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FIU Education and Socialization to the Professional Nursing Role Discussion

FIU Education and Socialization to the Professional Nursing Role Discussion.

1. As a nursing student, do you share the values of commitment to public service, autonomy, commitment to lifelong learning and education, and the belief in the dignity and worth of each person? Do nurses with whom you have interacted demonstrate these values?2. What do you think are the barriers to the process of professional socialization or formation? Do you think different environments might foster or hinder the process of professional socialization or formation? Do you think that the personal characteristics of nurses might influence the process of professional socialization or formation?Guidelines· Select one question as your DQ 1· Follow the 3 x 3 rule: minimum three paragraphs per DQ, with a minimum of three sentences each paragraph.· All answers or discussions comments submitted must be in APA format according to Publication Manual American Psychological Association (APA) (6th ed.) 2009 ISBN: 978-1-4338-0561-5· Minimum of two references, not older than 2015.
FIU Education and Socialization to the Professional Nursing Role Discussion

Design Flyer 1 page + discussion 300 words.

Flyer: For this assignment, you will create an informational flyer designed for a specific
set of readers. You will need to gather data from various sources, and then
interpret and incorporate the data into tables, charts, diagrams, or illustrations. Be creative with color, placement, and graphics.
When planning the flyer, think carefully about how readers will use the
information and how you can use graphics to make the facts as accessible,
understandable, and useful as possible.Discussion:When integrating graphics in with your text, Anderson (2017) acknowledges four
Guideline 1: Introduce your graphics in your text.
Guideline 2: Place your graphics near your references to them.
Guideline 3: State the conclusions you want your readers to draw.
Guideline 4: When appropriate, include explanations in your figures.
Discuss how and why these guidelines make sense for a reader.
Have YOU used these points when designing the graphics for our Flyer assignment in
the next session? (300 words)
Design Flyer 1 page + discussion 300 words

writing queries.

hi there, i need help to do there questions for Database:1.Create the database of HW#2. Determine an appropriate data type for each attribute. Use “create table~” statements and “create index~” statements to create the tables and appropriate index structures. Note that in SQL-92 and 99 (aka SQL II and III) standards (and many DBMS implementations), all primary key attributes are implicitly declared to be “not null”. However, in this assignment, declare primary key attributes to be “not null” explicitly. In SQL, foreign key attributes are allowed to be null. However, sometimes, to satisfy “total participation” in ER-diagram, related foreign key attributes should be declared to be “not null”. Print the statements you used to create this database and the results of them.2. Populate the database by inserting 10 or more tuples into each table.3.Create the following queries using SQL: Write the queries in the HW#2 in SQL. Print the SQL statements of your queries as well as the results of your queries.
writing queries

Students Language Skills Project Term Paper. Introduction The present paper is one of the steps in a pedagogical grammar course. The purpose of the present project is to carry out a collaborative project with ESLA students on the improvement of their oral and written grammar skills in using English according to their linguistic objectives. There are a considerable number of approaches to study and improve grammar skills, with Willis (1994) proposing the lexical approach to studies, Chalker (1994) stressing the need for designing a pedagogical grammar approach, and Givon (1993) underlining the evolutionary, biological nature of grammar in a language. Due to the growing body of research on the issue of grammar proficiency and processes involved in grammar acquisition, the project is aimed at showing which approach to grammar improvement is the most viable, and how well students respond to the applied, narrow approach to grammar acquisition. The project is intended to have three parts: the first stage will involve a careful diagnosis of the actual grammar skills ESLA students participating in the project have at the moment of starting the study. The second stage will involve treatment of the grammar skills of the chosen participants. Finally, the third stage will include the assessment of students’ progress in grammar improvement. To be more precise, the diagnosis stage will include meeting with students, making records on the peculiarities of their grammar usage, understanding and application during the oral and written usage of English. Further on, the errors they make in the course of speaking and writing in English will be categorized and analyzed in the theoretical lens, with the final evaluation of decisions on language improvement. The stage of treatment will include the implementation of decisions on improvement made at the phase of diagnosis, and the treatment stage will be a practical course on error elimination and growing grammar awareness. Upon the completion of treatment sessions, the level of understanding and improvement by ESLA students will be assessed. Methodology Qualitative analysis techniques have been chosen for the present study. The present type of research is commonly used for the language proficiency studies in the field of ESL studies, grammar in particular. The choice of qualitative tools for analysis was dictated by the general preference of the present type of research by scholars in the field. For example, Swain and Lapkin (2007) used the quantitative analysis of lexical units employed by a student called Neil to show the distributed nature of language acquisition through interaction with the immediate environment, and Leech (1994) employed the qualitative analysis techniques to show the propriety of situational deviations and alterations in the learner’s grammar to suit the unique needs of students. Givon (1993) proposes a pedagogical grammar that would generate teaching strategies and uses the qualitative techniques to which extent alterations are permissible etc. Participants. The overall sample chosen for the present project consists of four respondents. Their names are Roxas, Emittee, Laura, and Ester. Two of them come from China; one comes from Macau, and the last one – from Hong Kong. They are all aged from 17 to 19, representing a segment of young learners. The studies in which they were and are engaged are diverse, having such majors as chemistry, business, economics, and marketing. As for the gender distribution, two of them are male, and two are female. Each of them has a 1300 ESL level of language proficiency. This means that according to the CAEL grading scale for evaluation of ESL students’ written and oral works, they generally fall within the third category, having no native-like facility of English, but at the same time having no error-laden syntax and morphology (CAEL Assessment, 2010). Identification of the learners’ goals in studying English in Canada is of central importance in the design of the methodology for the present project. The goals of Roxas are not clearly articulated because coming to Canada was not his initiative, but his parents’ one. Therefore, he feels many complications in speaking and learning English, and the fact that Canadians often do not understand him is also highly discouraging. Emittee has a much clearer goal because he is motivated to get a Bachelor’s degree in Canada and get back to his parents in China, helping them with their business. Laura’s goals in learning English are much higher as she is interested not only in getting a Bachelor’s degree in Canada, but in remaining to live and work there. Finally, Ester is not clearly defined about where she wants to stay after the completion of the Bachelor’s course, but she is clearly interested in obtaining a good grade to have an opportunity for living both in China and in Canada. Data Collection. The data collection step of the project was conducted by means of meeting with the respondents and offering a set of written and oral tasks for them to accomplish. Generally, there have been four meetings conducted in the course of data collection, in the course of which the students performed oral tasks recorded by the researcher, and written tasks completed with the help of a questionnaire designed specifically for the present project. The oral tasks performed by students included conventional talks about their experience in learning English, about their background, and the problems in learning English they were consciously aware of. Some respondents were able to reflect about the interview and about the purpose and process of studies in general. The written tasks included three open-ended questions asking students to reflect on their attitude to the English classes, the purposes of their partnership with MA students, and the learning and cultural experience they gained in the course of studies. Data Analysis. The data analysis procedures for the present research are designed to fit the CAEL scale of error classification designed specifically for the category of ESL learners with differing levels of English proficiency, being far from native-like, but at the same time fairly correct for the conventional studies and communication needs. This scale involves the careful study of the oral and written statements respondents made in the course of meetings with the researcher, and identification of errors students made in them. The errors are generally classified into six categories. The first four involve the noticeable and distracting ones (such as deletion of grammar morphemes, deletion of function words, agreement errors, and errors in diction), while the remaining two pertain to syntactic errors and semantic errors. These two categories made statements illogical or vague, which may seriously impair or prevent the measure of understanding for the native speakers. The measure of all six categories’ presence in the oral and written speech of respondents will be measured and coded in correspondence with frequency of their occurrence. Additional criteria for the evaluation of oral respondents’ statements have also been taken into account in the process of designing the methodology for the present research. For this reason not only grammar and semantic mistakes are to be considered in the present assessment, but the cohesion of structure as well. To ensure completeness and accuracy of evaluation, the researcher has included such CAEL categories as flow, focus, support, and style (CAEL Assessment, 2010). To assess the cohesion of written statements, the research methodology includes evaluation according to such criteria as evaluation of content (thesis statement, essay map, adherence to the map, explication of ideas relating to the thesis, and presentation of claims, data, and warrants) and evaluation of organization (complexity of sentence structure and horizontal organization units)(CAEL Assessment, 2010). Results Introduction As one can see from the previous sections, it is possible to keep track of the grammar skills and errors of ESL students in order to propose a sufficient way for intervention and correlation of the students’ capabilities at a given moment with the potential they have during involvement in ESL studies. A teacher can do this, but in order to provide the consistent assessment and intervention, one has to be firmly decided on the targets and concepts of the intervention. The clear idea of what grammar is for the teacher and for students, as well as how this level of knowledge may be achieved due to their mutual effort, is vital for the whole course of evaluation and grammar intervention for ESL 1300 students. The present work is aimed at showing the ways to diagnose students’ grammar skills, and to offer a comprehensive intervention mechanism to raise the level of respondents from 1300 to 1900, which means proficiency in contextual thought reflection. However, no empirical intervention can be suggested without a sound set of students’ target abilities against which diagnosis and intervention decisions will be made. The decisions on target abilities of students have been elicited as a result of literature review dedicated to the estimate of the role of grammar in the overall ESL process. Target abilities of students When initiating the present project, I was personally interested in introducing the communicative approach to studying grammar. The reason for this choice is the prevalence of opinions on the need for the target language to fulfill the communicative goals of learners; therefore, the main target ability chosen was to enable Chinese students to voice their ideas in a manner understandable for the native speakers. The choice of other target abilities was preconditioned by the literature on which I relied in making up my theoretical framework of grammar and grammar teaching. I believe that the lexical approach to studying is highly efficient, since it offers a great set of possibilities for students to explore such complex grammar units as passive voice, conditionals, and reported speech. Some other key abilities of students I am aiming at are: complexity of gradience in English such as the distinction between ‘almost’ and ‘nearly’, the verbs ‘to appear’ and ‘to seem’ etc. The difference between the ‘s genitive and the of-construction is also a subject of concern. Finally, the choice of the communicative approach to studies in grammar is explained by the dominance of communicative functions of the target language (as it has already been mentioned), hence arguing that a language is a living organism and should be perceived as evolving in response to the needs of speakers, grammar rules included. I follow the research of Chalker (1994) to derive the concept of target abilities from the learner’s grammar, which means the measure of successful accomplishment of the speaker’s communicative goals. The syntactic significance for the proficiency in English grammar is also of high importance to me in my grammar teaching classes. Eliciting the collective image of target abilities from the present review, the ability to fulfill the communicative purposes of language has been taken as the major target ability. Construction of properly structured sentences (which means clear understanding of the English syntax) also appears of utmost importance as target ability, as it affects the native speakers’ understanding seriously as well. Passive voice, conditionals, and reported speech are taken as target abilities in accordance with the ideas of Leech (1994), and the subject-predicate agreement and usage of prepositions appear significant from the CAEL evaluation scale. These target abilities will be reviewed according to their presence in the respondents’ speech and writing for the sake of arriving at generalized conclusions about the nature of errors and their causes, as well as ways of improvement, in the end of the research. Diagnosis of grammar ability and problems Since there were two types of assignments with which students were entrusted, it is appropriate to define the mistakes and grammar abilities that students revealed during the four meetings and discussions, and then elaborate on the underlying causes that form the current abilities and challenges for them. For the sake of coherence of the result representation, the sub-topic of implicit and explicit knowledge reflected in the students’ responses is researched on the findings from speaking materials, and the motivation students have for studies (which is reflected in their knowledge as well) is outlined on the examples from written materials. Speaking Materials – Interrelation between Implicit and Explicit Knowledge The basis for studying the interaction between explicit and implicit knowledge is drawn from the study of Ellis (1994) who researched language acquisition as the combination of the formal target language code acquisition and the study of relevance to language pedagogy. The author argues that the process of L2 acquisition presupposes building linguistic, socio-linguistic, discourse, and strategic competences, while the competence implies abstract knowledge, and proficiency means the actual communicative acts (Ellis, 1994). Some other findings show that the implicit knowledge can be practiced only under the controlled processing, while explicit knowledge can be used in both controlled and automatic processing conditions, and that the explicit knowledge presupposes understanding the multitude of rules and restrictions that can be applied to internal (implicit) statements to make them correct at the linguistic level (Ellis, 1994). Laura She just work for the same classroom. In ESL class, we do presentation, that’s not long. I was give my homework to my teacher. How long have you been to Canada? How’s you feel about your job? I like Ottawa it’s very close to Toronto and Montreal. Toronto maybe more Chinese. There had a lot activities. Most terrible is we don’t know we are wrong. The following statements enumerated above are just feasible an annoying in the way they are pronounced, as there are some mistakes in subject-predicate agreement, the usage of prepositions, the incorrect usage of passive voice etc. However, the overall sense of the mistakes is clear, and the message that Laura wants to bring to the researcher is quite obvious. A completely different tendency is observed in the way Laura expresses herself in a connected, long speech. The sentences and words she uses are not logical, and the sense is vague for the native speaker, as well as the highly proficient speaker of English: It’s too tired to go outside. (Laura means herself, but chooses the dummy subject that does not relate the listener to any object that may be tired to go outside; it makes no sense about the object and action) People become more and more… just spend a lot of time at home. (the sense is lost about whether Laura meant that people become more domesticated and has not found the proper word to use, preferring an explanatory phrase, or she meant to say that people become more and more, which is nonsense from the point of view of syntax and semantics in English). When they ordering food, it’s very short. The supervisor will not let me easy. (the accuracy mistakes such as absence of the auxiliary verb ‘are’, and the unclear ending of both sentences does not make the idea clear and complicates understanding for native speakers). Ester Hey, you good? I find mistake in my sentence, but I don’t know how to correct it. Not read newspaper very often, only watch English movies. The city like really fashion. I think Hong Kong have everything, it’s multi-culture. Ester reveals some more caution in using English, so she has much fewer mistakes in her speech. Nonetheless, Ester does not talk English much, and as soon as she is agitated about the discussion (as it happened when she was telling about Hong Kong) she shifts to her mother-tongue for simplicity and comfort – this reflects the absence of explicit knowledge of English, though the implicit knowledge is revealed in many ways. Emittee Chinese universities study more serious. I likes chemistry I dislike the time of classes. My academic class is one… The other time, I won’t be go to university. Just no feeling. I am confused about the structures of sentence. The professors talks too much. How is grammar important for speaking? I am quite enjoy life here. I like those experiment. As one can see, Emittee makes too many mistakes in speaking, and he does not control his speech most of the time. Even in the answers requiring about one sentence of information, and where other students made fewer mistakes, Emittee makes too many careless mistakes that reveal the absence of accuracy markers such as subject-predicate agreement, proper understanding of the sentence structure etc. However, these mistakes do not reveal too much of the semantic incongruence, that is cohesion, since one can still clearly understand what he means even despite the large number of minor mistakes. Implicit knowledge is much stronger for Emittee than for other students, though the explicit skills are still scarce. Roxas There will makes the people confused. There is much more better than the sentences. Maybe I can not find out the errors when I doing evaluate. That’s different as the life before. We can speak us. They speak some topics. They have same commons. Activity is not comfortable here. I just don’t know to say maybe more. I am lack of confidence. Don’t know how to use English. Roxas reveals lack of explicit knowledge as well, and some of his ideas reveal lack of implicit knowledge as well. One can see that sentences 1 and 2 are mostly illogical, and a native speaker will never understand them without a more specific context. However, there are many words Roxas uses with confidence, which proves his effort in lexical studies and shows a good start for studies. Students’ Beliefs and Motivations Reflected in Their Grammar Learning There is much impact of the beliefs, motivations, and cultural background of all four respondents on the process of learning grammar. They are revealed well in the session of written tasks they have been entrusted with, and the ideas they voiced in response to three open-ended questions designed by the researcher. For example, the first question was to voice likes and dislikes in the English classes, to which two respondents answered that they liked much communication occurring in classes (Laura and Ester). At the same time, Emittee marked lack of communication and much vocabulary learning that he found boring and tiring; in addition, he disliked the amount of Chinese spoken in class instead of English. Roxas voiced his preference of small groups, which enabled him to study more freely. These issues voiced by students represent the continuation of Cortazzi’s (1997) argument about the approach to studies adopted in China. Students are highly purpose-directed, and they want to receive the communicative skills (at least two of them), but at the same time they find English too complicated for them in terms of learning words and writing – here the absence of motivation is clear. Three respondents want to remain in Canada and work there, so all of them see the fulfillment of communicative purposes of the language as the main purpose of studies (Givon, 1993). However, writing and vocabulary are the basis for coherent communication, and lexical approach suggested by Willis (1994) is an additional proof to that fact, which is neglected by students. The discussion of expectations respondents have about the communication with MA students sheds more light at the connection of grammar and motivation of students. Emittee stresses the need to pay more attention to grammar and communication, as he admits he has never before held a grammar book in his hands. This fact certifies the narrow focus of English studies in China and lack of broader communicative skills taught in Canada (Cortazzi, 1997). Hence, the connection between lexicon and grammar is an evident one for Emittee, and Laura as well, as one can see from her response. Laura also puts a great emphasis on communication as it is what she needs to remain in Canada and work there; however, Laura feels a bit lost at the same time. She also seeks cooperation with MA students to find advice on how to adapt to the university, to the country, and to the new style of studies and life. Ester appears one of the most self-aware students knowing what she has to correct in her knowledge, and which way she can do that. Ester realizes that she makes many mistakes, but the worst for her is that she cannot detect them. Starting from this point, application of diagnostic assessment by the researcher to increase self-awareness of individual mistakes, and to show ways for individualized intervention in terms of language teaching, grammar in particular (FoxStudents Language Skills Project Term Paper

Please read the article by Plumer, Then respond to the following questions.

Please read the article by Plumer, Then respond to the following questions.. I’m working on a English exercise and need support.

Please read the article by Plumer…
Then respond to the following questions:
1) How does the design of the page influence the credibility of the article?
2) The text includes many embedded sources but no charts and graphs. What does this tell you about the intended audience(s)?
3) How is the current cultural context important for understanding the author’s argument?
Please read the article by Plumer, Then respond to the following questions.

Social Enterprises During the Recession in the UK Proposal

online assignment help Table of Contents Purpose of Research Literature Review Research Design Data Collection Reference List Purpose of Research How have social enterprises fared better than their for-profit rivals during the recession? The economic recession has had a negative impact on the performance of most businesses in the UK. However, this appears not to be the case with social enterprises. During the recession, most social enterprises seem to be growing and have reaped more benefits as they seek to achieve their goals. Social investment has remained vibrant even in the face of the economic recession. Unlike the for–profit enterprises, social enterprises derive their capital and labour for philanthropic, government and commercial bodies. This means that social enterprises have a great pool, of investors as well as a greater capacity to attract talented and more skilled labour. Legal structures in the UK have been reformed in such a manner that they favour the social enterprises. This means that the social enterprises are less likely to suffer from corruption as the regulations have been made to ensure transparency in the running of social enterprises (Armstrong, 2010). I chose this topic as a result of studying several articles about social enterprise in the newspapers which aroused my intellectual curiosity. In formulating a dissertation topic, I decided to focus on personally known social enterprises. I reviewed recent newspaper articles. I was able to find many cases about social enterprises in the UK. In essence, most of the articles focused on business prosperity during the recession (such as posting record profits). As I read, a trend emerged showing sustained growth and good long-term prospects for social enterprises compared to for-profit businesses. This rang particularly true especially for ‘mutuals’, or companies that have a profit-sharing scheme. For example, many stories this summer were about the Co-operative Bank and John Lewis. I read some more online about these two companies and their growth and looked at recent marketing campaigns. The question that came to my mind is: how are these two specific companies doing so well in a recession, when so many companies aren’t? The UK is home to 62000 social enterprises with an annual turnover of £32 billion. This translates to about 5 per cent of the total number of businesses in the country. A whooping 56% percent of all social enterprises have recorded an increased turnover. On the other hand, another 20 percent has dropped their turnover since the recession begun. Only 28 percent of for-profit enterprises have had increased turnover. On the other hand, 43 percent of them had reduced turnover. This means that social enterprises apart from performing well in times of the recession, they are also facing a more certain and secure future. In terms of profit, social enterprises have been able to overcome the economic downturn. In this regard, more than two-thirds of them have been making profits during the recession while the other 16% have been breaking even (Datamonitor, 2011). This is significantly higher than what the for-profit enterprises have managed. The aim of my dissertation is to elaborate on the factors that have made mutuals more robust than their for-profit counterparts. However, this begs several questions that include the following: What aspects of the way the businesses are run have made them more successful (if using profit as the measurement of success)? Social enterprises have several distinct business practices that make them resistant to the economic recession. Firstly, social enterprises do not have a fixed operating model. Social enterprises use a strategy where they are highly differentiated with different and varied funding motivations. They are also focused on the achievement of social missions and the upholding of certain social values such as offering employment. Secondly, social enterprises have a relaxed and clear objectives and mission growths. Unlike for-profit businesses that stick to their growth missions even in the recession, the SEs are flexible, and most of them shelved their growth missions so as to increase their ability to resist the economic recession (Kolasa, Rubaszek

Issue of Traffic Congestion in City of Aberdeen

Traffic congestion remains a significant problem within Aberdeen and in the wider sphere, which results in massive delays, fuel wastage and pollution. The transport issue, which will be confronted within this essay, is congestion, and subsequently pollution, which is a by-product of high volumes of traffic. Congestion occurs when the amount of traffic exceeds the design capacity, so when the infrastructure is no longer sufficient for the volume of traffic. The type of congestion that Aberdeen experiences is described as recurrent congestion, which occurs at the same time in a particular area typically first or last thing during the working day (Grant-Muller and Laird, 2006, p.19). Throughout this essay both Aberdeen city and the shire will be incorporated in order to assess the issues of congestion and pollution and to suggest measures that can be taken in order to address them. It is necessary to discuss strategies on both as they are directly interlinked and strategies to improve one, subsequently improves the other. It was reported in 2017 that the annual levels of Nitrogen Dioxide across Aberdeen continue to exceed the national air quality objective (, 2018). This supports the assertion that there is a real need to address the issue. The city experiences high volumes of freight traffic due to its coastal location and the oil industry in the North Sea. Policies and strategies such as the Aberdeen Masterplan and the Nestrans Regional Transport Strategy will be drawn upon to determine how these issues are being dealt with. I will analyse some of the efforts being undertaken or proposed to reduce congestion and consider what impact these have on pollution, this will be backed up with wider research. The foundation of the essay will be based on what has been done already and what else can be done to further improve the situation. It is evident that the issues of high congestion rates are related to the high rate of car ownership within the City and the Shire. Aberdeenshire has the highest rate of car ownership in Scotland with around 85% of households having access to at least one car (Guild, 2014, p.4). Cars are particularly vital for people living in rural Aberdeenshire. Schemes to try and improve park and ride sites and access to rail links are being discussed to try and reduce car use within the region (Transport Geography Debate, 2019), therefore easing congestion and pollution within the city. Furthermore, the city itself has the highest number of cars per household out of all of the principle cities in Scotland, with only 31% of households not having access to a car (Guild, 2014, p.4). The cities infrastructure is unable to accommodate such high volumes of traffic, not only from the city and commuters but also from freight traffic. A way in which congestion within the North East is being tackled is through the creation of the Aberdeen Western Peripheral Road (referred to as AWPR hereafter). It fully opened in February 2019 and has provided substantial benefits across Aberdeen since. The AWPR is a 58.3km bypass from North to South Aberdeen, which aims to ease congestion and emissions within the city centre (, 2006). By diverting traffic away from the city to the AWPR there will be a reduction in city centre congestion and therefore emissions due to less stand still congestion (Zhang and Battermanb, 2014). In addition, the road cuts journeys times in half as around 50% of traffic has moved away from the city area onto the AWPR (Transport Scotland, 2019), which has opened up road space in the city for active travel. Aberdeen is particularly suitable for active travel due to it being relatively compact and significant efforts have been made to improve cycling and walking zones. The AWPR has assisted in moving the volume of traffic, particularly freight vehicles, around the periphery of the city. Previously the volume of freight traffic through the city accounted for a large proportion of vehicles on Aberdeen’s roads. Nestrans found that freight flows typically occur first thing in the morning around 9am, which is typically the time of peak congestion within the city (, 2011, p.2). The development of the peripheral road has allowed the freight vehicles to bypass the centre greatly reducing congestion and pollution within the city. In conjunction with the development of the AWPR, the Nestrans plan has developed the rail network as an alternative to extracting freight from the cities roads. The plan has increased the accessibility for freight-sized containers to be transported by rail rather than road. New freight friendly rail links have opened at Craiginches, Raiths Farm and Waterloo Quay (, 2013). This has been instrumental in encouraging the use of rail as an alternative for transporting goods whilst reducing congestion and pollution on the city’s roads. Park and rides have been proposed as a realistic measure to reduce the number of journeys made and in so doing have a positive impact on congestion and pollution. The scheme works to encourage people to park outside the city boundary during busy commuting times and to take the bus. Aberdeen has park and rides in both the city (Bridge of Don, Craibstone and Kingswells) and the shire (Ellon), which offer upwards of 300 spaces per location (, 2018). However it has been reported that the Craibstone Park and ride which has a capacity of 996 vehicles, was only being utilised on average by 7 cars a day (McCann, 2019). Careful consideration is needed in order to maximize the benefit of park and rides such as Craibstone. Suggested measures to encourage their use include giving buses more priority on the cities roads to reduce their journey times. If buses are stuck in nose-to-tail traffic it makes them a very unattractive means of travelling, so in order to encourage their use, they need to be given more road priority (, 2019). In addition, a reduction in city centre parking spaces would encourage increased use of park and rides as it would make it harder to drive to the centre and park easily. This is a measure that should therefore reduce congestion and pollution within the city limits (, 2012). An example of a city, which has been hailed for its forward thinking transport system, is the Brazilian city of Curitiba. A survey conducted by the Corporación Andina de Fomento (2010) stated that buses and non-motorised trips embody 70% of total trips in the city. This has led to a 25% reduction in congestion highlighting how commuters are favouring public transport over using their car, which is having a positive impact on journey times (Carrier et al., 2014). Air pollution is a consequence of the high levels of nose-to-tail traffic that Aberdeen experiences. Free flowing traffic generates less pollution, which is why the AWPR will be beneficial in reducing current levels (AWPR | Go North East, n.d.). The AWPR will improve the air quality in the city centre due to less congestion, which will cause emissions to drop between 8 and 10% as follows; carbon monoxide (8%), Hydrocarbons (9%), Nitrogen oxide (10%) and Carbon Dioxide (9%). This reinforces how it’s a causal relationship between congestion and pollution (, 2014). Another initiative, which has been introduced by the city council, is swapping to hydrogen buses. They run on zero emissions fuel and aim to reduce the emissions of the bus fleet overall by 42% by 2020 with Aberdeen having the largest fleet in Europe (Willmann, 2018). Aberdeen’s innovative approach to air pollution and with the AWPR diverting traffic away from the centre, this will free up road space for more sustainable transport. Looking to future plans, low emission zones, which restrict the most polluting vehicles, are being considered as an option to reduce emissions long term (, n.d). Freight and buses cause 80% of the air quality issues within the city which is why it has been proposed that low emission zones are considered specifically for buses and freight vehicles to be diverted away from the centre or to operate in a more environmentally manor. The development of the APWR has allowed opportunities for more active travel to take place in the city. Cycling schemes being introduced by the Aberdeen active travel plan who have enforced 20mph restrictions, cycle lanes and advanced stopping lines (, 2017, p. 2-3). During 2015/16 £2 million was invested in new signage, cycle parking and safety campaigns in the city to aid active travel (, 2017, p.1). As the active travel plan details the city is utilising the freed road space caused by the AWPR to promote cycling (, 2017). An increase in the number of people choosing to cycle also helps reduce the volumes of cars on the road, further reducing congestion levels. An example of where active travel is being prioritized is in Oslo, where they are aiming to be car free. To achieve this they have started to prioritise people over cars, turn parking spaces into bike lanes and create pedestrian only zones. Active travel is more attractive as there is less air pollution, which allows walkers and cyclists to explore freely (Wolfe, 2018). In Aberdeen, campaigns such as Bikeability Scotland and get ‘back in the saddle’ have been rolled out in order to help both children and adults gain confidence cycling. Two of the biggest barriers to active travel is safety and air pollution. The newly part-pedestrianised Broad Street could be a step forward towards increased use of active travel and changing transport habits. This measure could be built on further by using the Broad street model to pedestrianised Union Street. By removing the slow moving traffic on Union Street this could have a very positive impact on both congestion and pollution in the future (, 2017). Transport priorities need to change, which is why initiatives such as car sharing schemes have been introduced as a means of reducing congestion and emissions further within the city. The city council has set up a car share scheme where individuals are able to enter journey details and find a match of someone doing the same journey. This reduces the amount of pressure on the road infrastructure and the amount of pollution from an unnecessary amount of cars when often they only have one person in them. (, 2019). Car sharing schemes, which are particularly effective in the shire, generates more space on roads, which makes active travel a lot more desirable. A scheme which London has adopted is not only having a car-sharing scheme, but to introduce electric cars into the scheme. Zipcar UK added 325 zero emissions electric cars to their fleet in an effort to cut down on an all time high levels of congestion and pollution in the city. This is been a great success as 20,000 trips have been made in the EV cars encouraging a more sustainable way to travel (, 2018). The more people who engage in active travel the less congested and polluted the streets will be. A new measure, which has been implemented, is cycle and pedestrian segregation zones such as on Diamond Bridge (, 2017). The project has been hailed a success, as it has not only been busy with cars but also for people taking part in active travel (McKay, 2017). This highlights that if more areas were to provide designated areas for active travel, in the long run it would contribute greatly to reducing congestion and pollution within the city. Traffic congestion and pollution continue to be, and are likely to always be, issues that impact Aberdeen. This essay has found through analsysing various measures being taken or considered that there are a number of ways to tackle the linked challenges of congestion and pollution. It is clear that initiatives to tackle either congestion or pollution issues has a positive impact on the other. It is important to recognise the contribution that freight traffic and traffic around the shire have had in greatly adding to the congestion in Aberdeen city. The AWPR has been instrumental in tackling the issues in question and has opened up space for new schemes such as the active travel plan, hydrogen buses and park and rides. This has in turn also caused emissions to drop throughout the city. It is important to acknowledge, as has been noted throughout this essay, that future plans such as low emission zones and rolling out the Broad Street model onto Union Street would reduce both congestion and emission. Overall it is evident that the issue of congestion and pollution is beginning to be addressed in Aberdeen although there are still gaps that can be filled in order to further address the problem. References (2017). Aberdeen Active Travel Action Plan 2017-2021. [online] Available at: Active Travel Action Plan.pdf [Accessed 22 Oct. 2019]. (n.d). Clean transport in the city | Aberdeen City Council. [online] Available at: [Accessed 20 Oct. 2019]. (2018). 2018 Air Quality Annual Progress Report (APR) for Aberdeen City Council. [online] Available at: Quality Annual Progress Report 2018.pdf [Accessed 24 Oct. 2019]. (2019). Car Share Scheme. [online] Available at: [Accessed 18 Oct. 2019]. AWPR | Go North East. (n.d.). #GoGreener: Sustainability for North East Scotland | AWPR. [online] Available at: [Accessed 23 Oct. 2019]. Carrier, M., Domingue, J., Duarte, F. and Mercier, J. (2014). Understanding continuity in sustainable transport planning in Curitiba – Jean Mercier, Fabio Duarte, Julien Domingue, Mario Carrier, 2015. [online] SAGE Journals. Available at: [Accessed 28 Nov. 2019]. (2014). Quick Facts – benefits of the Aberdeen Western Peripheral Route. [online] Available at:

CJ 303 San Diego State University Police Discretion & Police Work Discussion

CJ 303 San Diego State University Police Discretion & Police Work Discussion.

Watch the above TedTalk: I Love Being a Police Officer, but We Need Reform Baltimore Police officer Lt. Colonel Melvin Russell instituted a series of reforms aimed at winning back the trust of the community and lowering the violent crime rate.Consider what you have read about police work, the above video, and the discretion that police officers have. Answer the following questions: Summarize Lt. Colonel Russell’s primary message. Do you agree or disagree? Explain.Imagine that Lt. Colonel Russell is lecturing to the San Diego Citizens’ Police Academy about the patrol function. Someone asks, “Lt. Colonel Russell, do your officers enforce all of the laws all of the time? If not, which laws are always enforced, and which ones are not? How do you believe he will respond? How might he fully explain the use of police discretion to the group?Your response should be 1 page min. (1.5 pages max), double-spaced, Times New Roman, 12pt font. Rubric–5/52–Directly and clearly addresses each component of the question. Ideas are logical, well conceived, and developed with sufficient support from course material. 1.5–A minimum of one substantive page. Follows guidelines. Correct grammar and spelling with no errors. 1.5–Includes correct APA citations and work cited.
CJ 303 San Diego State University Police Discretion & Police Work Discussion