Adv 330 case study of management issue named play or stay
Adv 330 case study of management issue named play or stay.
I uploaded three files, case study guidelines, CASE situation, and the case study work that I finished before.I am majoring in Advertising management, and this course is to analyze the case situation, help answer the questions given to us and propose some strategies.Please follow the case study guidelines attentively, especially the formatting.The file called CASE #5 is the finished work, can you please use the same template as the CASE #5 used?Thank you so much. BTW, this is the final case study for my summer semester, so it is of great importance.
Adv 330 case study of management issue named play or stay
Economics Primarily Concerned With Resources Choices Economics Essay
custom writing service Economics is primarily concerned with resource choices, but the various elements that effect the availability of these resources is also an important factor. Economics is the study of the means by which people gain their resources and how they use their resources. Decisions have to be made on which choices to allocate our resources on. These choices are dependent on our tastes, the possessions we already have, the time available to us, the money we have and the scarcity of the item/s we seek to acquire. Each factor is limited, meaning the resources available to us are limited and we cannot have all the items we desire. This requires us to make choices and thereby make sacrifices in making an overall decision. For instance, Peter would like to purchase a gold watch, this watch is highly in demand, unlike the silver watch which is also available. The resources used to manufacture the gold watch are, however limited and therefore Peter has to wait for 2 weeks in order to purchase it, thereby sacrificing 2 weeks without a watch instead of buying the silver watch. He also wanted to purchase a new phone, but substituted it to acquire the gold watch. The opportunity cost of acquiring the gold watch instead of the silver one is 2 weeks without a watch. The opportunity cost of deciding on purchasing a watch is a new phone. i. The curve of GDP at 2004 is calculated by using old prices that do not include inflation. It treats price as constant over time. The curve of GDP at current market prices uses prices of the current year which include inflation prices. These prices are of the current production amounts. The curve of current market prices provides a reflection that does not take inflation into consideration and therefore the large variation in prices that are the lowest and the highest in the graph. The curve of real values is adjusted for inflation, it provides a real representation of the prices. It is therefore less elastic in comparison to the nominal value curve. ii. Highest GDP levels at current market prices: 2002, 2007, 2008 Lowest GDP levels at current market prices: 2004 – 2005 The level of GDP at current market prices was at its highest during the indicated times, because of economic growth, decrease in inflation and improvements in productivity. GDP decreased in the other time periods as the country went through a recession. This may have been caused the bursting of an economic bubble or supply shock which caused the decrease in national spending. iii. Index value for Real GDP in 2007 2004 = base year Index of GDP Nominal values – 3.0% 19.0% 16.0% 100.0 19.0 119.0 2004 = 100 2007 = 119 16% = annual % 19 = % change in Change in GDP from 2004 GDP in 2007 to 2007 Index of Real GDP Values – 1.5% 11.5% 10.0% 100.0 11.5 111.5 2004 = 100 2007 = 111.5 11.5% = annual % 19 = % change in Change in GDP from 2004 GDP in 2007 to 2007 Index of Real GDP in 2007 119/111.5 X 100 = 106.7 Nominal value divided by Real value multiplied by base year value = 106.7 iv. Real GDP Growth from 2001 to 2010 2001 = base year YEAR INDEX OF NOMINAL GDP INDEX OF REAL GDP INDEX OF REAL GDP GROWTH 2001 100.0 100.0 100.0 2002 100.5 100.5 100.0 2003 97.0 100.5 96.5 2004 85.0 91.5 92.9 2005 85.5 94.0 91.0 2006 98.0 101.5 96.6 2007 104.0 103.0 101.0 2008 101.0 101.5 99.5 2009 99.0 100.5 98.5 2010 96.0 99.0 97.0 QUESTION 2 Income and Substitution Effects The changes in price can affect buyers’ purchasing decisions; this effect is called the income effect. Increases in price do not affect the amount of your salary, but they make you feel poorer than you were before, and you therefore buy less. Decreases in price make you feel richer, and therefore you may feel like buying more. A restaurant may sell both hot dogs and hamburgers. If the price of hot dogs rises, but the price of hamburgers stays the same, one may be more inclined to purchase a hamburger. This inclination to adjust your purchase based on changes in comparative price is called the substitution effect. When the price of hot dogs rises, it makes hot dogs relatively expensive and hamburgers relatively cheap, which influences you to purchase a smaller amount of hot dogs and more hamburgers than you normally would. Similarly, a decline in hot dog prices would influence you to eat more hot dogs and fewer hamburgers, according to the substitution effect. Buying decisions are also affected by the income effect when there are two or more goods. When the price of hot dogs goes up, it makes you feel comparatively poorer, so one may be inclined to purchase fewer of both hot dogs and hamburgers. Normal, Inferior, and Giffen Goods If you buy more of a good when your income increases, that good is called a normal good. If you buy less of a good when your income increases that good is called an inferior good. For instance, John regularly buys apples and oranges. His income increases and he subsequently buys more apples and less oranges. The apples are the normal good and the oranges are the inferior good. When one buys more of a good when the price of a good increases, it is called a Giffen good. This equates to an upward sloping demand curve. Such situations are not common, as increase in prices usually results in people buying less of the good. A reason for Giffen goods is that some people associate higher prices with quality, luxury and status. They believe that higher prices increase the perceived value of a product. QUESTION 3 Oligopoly is a market form in which few relatively large firms are dominant. The following characteristics define oligopoly: Oligopolies determine the price of goods in the market. Products in this market form are uniform or differentiated. They maximize profits by producing where marginal revenue is equal to marginal costs. They have high barriers to entry the most significant barriers are patents, the access to expensive and intricate technology, economies of scale and the use of various strategic actions by established firms designed to eliminate emerging firms. The limited number of firms in this market form means that the activities of one firm can influence the activities of the other firms. Oligopolies have perfect knowledge of the costs and demand functions of their own firm, but their knowledge of relevant firms is lacking. Buyers only have imperfect knowledge on the product cost, price and quality. The distinguishing feature of an oligopoly is interdependence. The few large firms in oligopolies are so large that their individual actions affect market actions. The two elements in oligopolistic interdependence are that firms anticipate and react to the behaviour of rival firms. Each competing firm must therefore recognise that every decision they make will provoke a reaction by other firms and must be aware of repercussions resulting from that. The two approaches that may be considered in dealing with interdependence in oligopoly are: Games theory and Kinked demand curve theory. Kinked Demand Theory of Oligopoly Oligopolistic firms may expect competing firms to replicate their price reductions, by reasoning that their rivals would not want to lose market share. Similarly the firm may also expect rival firms to maintain their prices when it raises its prices, reasoning that they would be happy to gain customers from the higher prices of the firm. When the firm perceives that other firms will replicate its price reductions, then its facing demand curve will be inelastic for price reductions. In increasing its prices it would not expect other firms to do the same; therefore its demand curve for price increases would be elastic. The demand curve will therefore have a kink, as illustrated at K in Figure 1. The rival’s price is PR, the section below it is price inelastic and the one above it is price elastic. The marginal revenue curve that is related with this specific kinked demand curve would not be continuous with the gap in it (M1M2 in Figure 1). FIGURE 1 Kinked demand Source: CEM (2003) One can assume that the oligopolist has the usual cost curves. In overlaying them on the revenue and demand curves, it is very likely that the MC curve will pass between the gap at MR (M1M2). This is illustrated in Figure 2. FIGURE 2 Equilibrium in oligopoly Source: CEM (2003) This oligopolist is a profit maximiser, so they will try to ensure that marginal revenue equates to marginal cost. This case is irregular as there is no output at which MC and MR are equal. Higher outputs are able to generate less revenue than costs; therefore Qe will be the best output, because outputs that are lower are able to generate more revenue than cost. Pe is the kink price (price that rivals are charging), the price for output Qe. Due to the fact that oligopolistic firms are protected by barriers to entry, they are able to earn supernormal profit. This is illustrated by Figure 2. Points to draw from the model are: Price competition will be limited. Oligopoly firms are likely to charge similar prices. In Figure 2 the rival firms prices (PR) are similar to our oligopolist’s prices (PR). Price stability will be prevalent. As costs shift, the firms may still maintain similar prices. The relevant output and price will remain unaffected if there is a shift of any kind involving MC between M1 and M2. There is also no theory of price determination. The positive conclusions that are mentioned are supported by the proof of oligopoly actions in the real world. These specific firms are in favour of non-price competition by advertising aggressively, development, research and good after sales service and so forth. They do not participate in price wars. The distinctive feature of an oligopoly is price stickiness. When the prices change, it is mostly due to the consequence of price leadership. This is due to collusion or as a result of a firm’s dominance. Games Theory In a two player game, the rows form the actions of the first player, and the columns form the actions of the second player. The various entries within the matrix represent the utility or payoff to both players. The following example is of the Prisoner’s Dilemma game. The game features two players who partnered in committing a crime. They have been captured by the police and placed in separate cells. They are offered the opportunity to confess. This game is represented by the following matrix of payoffs not confess confess not confess 5,5 -4,10 confess 10,-4 1,1 Source: David K. Levine (undated) The higher numbers represent more utility. If none of the suspects confess, they will be set free and will share the proceeds from their crime. For each suspect this is represented as 5 units of utility. If none of the suspects confess, they will both be set free. If one prisoner testifies against the other and the other does not, the one who testified is set free and receives the full 10 units of utility. The prisoner who did not confess goes to jail and therefore has the -4 unit of utility. If both prisoners were to confess they would both be convicted, but with reduced terms and therefore giving each the 1 unit of utility. The different strategies are based on the motives of prisoners, depending on whether they are looking out for themselves or for the good of both of them. This is similar to the game theoretic problems and public goods problem. For example, two competing firms in the same market may both set high prices for goods which would be best for both firms. However, it would be best for an individual firm if it set low prices and the opposition set high prices. QUESTION 4 Land prices tend to fluctuate in a free market, because the markets are regulated by buyers and sellers. The market aims to maximize profits and do not look out for the general welfare of society. In a free market, prices of various goods may increase or decrease according to the demand of goods. This increase or decrease in demand affects the price of land, because land is the primary factor of production; it is used in all forms of production and its value is therefore easily influenced by the demand of external goods. The government does not impose any tariffs or subsidies; the lack of market intervention and regulation by government enables the suppliers to set the highest prices for land. Land is scarce and cannot be increased, and thus further encourages the prices to be increased as demand is usually high when resources are limited. Overall these elements influence price: The limited regulations; the goals of the market to maximize profits; the scarcity of land which increases demand; and the external goods that require land for them to be produced. These elements along with freedom buyers and sellers have in regulating prices in the market, maximizes the potential for land prices to fluctuate in a free market. Land is a natural resource and the primary factor of production. Its value is created by our need to use land for various purposes such as: mining, transport, education, housing, agriculture and for business activities. â€œWikipedia (2011) states that Land Value Tax is a levy on the unimproved value of land. It is an ad valorem tax on land that disregards the value of buildings, personal property and other improvements.â€ Taxes on land are preferable to taxes on other factors for various reasons. Land Value Taxation is a reasonable way to pay for public services. In comparison to taxes on buildings LVT offers a widespread tax base as it includes empty sites and empty properties. Land belongs to all the citizens of the country; however its scarcity does not allow each citizen to acquire it. The LVT is therefore a form of distributing income and reducing the gap between the rich and poor. This is possible, because the LVT encourages the use of empty sites which are targeted for development. These create job opportunities and wealth. This income distribution also occurs in compensation. For example: with a new railway line built, the value of land near the station would increase, but the value of land nearby the tracks would decrease as a result of the noise and vibration. This land would automatically pay lower LVT without any complicated appeals system. Land Value Tax encourages investment in public services and shifts private investment from land speculation to productive enterprises. This often increases the value of land. The rise in the land value increases the wealth of consumers and increases aggregate demand. In contrast to its role in increasing land prices LVT also deters the escalation of land prices. This allows banks to lower interest rates, which benefits homeowners, industry and small firms. Land Value Tax is cheaper to collect in comparison to other taxes such as: PAYE, NICS and VAT, and it does not demand collection costs from the businesses. With business tax and income tax, tax avoidance experts are vast. With LVT all landowners would be required to register their land and to pay for LVT. Failure to do so would result in the land with no registered owner, being auctioned off to the benefit of the government, which would then most likely use the funds in developing the country.
Healthy People 2020 Goals of Cancer Essay
Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Healthy People 2020: Cancer According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), “Healthy People 2020 is the federal government’s prevention agenda for building a healthier nation. The vision of Healthy People 2020 is to have a society in which all people live long, healthy lives.” ( Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2016). The focus of this paper is the current cancer population; explaining and discussing the targeted goals and objectives regarding cancer patients that were presented in Healthy People 2020. They include current interventions used for treatment, health promotion behaviors, and progress that has been made since 2010 regarding the screening of cancer patients. “The Cancer objectives for Healthy People 2020 support monitoring trends in cancer incidence, mortality, and survival to better assess the progress made toward decreasing the burden of cancer in the United States” (Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion [ODPHP], 2016). Healthy People 2020 has implemented this objective for all types of cancer. There are multiple types of cancer, which are all equally important and unique in their own way. Each individual type of cancer has various treatment modalities, depending on which area of the patient’s body is affected. Healthy People 2020 has a main focus on the top three types of invasive cancers and how to screen for such diagnoses including: breast cancer, cervical cancer and colorectal cancer. Whether it is a family member, a friend, or yourself receiving a cancer diagnosis, your life is forever altered. The targeted goal that Healthy People 2020 have created is to “Reduce the number of new cancer cases, as well as illness, disability, and death caused by cancer. The objectives reflect the importance of promoting evidence-based screening for cervical, colorectal, and breast cancer by measuring the use of screening tests identified in the U.S. Preventivee Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendations” (ODPHP, 2016). In order to meet this goal, the USPSTF has implemented specific protocols to screen for various types of cancer. The USPSTF has established that certain invasive cancers are preventable by reducing risk factors in your everyday life such as: avoiding the use of tobacco or any form of smoking inhalation including vaping, reducing the exposure to UV radiation/sunburns and sun exposure, and avoiding obesity and malnutrition by performing daily exercise/healthy eating habits. Healthy People 2020 also informs readers that other cancers can be prevented by getting vaccinated against human papillomavirus (HPV) and hepatitis B virus ( ODPHP, 2016). Through the limiting of these risk factors, families can put healthy practices into place starting in childhood to prevent a future diagnosis of cancer and promote health and wellness for a lifetime. Healthy People 2020 identifies ways individuals can benefit from annual screenings that identify patients at increased risk for certain cancers. “Screening is effective in identifying some types of cancers in early, often highly treatable stages including; breast cancer (using mammography), cervical cancer (using Pap test alone or combined Pap test and HPV test), colorectal cancer (using stool-based testing, sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy). For cancers with evidence-based screening tools, early detection must address the continuum of care from screening to appropriate follow-up of abnormal test results and referral to cancer treatment” (ODPHP, 2016). These screenings are critical in the early detection, diagnosis, and initiation of treatment for patients to achieve the best possible outcome, as early detection indicates early treatment and an early remission process. After all, there is only one shot at this life and we are given one body, and it is our job to keep our body in the best shape possible throughout that lifetime. Within the last 10 years, unfortunately, the targeted goal Healthy People 2020 had hoped for was not met with the screening of cancers. “Progress toward meeting these objectives is monitored by measuring cancer screening test use against national targets using data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Analysis of 2015 NHIS data indicated that screening test use remains substantially below HP2020 targets for selected cancer screening tests. Although colorectal cancer screening test use increased from 2000 to 2015, no improvements in test use were observed for breast and cervical cancer screening” (ODPHP, 2016). It is an improvement that the screening for colorectal cancer was implemented; however, cervical cancer and breast cancer screening rates remained stagnant. The NHIS proceeded to investigate further as to why this is the case. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), CDC/NCHS reviews the use of cancer screenings being utilized in the United States. The NHIS focuses on why there may be disparities between the screenings of colorectal cancer versus various other types of cancer screenings. “Disparities exist in screening test use by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and health care access indicators. Increased measures to implement evidence-based interventions and conduct targeted outreach are needed if the HP2020 targets for cancer screening are to be achieved and the disparities in screening test use are to be reduced” (White, et al., 2017). Coverage with health insurance and ‘paying out of pocket’ for certain screenings are a significant encumbrance as to why some are unable to complete the Healthy People 2020 targeted goal. Colonoscopies are one of the major ways health care providers screen for colorectal cancer, most insurance companies will cover colonoscopies if you are above the age of 50 due to the high rates of colorectal cancer. If the individual has health insurance coverage that does not cover certain screenings that the patient wishes to undergo, including mammograms and pap smears, the patient now has to pay out of pocket for the test. These tests can cost hundreds to thousands of dollars each, something that is simply not feasible for most working-class Americans to be able to afford. If the patient does not have a family medical history of such cancers and are wishing to screen for cancer due to pain/discomfort in the certain region of the body, they may opt out of the testing due to financial reasons. If they opt out of the screening, they are putting themselves at risk physically but if they perform the tests, they are putting themselves at risk financially. Patients are put in an impossible decision to decide being able to keep their home and feed their families, or early detection of a potentially fatal diagnosis. With the new data about the decrease in cancer screenings, The Affordable Care Act (ACA) has provided hope towards progress in achieving the Healthy People 2020 objectives. The ACA is providing cancer screening to all individuals, regardless of your health insurance coverage. “The Affordable Care Act has helped to reduce such barriers by expanding insurance coverage and eliminating cost sharing, in most insurance plans, for preventive services such as breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening rated A and B by the USPSTF” (White, et al., 2017). This provides Americans with access to health care they can afford, which means that people will be able to participate in recommended annual screenings without being buried by medical debt. Some cancer screenings are advised when you reach a certain age in life and are recommended every so often, like the colonoscopy screening upon your 50th birthday, or an annual mammogram beginning at age 45. **Maybe use a source for these facts?** “The progress in increasing use of colorectal cancer screening is promising, but more needs to be done if the HP2020 target is to be achieved. The lack of progress for breast and cervical cancer screening use highlights the need for more initiatives to reach persons facing barriers to screening. Persons without a usual source of health care and the uninsured had the lowest test use, with the overwhelming majority of the uninsured not up to date with breast and colorectal cancer screening” (Bentio, et al., 2017). There are multiple ways the health care provider can use patient education regarding the importance of cancer screening. If the individual does not have a primary care provider due to financial disturbances, they will not receive the same patient education and reminders. The Community Preventive Services Task Force (CPSTF) recommends the use of client reminders to increase colorectal cancer screening with fecal occult blood testing based on strong evidence of effectiveness. “Client reminders are written (letter, postcard, email) or telephone messages (including automated messages) advising people that they are due for screening. Client reminders may be enhanced by one or more of the following: Follow-up printed or telephone reminders, additional text or discussion with information about the indications for, benefits of, and ways to overcome barriers to screening, assistance in scheduling appointments” (ODPHP, 2016). If the patient has a primary care provider they see on a regular basis, they will continuously hear the need and importance for these screenings each time they visit the office. In most offices, there are visual boards and posters inside the waiting room as well as individual treatment rooms identifying the importance of health promotion including cancer screening. Often times there are also pamphlets, magazines and TV channels that are directed towards these topics. The patients who do not have a primary care provider will not hear the suggestions for the recommended screening, they will not have access to assistance with scheduling appointments and they will not see the health care promotions in office. Lack of a reliable primary care provider puts patients at a huge disadvantage when it comes to preventive care and screenings. “The objectives for Healthy People 2020 assess whether people understand and remember the information they receive about cancer screening. Research shows patients cite a recommendation from a health care provider as the most important reason for having cancer screening tests” (ODPHP, 2016). In order to achieve their goal of the increased cancer screening throughout the United States, there needs to be some changes with the health care coverage and financial portion of the process. “Progress toward achieving the HP2020 targets will require implementation of evidence-based interventions to increase cancer screening. Such interventions can be both provider- and patient-oriented. Screening among some racial and ethnic minorities and medically underserved populations is suboptimal and innovative approaches to eliminate these disparities might be needed” (Slyne, et al., 2017). Along with the screening, patient education and nursing interventions at bedside remain critical components of community health care promotion. Nurses play a huge role in the promotion of health care and guiding our patients towards the goals outlined in Healthy People 2020. Ever present at the bedside, nurses are their patients’ trusted navigator through the scary and unknown; guiding them not only physically, but emotionally and spiritually towards health and recovery. Through our patient education teachings, we can help steer our patients towards a great understanding and sense of control when it comes to making positive decisions regarding their health. We can translate foreign medical terms into concepts that the patient can truly understand and provide the support that is needed to face scary realities and make tough choices following a cancer diagnosis. The cancer diagnosis is only the first step, what follows that diagnosis is what brings on stress, emotions, and financial burdens that will change the life of the patient and their family. With chemotherapy and radiation comes hair loss, weight loss, constant hospital admissions, and general fatigue. Surgery means a change in physical appearance and pain which will alter their self-esteem, body image, and often leads to depression. It can be completely traumatizing losing a portion of your body that had to be cut out and removed due to the diagnosis of cancer. Nursing education and spiritual healing are so important at that moment, and it is the nurse’s duty to ensure that a holistic approach is taken with the patient, not only focusing on the medicine, but the soul of the person they’re treating. Jan Preston wrote a fantastic article that marks the importance of the nurse’s role in prevention of cancer. In her article she explains how nurses need to lay a groundwork of education with their patients, referring to how one needs to walk before they can run. “Because cancer is not a single disease and each cancer experience is individual, outcomes can be hard to predict, and fear of the unknown during that journey and beyond can be overwhelming. The need to change the environment to ensure the healthy choice is the easiest choice is missing. It mentions healthy weight, healthy eating, physical activity and fewer people smoking. Increased cessation advice is to be given in hospitals and primary health-care settings” (Pearson, 2015). With the little progress the 2010-2020 goals, some major aspects need to change in order for the CDC and Healthy People to meet any goal they attempt to implement. Nursing care can assist in this cause by using a holistic model approach during nursing education. This can include helping patients find an AA meeting, making a weight loss goal that is within limits, creating a food diary to track intake/output and searching for apps to assist with weight loss goals and at home exercises. The goals for Healthy People 2020 are designed to decrease the number of diagnosed cancer patients and mortalities. In order to meet this goal many things need to change, including: patient education, insurance coverage and health care promotion. The aspect of nursing that correlates with this goal is to understand the impact of the cancer diagnosis and how to care for someone who has a recent cancer diagnosis or currently undergoing treatment. It also touches upon how nurses can use patient education to ensure patients will want to take care of themselves and make positive healthy choices in their everyday lives. Every cancer treatment plan individualized for that specific patient, it is imperative that nurses ensure they utilize the evidence-based practice of the holistic model of care. It takes a special person to become a nurse, but an extra special nurse to specialize in oncology. References Benito, L., Lluch, M. T., Falcó, A. M., García, M.,
Create A Program Evaluation
Create A Program Evaluation.
Unit V Case StudyWeight: 10% of course gradeGrading RubricDue: Monday, 01/18/2021 11:59 PM (CST)InstructionsFor this assignment, read the case study, “Nutristar” starting on page 342 of your textbook. Once you have read and reviewed the case scenario, respond to the following questions with thorough explanations and well-supported rationale.Create a program evaluation and review technique (PERT), Gantt, or critical path method (CPM) network diagram for this project. Which path do you expect to be the critical path, and what is its expected completion time?What are the process resource allocations and your recommended monitoring processes?How might the project manager at Nutristar incorporate simulation analysis into his or her risk analysis process?Your response should be a minimum of two pages in length and follow APA style. References should include your textbook and a minimum of one additional credible source. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations in APA style.ResourcesThe following resource(s) may help you with this assignment.Citation Guide
Create A Program Evaluation