total cost you incur to produce one more unit” (Urban Economics, 8E). Following the example from the previous paragraph, it is the cost to make one more widget. Since, marginal costs are measured by total cost divided by change in output, marginal cost declines as change in output increases (Urban Economics, 8E). The overhead costs of production gets spread out over the increased change units produced. At some point, though, marginal cost reaches full capacity, and if you want to increase production, you will have to buy more widget machines, hire more employees, keep longer hours, and eventually build another site of production. These changes will increase the total cost for making widgets, so your marginal cost will increase. Now marginal cost is going up while marginal revenue is declining, for reasons already discussed. This situation means you are making less profit for each widget. Market Efficiency without Externalities If there is competition in the market but no significant, the free market result is efficient and benefits both the producer and the buyer (Urban Economics, 8E). It may or may not be fair since it depends on the existing distribution of market ownership (Urban Economics, 8E). This efficiency is achieved because the maximized quantity of output produced by a perfectly competitive firm results in the equality between price and marginal cost (Urban Economics, 8E). The most optimized efficient market without externalities is Perfect completion market. Perfect competition Market is an idealized market structure that achieves an efficient allocation of resources. In the short and long run, this involves the equality between price and marginal cost (Urban Economics, 8E). Market Efficiency with Externalities An externality exists when a third party who is not directly involved in the buying or selling of the goods or service incurs a cost or benefit (Urban Economics, 8E). In other words, an externality arises when a third party to a transaction experiences addition costs which can be either negative or positive due to transactions between buyers and sellers(Urban Economics, 8E). Negative externalities occur when the consumption or production of a good causes a harmful effect to a third party (Urban Economics, 8E). For example, the pollution produced with a sports car, or traffic jams due large number of car owners. If a good has a negative externality, then the cost to society is greater than the cost consumer is paying for it (Urban Economics, 8E). A positive externality exists when the private benefit enjoyed from the production or consumption of goods and services are exceeded by the benefits as a whole to the society. In this scenario, a third party other than the buyer and seller will receive a benefit because of consuming the good (Urban Economics, 8E). An example of positive externalities is the increased value of the neighborhood when you refurbish the outside of your house. Externalities are not usually fully reflected in prices. Externalities are regarded as a form of market failure. The costs and benefits related to externalities are not typically included as part of the decision making process when making market decisions. Negative externalities because too many goods and services are being made available to the market and being consumed at ill efficient amounts (Urban Economics, 8E). Positive externalities cause too little of a good or services to be made available to the market which cause inefficacies in consumption of goods and services by consumers (Urban Economics, 8E). the price for the good and the quantity produced are lower than the market could bear. When positive externalities occur in a free market, consumers pay a lower price for goods and services and consume lesser quantity of those goods and services to socially efficient levels (Urban Economics, 8E). When negative externalities happen in a free market, producers do not pay the additional external costs that exist so the costs are passed on to society (Urban Economics, 8E). Thus, producers have lower marginal costs so more of the products and services are bought than the efficient amount (Urban Economics, 8E). In order to get consumers to consume more of goods and services that have been affected by a positive externality, a government subsidy can be given to the public (Urban Economics, 8E). The subsidy will increase the marginal benefit they receive when they consume the good. All those who receive the external benefits from the consumer goods (Urban Economics, 8E) can pay for the subsidy. The subsidy will increase the marginal benefit they receive when they consume the good and all those who receive benefits from the positive externalities (Urban Economics, 8E) can pay for the subsidy. Negative externalities result in a lower free-market output. In order to make the market produce the optimal amount, we must impose a government regulations or taxes. This is called “internalizing the externality”, and forces those involved to pay for the negative externalities (Urban Economics, 8E). In conclusion, through this essay the author has learned many things about regulated and unregulated markets. Both have their costs and benefits, and society should be very prudent when entering to the market place because not all the cost is seen.
Katharine Kolcaba Comfort Theory & Structural Components Essay.

1) Identify the structural components of the selected theory:2)Identify the functional components of the selected theory:3)Identify the evaluation components of the selected theory:4)Discuss how the theory contributes to the discipline of nursing.5)The scholarly paper should be written clearly and concisely providing comprehensive details about the subject or topic of discussion.When developing the scholarly APA paper, begin with an introductory paragraph which includes the purpose statement; that is supported by literature or evidence.Remember APA does not use the title “Introduction.” The body of the paper should include level headings to keep the readers focused on the written content. A conclusion is important to summarize the main points of the paper. Finalize the assignment or paper with the reference page(s). This will be the last step to the assignment/paper. 7)The paper should consist of five (5) to six (6) pages excluding the title and reference pages. Use level one and level two headings (see APA page 62 to review levels of heading).9)Write the paper in third person, not first person. This means do not use ‘we’ or ‘I’ statements.10) Use at least four (4) references from professional peer-reviewed nursing journals to support the paper. References should be from scholarly peer-reviewed journals (review in Ulrich Periodical Directory).11) APA format is required (attention to font, spacing, spelling/grammar, a title page, a reference page, and in-text citations).**** attached is an examplar template
Katharine Kolcaba Comfort Theory & Structural Components Essay

It is noted that technology plays a significant role in spheres of life and the field of education is not an exception. Freeman Dyson said, “Technology is a gift from God… it is the mother of civilization, of art and of science” (Koschmann et al, 1994). Technology in education is associated with a number of advantages which include saving time, automating operation, increasing accuracy and precision among others. Technology has ensured that instructors and teachers are in a better position to disseminate knowledge and at the same time help learners to understand fully and grasp knowledge. This is because technology has acted as medium of communication between instructors and students as well as adds a fun-element to learning. Additionally technology is thought to have increased the level of interaction between the relevant stakeholders. Both audio and visual media for instance, PowerPoint and associated animations are utilized to provide learners with information in an interactive way. The major driving force for using this kind of technology is that it helps elicit interest from learners. Additionally, PowerPoint and animations act as visual aid to instructors and lecturers. On the same note, the uses of projectors and screens have made it possible for instructors to reach a large number of students. The result of this arrangement is that, there have been tremendous improvement in learners’ attendance and attentiveness hence improved academic achievement and performance. According to Coley, Cradler



you’ll have to program a game using c++ on visual studios PART 1 Setting up your main menu.You should have an interactive menu which gives you the following options:Play GameTest FunctionalityQuitPlay game will currently run a game function place holder which says something like “Game Coming soon”.Test Functionality should run a separate place holder function for which outputs something like “Test Function placeholder”Quit should obviously quit the program.Your main menu function should also have a validation to prevent incorrect input.This is a sample of what your program should look like at this point.CHECK PART 1 EXAMPLE IN FILES. PART 2 Global FunctionsBuild a global function that will be used with your program. I recommend building a function that returns a random number.Now you should build a test function, one that will run the global function you created so you can make sure it works. For example, if your function test the random number function it should look something like this:void testRandomRoll(){ clearScreen(); std::cout << “Your Random number is ” << RandomRoll() << std::endl; pauseScreen();}Notice the test program takes no input and returns no value. It runs the function and gives an output that you can validate. This is solely for developer testing of specific functions.In the test driver function, create a menu with option to run each test function. As you create new functions you should add a test function and add it to the menu.PART 3 Object BuildingCreate the player class. It should have the attributes you need. For example:class Player{public: Player();//Constructor //Health interface void addHealth(int); void takeHealth(int); int getHealth() const; //Gold interface int getGold() const; void addGold(int); void takeGold(int); void displayStatus() const; ~Player();//Destructorprivate: std::string name; int maxHealth; int health; int gold;};This is just an example. Your Player class will probably have more to it.You can create a test function that will create a Player object and run through testing the functions of the object.You can also create an event class for building your events. The event class objects should control the individual event rounds.PART 4 PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER The Game engine is the next piece. When the user chooses to play the game from the main menu, you should introduce the game. The intro should describe what your game is; describe the story and give overall objective of game. After this the player will be given some initial options to start the game. These options could be starting supplies, player name or any other types of conditions that may or may not be relevant to the outcome of the game.Next the game should go into the event rounds. Minimum of 12 rounds when the game is complete. To start though, just run one round make sure it works, then add another round. Once you have a couple rounds in there, add the rest.Remember the event loop should end early if the player has game ending condition like zero health.When your game ends it should return you to the main menu.REQUIREMENTS The project has the following requirements to be gradedThese need to be presentPlayer ObjectEvent ObjectTitle ScreenTest DriverUsed to test object creation and functionsShould be menu drivenGame DriverIn game menuExplain StoryStarting optionsFollow WorkflowPresent EventInput choiceResultsGo to next eventGame over ConditionsEnd game storyCoding Standards and FormattingProgram Should runCode is ReadableLogic is cleanHeader File SetupFor bonus points, have a file system to load data from.

CAU Information Systems Operations and Analysis Discussion

programming assignment help CAU Information Systems Operations and Analysis Discussion.

Reply Information Systems Operations and Analysis three (3) components of a strong security program Reply to each Peer about their post. three (3) components of a strong security program Discussion Reply 1 Yanira: Hello All, For this week’s discussion post, we are discussing the three components of a robust security program. What incidents will each address? A security program helps the organization from preventing the service from being hacked. It gives the organization the security of confidentiality, reliability, and prevention. It is needed to secure patient information, employees, doctors, and any staff member within the hospital/organization. The three significant components of security programs that I would implement at the hospital/organization would be as follow; Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability. Confidentiality- I would have all staff that works for the organization understand that no patient information should be shared outside and inside the facility. All patient information should not be discussed in public. Availability means providing trust to our patients and staff members, by not sharing information with others and not discussing anything with anyone. Integrity- being able always to be honest with the facility and follow the morals of the organization. That is why in healthcare, there is a law that was implemented by Clinton in 1996, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, also known as (HIPPA). When working in the medical field, you always have to sign an agreement with your employee to follow HIPAA regulations and security acts. three (3) components of a strong security program Discussion Reply 2 Priscilla: Having a strong security program is very important in any organizations because it helps the organization to make sure of the confidentiality and integrity of every patient’s information or data. The three components of a strong security program that I would include at my healthcare department are security dashboard, antivirus software, and security audit. The first component of a strong security program that I would include is a security dashboard. A security dashboard is used to “provide a comprehensive display of all vital data related to an organization’s security defenses, including threats, exposures, policy compliance, and incident alerts” (Stair & Reynolds, 2018, p. 581). All of the data that shows on the security dashboard can come from many different sources, which includes servers, applications, security audits, etc. Security dashboard helps to monitor and address or identify threats early in order to take immediate action to reduce the risk in security. The second component that I would include is an antivirus software. Antivirus software is a software that regularly scans the memory, USB ports, disk drives of a computer for viruses (Stair & Reynolds, 2018, p. 581). If a virus is detected, an antivirus software will notify the user, and it can clean or delete any files or disks that are affected. This can help to provide protection against any viruses, threats, hackers, etc. Also, antivirus software can help to block spam websites and pop-up ads. The last component that I would include at my department is security audit. A security audit is “a careful and thorough analysis that evaluates whether an organization has a well-considered security policy in place and if it is being followed” (Stair & Reynolds, 2018, p. 582). A security audit can help with identifying and addressing the weaknesses and gaps in recent security practices, which can help a person to determine exactly where their vulnerabilities are on the network and network devices and how they can fix them. This may include passwords, user accounts, applications, etc. Furthermore, a security audit should also review who would have access to the data and systems. References Stair, R. M., & Reynolds, G. W. (2018). Principles of information systems: A managerial approach. Thirteenth Edition, Boston, Mass: Course Technology, Cengage Learning.
CAU Information Systems Operations and Analysis Discussion

MKTG 300 Ashford University Balenciaga The Master of Haute Couture Brand Analysis

MKTG 300 Ashford University Balenciaga The Master of Haute Couture Brand Analysis.

Part 2Who’s currently buying your product? Where are your deficiencies and where are opportunities? You are required to use the Simmons data for this portion of your paper. This is a natural place in your paper for multiple charts, figures, or graphs. (Please do not use charts directly exported from Simmons as these are often contain far more numbers then you actually need, and thus are not very user friendly. I want to see that you can identify and correctly understand the important values. You’re required to take these numbers and create some of your own figures) Remember, at this point in the paper it’s premature to make any recommendations.The professor ask to use Simmons. Simmons tutorial:
MKTG 300 Ashford University Balenciaga The Master of Haute Couture Brand Analysis

AASU Veterans & Community Health Question

AASU Veterans & Community Health Question.

Previous Assignment:Developing Research Question on Georgia’s Veterans Health InsuranceShould all veterans have health insurance or eligible for military health care services in Georgia? A veteran is an individual with military experience after living the services; hence, an active military member is not eligible for veterans’ health insurance. This question focuses on the health welfare of all military personnel; it will assist in developing knowledge on health challenges faced by the veterans. During the course of learning, this question will enable to identify various health policies from health care providers (Healey and Evans, 2014); this will ensure a too deep understanding of the legal eligibility to health insurance or the ability to seek military healthcare service from their facilities despite the nature of the discharge. It will also exploit the retirement plan, a medical plan installed to facilitate military personnel’s healthcare after retirement. For instance, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) claims that about 37% have been enrolled with the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Under the law that claims an individual is eligible for veteran insurance, they have a service-related disability cannot afford care or under prescription, hence promoting Georgia’s health care (Kizer, 2012). The challenges faced when developing the question include the types of disabilities covered by the ACA. Veterans play an essential role in ensuring security, and most soldiers above 18 years are not insured; hence in case of an accident, they cannot seek military medical services. It is also difficult to understand why many eligible veterans. Many healthcare issues faced by veterans are critical, such as chronic illness and mental health like trauma from wars. Therefore it becomes difficult to identify the most convenient area of focus for the veterans in Georgia.Current Assignment:Compare your research question to the Research Question Guidelines document and refine accordingly.State your research question.Write a 1 page rationale for your research question, including why the question is relevant to public administration, public policy, or nonprofit management. Reminder: Use APA guidelines for citations and formatting.
AASU Veterans & Community Health Question

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