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Financial Crises and the Subprime Meltdown Problem Solution Essay

Financial Crises and the Subprime Meltdown Problem Solution Essay. Introduction Financial crises greatly disrupt financial markets “characterized by sharp declines in asset and firm failures” (“Financial crises and Subprime Meltdown” 196). Starting from August 2007, the defaults in subprime mortgage markets in the U.S shook the financial markets, contributing to the most horrible financial crisis from the time of the Great Depression and to several banking crises all over the world. Allan Greenspan, the former chairman of the United States Federal Reserve gave a description to financial crises as “a once-in-a-century credit tsunami” (“Financial crises and Subprime Meltdown” 196). Moreover, the commercial banks as well as Wall Street firms incurred big losses. The households as well as businesses faced a situation in which they had to pay increased rates on their loans and it was more difficult to obtain credit. There was crashing of the financial markets across the world which fell by more than forty percent from their peak (ADB 1). A large number of the financial companies, encompassing the investment banks and commercial banks among others “went belly up” (“Financial crises and Subprime Meltdown” 196). In this paper, there is going to be a review of literature concerning the financial crises and Subprime meltdown and this will be followed by a discussion on the relevant tools for tackling the problem of financial crises and the policy implications. The conclusion section will provide a summary of the main points in the discussion. The Financial Crises and Subprime Meltdown A financial crisis comes about when a rise in “asymmetric information from a disruption in the financial system causes severe adverse selection and moral hazard problems that render financial markets incapable of channelling funds efficiently from savers to households and firms with productive investment opportunities” (“Financial crises and Subprime Meltdown” 196). When the financial markets do not work in an efficient manner, there is a sharp contracting of economic activity. To get the knowledge about the reasons why there is occurrence of the finical crises and how they contribute towards contracting the economic activity, there is a need to look at the factors which cause them. There are six classes of factors which play a significant part in financial crises and these include; “asset market effects on balance sheets, deterioration in financial institutions’ balance sheets, banking crises, increases in uncertainty, increases in interest rates, and government fiscal imbalances” (“Financial crises and Subprime Meltdown” 197). “Assets Market Effects on Balance Sheets” A big decline in stock market is among the factors which can bring about grave deterioration in the balance sheets of the borrowing firms. Subsequently, deterioration can bring up the level of adverse selection as well as moral hazard issues within the financial markets and trigger a financial crisis. A stock market decline implies that the “net worth” of companies has gone down, since the share prices “are the valuation of a corporation’s net worth” (“Financial crises and Subprime Meltdown” 197). The decline in the net worth causes the lenders to have little willingness to lend and this is for the reason that a firm’s net worth plays a role which is similar to the one played by collateral. In case the collateral value declines, it offers reduced protection to the lenders, implying that there is likelihood that the losses that are incurred on loans will be harsher. Since lenders have now less protection against the effects of adverse selection, they bring down the level of their lending which subsequently results in a decline in aggregate output as well as investment (“Financial crises and Subprime Meltdown” 196). “Deterioration in Financial Institutions’ Balance Sheet” The financial institutions, especially banks, play a very big role in the financial markets for the reason that they are in a better position to take part in the “information-producing” activities which help in facilitating fruitful investment (“Financial crises and Subprime Meltdown” 197). The state of the balance sheets of banks as well as other financial institutions significantly affects lending. In case there is a deterioration in the balance sheets of financial institutions experience, this will lead to great contraction in these institutions’ capital. These financial institutions have reduced resources to lend and there will eventually be a decline in lending. The contracting lending subsequently contributes towards having declining investment spending and this brings down the level of economic activity (“Financial crises and Subprime Meltdown” 196). Banking Crises In case the deterioration in the balance sheets of the financial institutions is severe to a high level, these institutions will begin failing; TV-Here can be spreading of fear among institutions and even making the health one “to collapse” (“Financial crises and Subprime Meltdown” 198). For the reason that banks do have deposits which can rapidly be pulled out, they are especially vulnerable to infectivity of this kind. A “bank panic” comes about when a large number of banks experience failure at the same time. During a panic, those who deposit, having fear for their deposits’ safety and not having knowledge about the quality of loan portfolios of banks, engage in withdrawing their deposits to a level that banks fail. In case some banks are not able to succeed within a short span, there will definitely be a loss of information production that may occurs in the financial markets, so there is also direct loss of the financial intermediation of banks (“Financial crises and Subprime Meltdown” 198). A reduction in bank lending in the course of banking crisis causes a reduction in the supply of the funds that are available to the borrowers, which contributes towards having increased interest rates. The bank panics cause a rise in adverse selection as well as moral hazard issues within the credit markets. These issues or problems create an even increased decline in lending in order to facilitate “productive investments and lead to an even more severe contraction in economic activity” (“Financial crises and Subprime Meltdown” 198). “Increase in Uncertainty” A remarkable rise in uncertainty within the financial markets, possibly as a result of an outstanding financial institution, or a recession or a crash in the stock markets, causes it to be difficult for the lenders to be able to engage in screening bad as well as good credit risks (Stiglitz 133). The consequential lack of ability of lender to be able to find a solution to the problem of adverse selection causes them to have less willingness to lend and this contributes towards having a reduction in lending as well as investment and total economic activity. “Increases in Interest Rates” The businesses as well as individuals having the most risky projects are those that have the willingness of paying the “highest interest rates” (“Financial crises and Subprime Meltdown” 199). In case higher demand for credit or a reduction in the supply of money causes an increase in the interest rates adequately, “good credit risks” have a low likelihood to be willing to borrow. On the other hand, “bad credit risks” still have the willingness to engage in borrowing. Due to the consequential rise in “adverse selection”, the lender will not want to make loans any longer. The remarkable reduction in lending will contribute towards having a remarkable reduction in investment as well as in the overall economic activity (Minsky 22). The increases in the rates of interest also serve to promote a financial crisis via the effect they have on cash flow, the difference that is there between the expenditures and cash receipts. A business organization that has enough cash flow can fund its projects within, and there exists no “asymmetric information” for the reason that it has knowledge about “how good its own projects are” (hdgnn199). In the presence of increased “adverse selection” as well as moral hazard, a bank may make a choice not to lend even in the cases where firms which are “good risks” and have the willingness to carry out prospectively gainful investments. Therefore, in case cash reduces following a rise in the rates of interest, the moral hazard issues as well as adverse selection turn out to be more severe, once more limiting investment as well as lending and economic activity. “Government Fiscal Imbalances” In the emerging economies, the “government fiscal imbalances” may serve to “create fears of default on government debt” (“Financial crises and Subprime Meltdown” 199). Consequently, the demand for the individual investors for the government bonds may go down and this will cause the government to engage in forcing the financial institutions to buy these bonds. In case the price of the debt goes down, the balance sheets of the financial institutions will become weak and there will be contracting of their lending. The fears regarding government debt default, can as well ignite a “foreign exchange crisis” where the domestic currency value goes down greatly for the reason that investors “pull their money out of the country” (“Financial crises and Subprime Meltdown” 199). A reduction in the value of the local currency will in turn contribute towards damaging the firms’ balance sheets with big amounts of “debt denominated in foreign currency” (“Financial crises and Subprime Meltdown” 199). Such balance sheet issues contribute towards having a rise in adverse selection as well as in “moral hazard problems”, a reduction in lending and reduced economic activity. Recommendations and Policy Implications It is true to point out that the capital market is a significant component of the “financial system” due to its unique roles in any country’s economy. These roles were identified by Levine as “raising capital for business, mobilizing savings for investment, facilitating company’s growth, redistribution of wealth, promotion of corporate governance, creating investment opportunities for small investors, government capital raising avenue for development projects and barometer of the economy” (Levine 1445). Serving a role as a big source of suitable long-term finances, the capital market is clearly critical for the economic development of any country across the world. This market plays a major role in facilitating economic growth by, for instance, mobilization of savings from various economic units like institutional investors, governments and individuals for users like the private sector and the government. It as well serves to bring improvement in the capital allocation efficiency through a pricing mechanism that is competitive. Basing on the significant role played by the capital market, as well as the incredible negative effect of the financial crises on the development of capital markets across the world, the governments have to ensure that they restore the public confidence in this market and make sure that it is a lively capital market (Augustine, Pius and Umar 345). Moreover, development of banks is a very important move towards improving a country’s economy. This is true especially when the undeveloped financial system is considered. There is a need to take a move to improve the level of efficiency within the banking system. No bank is supposed to be allowed to fail. Such a move is regarded as being very important when it is “compared with the contagious effect associated with bank failure” (Augustine, Pius and Umar 345). But on the other hand, an efficient financial system is not formed by just banks; the capital market is as well a vital part of the system. Researches that have been conducted indicate that the stock markets as well as banks complement one another in the attainment of economic growth and development. Following the financial crises, banks and the stock markets were affected negatively. But on the other hand, some governments were quick to protected the depositors in banking sector and at the same time allowing those investing in the stock market “to their fate” (Augustine, Pius and Umar 345). Such particular action has the power to weaken the stock market development. The affected investors will go on shying away from undertaking investment in the capital market. This can have two policy implications for a country’s economy (Krugman 11). The first implication is that firms will just have a single funding source which is the bank. The effect of this is that “the long-term end of financial system will remain atrophid and firms will be highly levered which translates to higher risk” (Augustine, Pius and Umar 345). At the end, this will contribute towards firms disappearing. The second implication is that a country’s economy can suffer from issues which are linked to economies that are bank-based. In the course of funding firms, banks are able to access information which is unavailable to other lending institutions. The banks can utilize information like that to engage in extracting rents from the firms. At the point of undertaking fresh investments or renegotiation of debts, the banks may be able to have “bargaining power over a firm’s expected future profits” (Augustine, Pius and Umar 345). The banks that are more powerful can disproportionately big profit share, in order that the firms will have very less motivations to carry out “high risk and profitable projects” (Augustine, Pius and Umar 345). Moreover, when the banks make a move of entering a debt contract with the firms, they naturally have an inclination towards “low risk projects that have high profitability of success” (Augustine, Pius and Umar 345). However, the problem of this conduct is that the projects classified as “low risk” are, in general, low-return investments. Thus, the systems that are bank-based can limit technological innovation as well as long-term economic growth. Evidence has been found by Weinstein and Yafeh which supports the two points. These researchers indicate that, as on one hand intimate relationship between firms and banks bring up the level of capital availability to the borrowing companies, on the other hand, they do not essentially contribute towards growth (Weinstein and Yafeh 635). As a matter of fact, the firms’ capital cost with close bank links is greater than “that of their peers, which suggests that most of the benefits from these relationships are appropriated by banks” (Augustine, Pius and Umar 346). The slow bank customer rate of growth also serves to show that banks put off firms from undertaking investment in projects that are classified as risky but profitable. In addition, the banks that are powerful can engage in colluding with managers against the outsiders and this eventually hinder competition as well as corporate controls, new firm creation and therefore leading to the economic growth in the long term. Evidence is offered by Wenger and Kaserer from the Germany where there is misinterpretation of the firms’ balance sheets by the banks to the public and they give encouragement to the managers of the firms to engage in misbehaving (Wenger and Kaserer 13). Moreover, an argument is presented by Allen and Gale that, even if intermediaries can be effectual at doing away with duplication of the processing as well as gathering of information, they can achieve less success in handling uncertainty as well as innovation and fresh ideas (Allen and Gale 70). For instance, new technology evaluation is difficult because of lack of the availability of adequate information regarding the potential returns since it is hard to judge the information itself “without some expertise” (Augustine, Pius and Umar 346). The broad possibility range and the absence of hard data imply there is always remarkable diversity of views. The “bank-based financial systems” involve “underfunding of new technologies” (Pius and Umar 346). Since these systems make it possible for individuals to either reach an agreement or disagree, and thus enable coalitions of people having same views to come together in order to fund projects, markets are quite effectual at funding new industries or industries in which there is limited availability of information and where there is persevering of opinion diversity. Based on this, it can be recommended that governments are supposed to engage in exploring ways of how to win back the confidence in the capital market. The governments are supposed to engage in reinforcing sufficient regulatory supervision. This can be realized by greatly enhancing the double role of effectual regulatory supervision and development of capital markets. This calls for dealing with weak governance as well as inadequate ability as seen in market in the recent times. Conclusion The financial crises bring about big disruptions to financial markets marked by sharp reductions in assets and lead to firm failures. The financial crises are caused by the effects of the asset market on balance sheets, worsening of the financial institutions’ balance sheets, the banking crises, rise in the level of uncertainty, increases in the rate of interest, and government financial imbalances. Considering the important function played by the capital market, and the great adverse effect of the financial crises on the growth of capital markets all over the world, the governments are supposed to make sure that they bring back the confidence of the public in this market and also ensure that it is a lively capital market. Works Cited ADB. The Impact of the Global Financial and Crisis on Africa, 2009. Web. Allen, Frederick. and David Gale. “Diversity of Opinion and Financing of New Technologies”, Journal of Financial Intermediation 8.1 (1999): 68-89. Augustine, Ujunwa, Salami Pius and Ahmed Umar. The global financial crisis: realities and implications for Nigerian capital market. American Journal of Social and Management Sciences, 2.3 (2011): 341 – 347. Financial crises and Subprime Meltdown. n.d. Web. Krugman, Peter. What Happened to Asia? Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1998. Print. Levine, Robert. “Stock Market, Growth, and Tax Policy”, Journal Finance, 46.4 (1991): 1445-1465. Minsky, Philip. The Financial Instability Hypothesis. Working Paper No 74, May 1992. The Jerome Levy Economics Institute of Bard College. Handbook of Radical Political Economy. (eds.) Philip Arestis and Malcolm Sawyer, Edward Elgar. New York: Aldershot, 1993. Stiglitz, John. “Credit Markets and the Control of Capital”, Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking, 17.1 (1985): 133-152. Weinstein, Daniel. and Yusuf Yafeh. “On the Costs of a Bank-Centered Financial System: Evidence from the Changing Bank Relations in Japan”, Journal of Finance, 53.4 (1998): 635-672. Wenger, Edward. and Charles Kaserer. “The German System of Corporate Governance: A Model Which Should not be Imitated”, in S.W. Black and M. Moersch (eds.), Competition and Convergence in Financial Markets: The German and Anglo- American Models. New York: North Holland. Financial Crises and the Subprime Meltdown Problem Solution Essay
do requirement.

Read My most significant personal accomplishments file word and Read My peer feedback file word Read the feedback you received from your peers.2. Taking their feedback into consideration and thinking about your own accomplishments,knowledge, skills, and abilities, what ideas for a new business can you think of that would build onyour experience and expertise?3. Identify at least two ideas that you like and would be prepared to work on for the rest of thesemester…explain how these opportunities fit with your experience and skills(My idea1- Open Real Estate Office2- Open a consulting services office
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Houston Community College System Ethics and Values Case B Analysis.

Directions 1. Choose one of the following case studies: Case A: In the US, our system of disaster triage is based upon which ethical principle? Health care providers triage rapidly, electing to use resources to provide the most care to the greatest number of people, as opposed to expending maximum resources on a single critically ill person who is unlikely to survive. Response: Discuss which principle is evident here and which other principles may come into play during triage. OR Case B: A hospital organization wishes to donate low or no-cost pediatric dental services to the community. There are openings for 45 children per month. Justice requires a fair method, that is free from bias, to determine who will receive these services. Response: How do the health care providers decide who gets care? How does utilitarianism interface with justice? 2. Submit Initial and Peer Response Posts into Discussion Board site named: Values and Ethics. 3. Follow the Guidelines for Initial and Peer Response Postings for Formal Discussion Board previously outlined in this syllabus under Assignments and Submissions Guidelines, as well as in the D2L tab in the Table of Contents with this title.
Houston Community College System Ethics and Values Case B Analysis

The Temperature Sensors Engineering Essay

There are four main temperature-sensing devices available: thermocouples, resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), thermistors, and temperature-transducing ICs. These sensors translate the temperature into a reference voltage, resistance or current, which is then measured and processed and a numerical temperature value is computed. The Seebeck Effect – if a circuit is made by joining two wires of different metals, any difference in temperature between the joints will produce an EMF which will cause a current to flow in the circuit. Using favourable materials, this EMF will be of the order of 3 to 5 millivolts per 100°C difference between the junctions, and has an approximately linear relationship to temperature. The choice of thermocouple type will be determined mainly by the range and cost. In cases where replacement sensors are required, the thermocouple type will usually be dictated by the existing instrumentation. Limitation of use in ambient temperature range Because the output signal is dependant upon the difference in temperature between the sensing junction and the reference junction (often called the cold-junction, and usually situated inside the measuring instrument), thermocouples are not suitable for measuring or controlling temperatures close to ambient unless the system for measuring the reference junction is exceptionally good. Where low-cost industrial instruments with built-in reference junctions are used, thermocouples are generally not considered to be suitable for use at temperatures within 60°C of that of the instrument. Accuracy The accuracy of thermocouples depends upon the quality of the element materials, and three classes of accuracy are defined by British Standards. Similar classifications apply to other national standards. For further information about accuracy see inside back cover. Grounded and isolated junctions Thermocouple assemblies may be manufactured with the sensing junction grounded to the sheath or electrically insulated (“isolated”) from it. Grounded junctions are usually cheaper to produce and have a faster response, but some control systems will function correctly only with isolated junctions . Leadwire extension Whenever a wire in a thermocouple circuit is joined to a wire or terminal made of a different material another thermocouple will be created at the joint. If such connections between the sensing junction and the measuring instrument are at temperatures different from that of the reference junction, errors will be produced. When thermocouple leads are extended it is therefore essential to use cable made of the same materials as the thermocouple or of materials which have the same thermoelectric characteristic at the temperatures likely to occur at the joints. Cable with conductors of the same materials as the thermocouple element is referred to as extension cable, whereas cable with conductors of cheaper materials with similar characteristics is known as compensating cable. As a general rule compensating cable should not be used if the temperature at the joints exceeds 100°C. Similarly, if plugs and sockets or terminal blocks are used in thermocouple circuits, the contacts or terminals should be of the same material as the thermocouple element. Plug and socket connectors and terminal blocks of this type are available from Testemp, for further information about extension leads see back cover, and for connectors Resistance thermometers Basic principle Resistance thermometers are a traditional method of precision temperature measurement, and work on the principle of increase of resistance of a metal with increasing temperature. By far the most widely used material for this purpose is platinum, which is usually employed as a fine wire embedded in ceramic or glass, or as a thin film deposited on a ceramic substrate. Standards The most usual standard is Pt100 (100 ohms at 0°C), but several other standards are in use (e.g. 130 ohms at 0°C, 1000 ohms at 0°C). Suitability for use in ambient temperature range Resistance thermometers are available for measuring temperatures within the range -220°C to 850°C, and unlike thermocouples, they perform well in the ambient and blood temperature ranges. Accuracy Resistance thermometers are generally more accurate and stable than thermocouples. The accuracy depends upon the degree of precision in their manufacture, and three classes of accuracy are defined by British Standards. Connection systems Resistance thermometer assemblies are manufactured to suit four different connection systems: 2-wire, 3-wire, 4-wire current/voltage, and 4-wire blind loop (see back cover). The 3- and 4-wire systems provide correction for the resistance of the leads. Most ordinary instruments with resistance thermometer input are intended for use with 3-wire sensors, but can be used with 2-wire sensors by shorting out one pair of terminals, although this will result in some loss of accuracy Instruments designed for use with 4-wire sensors should be used with sensors of that type whenever possible . Leadwire extension Resistance thermometer leads can be extended using copper wire with appropriate insulation for the working conditions. Good quality electrical connectors and terminal blocks can be used in resistance thermometer circuits. Thermistors Basic principle Thermistors are solid-state devices that operate on the basis of change of electrical resistance with temperature and are available as negative temperature coefficient (NTC – resistance falls with rising temperature), or positive temperature coefficient (PTC – resistance increases with rising temperature). NTC is the most usual type for temperature measurement, and the rate of change of resistance with temperature is very much higher than that of a resistance thermometer, providing high sensitivity within a small temperature span. This makes thermistors very suitable for measuring temperatures around ambient and for medical applications. Temperature range The overall temperature range in which thermistors can be used is approximately -80°C to 400°C. ‘The characteristics are determined by the manufacturers, and a wide range of types are available. Unlike thermocouples and resistance thermometers, there are no universally accepted standards but certain values are widely used (e.g. 5K, 10K and 100K ohms at 25°C), and the choice of value will depend upon the operating temperature range. Apart from the over-temperature devices mentioned below, Testemp will only supply thermistor assemblies if the element is supplied free issue or if its exact specification and source of supply are advised by the customer. Leadwire extension Thermistor leads can be extended with copper wire, and if the thermistor is appropriate for the temperature range the resistance of the leads will be negligible compared with that of the device itself. Good quality electrical connectors and terminal blocks can be used in thermistor circuits Over-temperature thermistors Some PTC thermistors undergo a sudden large increase of resistance (e.g. from 100 ohms to 10K ohms) at a certain temperature. These can be used with very simple circuitry to provide an overtemperature warning or safety trip. Assemblies using such devices are available from Testemp to switch at 80°C, 90°C and 120°C. The switching temperature must be specified at the time of order and cannot be changed. Temperature – sensing integrated circuits These are semiconductor devices which provide a linear millivolt output related to temperature. The type normally used by Testemp is the R.S. Components LM35 CZ (317-960) which operates in the range -40°C to 110°C and has a linear output of 10mV/°C. This high sensitivity makes these elements very suitable for use in the ambient and blood-temperature ranges. Temperature-transducer ICs Semiconductor temperature sensors are produced in the form of ICs. Their design results from the fact that semiconductor diodes have temperature-sensitive voltage vs. current characteristics. When two identical transistors are operated at a constant ratio of collector current densities, the difference in base-emitter voltages is directly proportional to the absolute temperature. The use of IC temperature sensors is limited to applications where the temperature is within a -55° to 150°C range. The measurement range of IC temperature sensors may be small compared to that of thermocouples and RTDs, but they have several advantages: they are small, accurate, and inexpensive. Temperature sensing ICs are available either in analog form, which output a voltage or current which is proportional to the temperature, or digital, which communicate temperature over a digital communication line, such as one-wire PWM, two-wire I2C, or a multiple wire SPI connection. Projects That Use Temperature Sensors The Sonic City project developed a wearable system that creates music based on data from sensors measuring bodily and environmental factors. This includes environmental temperature measurements. A videjo summarising the project is linked to in the media section below, and Viktoria site for the project has a more detailed description. Sound Kitchen includes temperature sensors and uses voltage changes in liquids to create music. The liquids include wine, soda and other items you might find in a kitchen, and the over all aesthetic connects strongly with cooking. Comparison of temperature sensor types The following table offers a comparison of the different characteristics of the various temperature sensor types. Characteristic Platinum RTD Thermistor Thermocouple TemperatureIC Active Material Platinum Wire Metal Oxide Ceramic Two Dissimilar Metals Silicon Transistors Changing Parameter Resistance Resistance Voltage Voltage or Current TemperatureRange -200°C to 500°C -40°C to 260°C -270°C to 1750°C -55°C to 150°C Sensitivity 2 mv/°C 40 mV/°C 0.05 mV/°C ~1 mv/°C or ~1 uA/°C Accuracy -45 to 100°C: ±0.5°C; 100 to 500°C: ±1.5°C; 500 to 1200°C: ±3°C -45 to 100°C: ±0.5°C; degrades rapidly over 100°C 0 to 275°C: ±1.5 °C to ±4°C; 275 to 1260°C: ±0.5 to ±0.75% ±2 °C Linearity Excellent Logarithmic, Poor Moderate Excellent Response Time 2-5 s 1-2 s 2-5 s Stability Excellent Moderate Poor Excellent Base Value 100 Ω to 2 kΩ 1 kΩ to 1 MΩ < 10 mV Various Noise Susceptibility Low Low High High Drift /- 0.01% for 5 years /- 0.2 to 0.5°F per year 1 to 2°F per year 0.1°C per month Special Requirements Lead Compensation Linearization Reference Junction None Device Cost $60 – $215 $10 – $350 $20 – $235 $5 – $50 Relative System Cost Moderate Low to Moderate Moderate Low Application of temperature sensors:- Temperature sensors attach to and embed within solid material in a variety of applications and by a variety of means. In many of these applications, there is a fear the sensor can come loose or detach from the solid material, resulting in temperature measurement errors and long response times. Fortunately, the LCSR method works to help determine whether or not a sensor is in good contact with a solid material. The method is useful for RTDs, thermocouples, and strain gauges. The figure below shows LCSR transients from laboratory testing of a thin-film RTD with varying degrees of bonding. It is clear the LCSR signal is sensitive to the degree of bonding between each sensor and the solid material. The TS-540 is a LM335A IC temperature sensor from National Semiconductor and operates over a temperature range of -40C to 100C. It is a linear temperature-to-voltage sensor with an output directly proportional to absolute temperature at 10mV/K and can be calibrated for ILX Lightwave Temperature Controllers except the LDC-3916 Laser Diode Controllers. The TS-540 is a metal case TO-46 transistor three leaded package. At 25°C, calibration accuracy is 1°C (0.5C typical). The AD590 is a small temperature sensor that converts a temperature input into a proportional current output. The advanced technology in the AD590 is especially suited for special temperature measurement and control applications between -55 and 150°C when solid state reliability, linearity and accuracy are required. The AD590 temperature sensor can be used to determine minimum, average, and differential temperatures, in addition to being used for thermocouple cold junction compensation and temperature control applications. The size and responsiveness of the AD590 make it perfect for uses where size is a consideration, such as on PC boards or heat sinks. Just power up and measure absolute temperature (Kelvin). No linearization, amplification or cold junction compensation is required. temperature sensors deviation:- If the sensor is not ideal, several types of deviations can be observed: The sensitivity may in practice differ from the value specified. This is called a sensitivity error, but the temperature sensor is still linear. Since the range of the output signal is always limited, the output signal will eventually reach a minimum or maximum when the measured property exceeds the limits. The full scale range defines the maximum and minimum values of the measured property. If the output signal is not zero when the measured property is zero, the temperature sensor has an offset or bias. This is defined as the output of the sensor at zero input. If the sensitivity is not constant over the range of the temperature sensor, this is called nonlinearity. Usually this is defined by the amount the output differs from ideal behavior over the full range of the sensor, often noted as a percentage of the full range. If the deviation is caused by a rapid change of the measured property over time, there is a dynamic error. Often, this behaviour is described with a bode plot showing sensitivity error and phase shift as function of the frequency of a periodic input signal. If the output signal slowly changes independent of the measured property, this is defined as drift (telecommunication). Long term drift usually indicates a slow degradation of temperature sensor properties over a long period of time. Noise is a random deviation of the signal that varies in time. Hysteresis is an error caused by when the measured property reverses direction, but there is some finite lag in time for the sensor to respond, creating a different offset error in one direction than in the other.

Health Government Accounting Principles Affordable Care Act Discussion

essay writing help Health Government Accounting Principles Affordable Care Act Discussion.

I’m working on a health & medical writing question and need an explanation to help me study.

2classmate discussions with 2 references each one: Introduction: The healthcare reform that had a great impact on the American people was the enactment of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The legislation included numerous provisions directed towards affordable health coverage and quality care (Warner et al., 2020).Discussion: The benefit of the ACA is that it slowed the rise of health care costs. It do so by prevention. By providing health insurance to millions of Americans, they were able to find a primary care provider and address their health issues before they got so severe that they had to go the hospital. The ACA also requires insurances to cover costs of mental health, addiction, and chronic illnesses (Amadeo, 2020). States were given incentives for implementing the ACA. They were given the priveldge of constructing the Medicaid program to their own liking and using their own discression (Weissert & Weissert, 2019). Conclusion: Medicare and Medicaid were a great beginning in health care, but then the Affordable Care Act came, and it had such a large impact. ACA provided affordable health insurance to millions and restricted insurance companies from declining coverage for patients with preexisting condition. Its goal was to reduce government spending on healthcare, and it did so by prevention. ReferencesAmadeo, K. (2020, December 25). 2010 Patient Protection & Affordable Care Act Summary. Retrieved May 8, 2021, from https://www.thebalance.com/2010-patient-protection…Warner, J., Benjamin, I., Churchwell, K., Firestone, G., Gardner, T., Johnson, J., . . . Harrington, R. (2020, February 03). Advancing healthcare Reform: The American Heart Association’s 2020 Statement of Principles for Adequate, Accessible, and Affordable Health Care: A Presidential advisory from the American Heart Association. Retrieved May 12, 2021, from https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/CIR.000000…Weissert, W. G. & Weissert, C. S. (2019). Governing health: The politics of health policy (5th ed.). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN- 9781421428949.Two: Introduction. “The Affordable Care Act includes a number of provisions that reform the health insurance market. These reforms work to put American consumers back in charge of their health coverage and care, ensuring they receive value for their premium dollars” (Health Insurance Market Reforms). The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act was one of the most significant health care reforms placed into law. The Affordable Care Act was put into place to ensure that millions of Americans would have access to affordable health care and other health care initiatives. These initiatives will impact the cost of, access to, and quality of health services and health insurance. Discussion. Most health care reforms are put into place due to the high cost of insurance. This was one of the main reasons that the Affordable Care Act was put into place. The Affordable Care Act made health insurance affordable to many Americans and saved the government money. It expanded access to health insurance by relaxing the qualifications needed to obtain insurance. The Affordable Care Act also motivated more Americans to get health insurance by implementing a fee for those who do not have health insurance. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act increased access to health insurance and increased the quality of health services. The ACA implemented care models that allow patients to have access to their health care providers or nurses when needed, and since the ACA has been signed into place, there have been fewer preventable deaths. “Here’s how this landmark law is improving health care for you: you are healthier after a hospital stay, you get more time with your doctor when you need it, you’re paying less, and your taxpayer dollars are going toward better investments” (Somanader, 2015). Conclusion. All in all, health care reforms are put into place to increase the quality of care and insurance, reduce the costs of visits and insurance, and allow those who do not have access to healthcare access to the same health care as those who are in a higher class. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act was placed into law to do just that. “Reform can be frightening. When the stars align properly, the solutions can be ready to go, and we get the substantial, if not quite comprehensive, reforms such as those of 2010” (Weissert & Weissert, 2019). ReferencesHealth Insurance Market Reforms. CMS. (n.d.). https://www.cms.gov/CCIIO/Programs-and-Initiatives/Health-Insurance-Market-Reforms. Somanader, T. (2015, March 25). 4 Ways the Affordable Care Act Is Improving the Quality of Health Care in America. National Archives and Records Administration. https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/blog/2015/03/25/4-ways-affordable-care-act-improving-quality-health-care-america. Weissert, W. G., & Weissert, C. S. (2019). Governing health the politics of health policy (5th ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press.
Health Government Accounting Principles Affordable Care Act Discussion

Chattahoochee Technical College WebDev Two Dimensional Associative Array Program

Chattahoochee Technical College WebDev Two Dimensional Associative Array Program.

Adjust given files to pull book information from a file, create a 2 dimensional Associative Array from the file, accept information about a book to a html form, add information to the Associative Array, and store the information. I would like it based off the code provided.Before you can read from a file there needs to be associative JSON records in the file. Add the code to save the array into the file first. Then run the program. Verify that the information was saved properly in the file. Then add code to read from the file.
Chattahoochee Technical College WebDev Two Dimensional Associative Array Program

MKT 574 UOP Wk 6 Strategic Marketing Plan Part C New Target Markets Essay

MKT 574 UOP Wk 6 Strategic Marketing Plan Part C New Target Markets Essay.

Complete Part C of the Strategic Marketing Plan.Part C: Market Strategy, Marketing Channels, Implementation, and Monitoring(Due in Wk 6)New Target MarketsDetermine any new markets for your strategy and describe how you will provide value to each target market.Marketing Mix for New Target MarketsDetermine adaptions for each new target market.ProductsPriceDistributionTraditional PromotionOnline PromotionMarketing ImplementationCreate the implementation for your marketing plan. Describe how you will organize and implement the plan, such as whether it will be organized by market, geography, and who is responsible for marketing decisions. Marketing Communication Channels Evaluate the marketing communication channels you will use to reach selected audiences. Include Internet and traditional communication channels to convey key messages. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of each channel you select. Insert or remove rows as needed. Channel Target Market Advantages Disadvantages Example: Direct mail Middle class residential Can include coupons Expense and low return rate for given product Strategic ActionsDevelop specific activities required to implement the marketing plan. Identify the person or role who will be responsible for each action, when it will be complete, and what standard or metric indicate that the activity is complete. Insert or remove rows as needed. Action Date for Completion Person/Role Responsible Standard/Metric Example: Design flyer for direct mail campaign 1/1/2021 J. Smith, graphic designer Approval by senior marketing team and legal MonitoringDevelop the measurement to identify how you know you have been successful for each strategic action. Specify the measures to track performance against goals. Identify standard reports from your online and traditional marketing efforts. Insert or remove rows as needed. Action Target Person Responsible Inter-measurement Example: Direct mail flyer 1100 new inquiries Western regional manager 500 new inquiries first month of campaign
MKT 574 UOP Wk 6 Strategic Marketing Plan Part C New Target Markets Essay