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Feminist Critique of Jean Racine’s “Phedre” Essay

Table of Contents Introduction Sex and Gender Divine Perspective Feminist Theory Deadly Love Conclusion Works Cited Introduction Jean Racine was a noble French dramatist and a poet in the 17 century and has written a number of plays in which one of them is Phedre. Racine plays are very appealing to watch although they have aspects of pessimism and immorality. The Phedre has received many feminists’ criticisms stating that the play is depicting women as mere sexual bodies, emotionally weak and dangerous in their lust for love. Phedre is the main actor depicting the themes of passion and jealousy for love in the play. The drama revolves around the lust for love by the characters leading to the main conflicts in the drama. Phedre find herself in the crossroads: she is married to her sister’s ex-husband, Theseus, and she has a great passion for her stepson, Hippolytus. The lustful feelings of love overwhelm Phedre to the point where she become very jealous of her stepson, and falsely accused him of raping her because he rejected her demands. When Theseus heard about the bad news, he petition god of Neptune to punish Hippolytus. Hippolytus eventually died when he fell out of frightened chariots by the monster in the sea. Phedre also frustrated her nurse, Oenone, causing her to commit suicide by drowning into the ocean. The deaths of Hippolytus and Oenone caused Phedre to confess her guilty and commit suicide (Racine 2-3). Although the Phedre is depicting reality, feminists have heaped lots of criticism on the way women are portrayed as immoral, jealous, emotionally weak and quite dangerous in their passion for love. Sex and Gender Feminists’ theorists distinguish sex from gender and refute claims that sexes denote social perceptions to women. Phenomenological theories try to distinguish physiological and biological perception of sex and relating sex with the experience because they argue that body is an historical idea but not a natural species (Butler 520). Phedre portrays women as sexual bodies that are full of passion and jealousy for the love, the contrast depicts different believes and perception of what constitutes gender. Phenomenological theories further argue that the body is not only an historical idea but also has set of achievable possibilities. The historical concept provides the basis of experiences because no one is born a woman but become one through experiences, while the body having set of possibilities means that the destiny of the body has many open possibilities that are not predetermined by anyone. Historically, the world shapes and replaces the open possibilities with predetermined and specific possibilities that have changed our perception on what constitutes gender (Butler 519-521). In the Phedre, perception of women as sexual bodies depicts the limits of possibilities that predetermine the historical context of women. In the present day, it requires critical assessment of the factors that determines a certain culture for one to take note of the limiting perceptions on gender. Butler concludes, “Gender is not passively scripted on the body, and neither is it determined by nature, language, the symbolic, or the overwhelming history of patriarchy” (531). Hence, gender is the sum of all cultural aspects and daily activities that shape the perceptions in terms of anxiety and pleasure thus transforming culture. Fuller has experiences of seeing how men describes beauty of women in terms of sex and strength of woman in terms of man (Para. 9). This culture has build over a long period and requires radical changes within the society that are theoretically possible. In Phedre play, women are depicted as objects of sex, love, immorality that led to tragic consequences in the society. Men have stereotypes on the roles and abilities of the women because instead of encouraging them to maximize their abilities, they delimit and discourage their efforts of doing their best. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Divine Perspective Racine view Phedre as in a trap by the anger of gods and her destiny due to the unlawful and jealous passion that resulted into the deaths of Hippolytus and Oenone (8). Although Phedre is trying to overcome the haunting guilt of her crime, she is so disgraced, making her attributes her crime as a punishment from gods. Fuller is portraying the divine perspective of caring gods contrary to the depiction of Racine in Phedre afflictions. Fuller says that the great promise of all ages is that gods incarnated and came down to guard the destinies of this world (Para. 11). This displays the great love of the Creator of universe incarnating and coming down to guard against enemies and not a god who punishes souls in anguish. Fuller notes that no one is ungrateful, everyone needs faith and love but they all cry with scepticism in search of answers (Para 12). When Men encounter dilemma, they experience the desire to seek help from the unknown and whatever that can answer their expectations receives perception of reverence. Feminist Theory Butler argues that, “gender constitution has political assumptions and implications and it is impossible to separate a theory of gender from a political philosophy of feminism” (529). Politicians create the social perception and phenomena of gender in that without their support on feminists’ theory there will be no radical changes. In the case of the Phedre the play, the use of top political figures, prince and queen as characters denotes political aspect of the gender perception. Gender perceptions from political point of view have serious implications on the adoption of feminist’s theory and eventually the net significance changes in the historical perceptions that are anchored on the traditions of the society. Feminists use phenomenology to explain aspects of character such as gender, sex and sexuality in the description of the body. From cultural perspective of gender, phenomenologist tries to understand factors underlying gender connotation and possible reasons for the oppression and marginalization of one gender over the other (Butler 525). There is a tendency of men to attain and maintain oppression of women, partly due to the cultural and historical experiences coupled with selfish interests and innate characteristics that make men appear as though aggressive. The oppression of the woman is what has led to the emergence of feminists in order to advocates for their denied rights or wrong perceptions of their abilities. Deadly Love In the play, Phedre, the main character portrays passionate love. Phedre finds herself in dilemma as she is married to the former husband to her sister, Theseus, and again she is falling in love with his stepson, Hippolytus. This clearly depicts Phedre as immoral in character. The mysterious disappearing of Theseus gave her an opportunity of expressing her love to Hippolytus but he rejected her intentions and when Theseus reappears, she decides to accuse Hippolytus falsely of raping her, hence created a great enmity between Theseus and Hippolytus that ended in the death of Hippolytus due to punishment from the god of Neptune. Phedre also mistreated her nurse into committing suicide by drowning (Symons Para. 8). When she realised the extent of crimes she has caused, she committed suicide (Racine 2-3). The overall theme of love resulted into a tragic end that has received lots of feminists’ criticism on the depiction and intention of the author. Fuller argue that men cannot be advocates for their rights because all men are under the influence of women. Man has a wife, a sister and other female friends that surrounds him and they all exerts some influence on a man perception on gender (Para. 7). If women should propose and enforce their wishes as they are pleased, and as was seen in the Phedre, then a conflicts ensues as “the beauty of home would be destroyed, the delicacy of the sex be violated, the dignity of halls of legislation degraded” (Fuller Para. 9). The introduction and integration of new behaviours into the family will have some serious consequences, as they are inconsistent with those of a typical family that is under the influence of traditions. Conclusion The Racine’s Phedre play is an appealing play that depicts the theme of love, immorality and tragic consequences associated with the jealous love. The theme of death portrays the gravity and the moving nature of the play, showing the reality of immorality and its possible consequences. Feminists are very sensitive in way women are portrayed in the Phedre, the play and they advocates for the positive depiction and perception of the woman in all the aspects of the society. We will write a custom Essay on Feminist Critique of Jean Racine’s “Phedre” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They criticize Racine’s Phedre that, women are portrayed as the objects of sex and love, having potential to cause death in their pursuit of love regardless of the means of attaining their ends. Feminists argue that sex and gender are distinct aspects of the body terming gender as an historical perception of the body but not a natural depiction. Hence, gender is not determined by the physical attributes such as biology, language or symbols but it is based on historical perception. Works Cited Butler, Judith. “Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in Phenomenology and Feminist.” The Johns Hopkins University Press Theatre Journal 40.4 (1988): 519-531 Web. Fuller, Margaret. “Woman in the Nineteenth Century.” America Transcendentalism. 1844. Web. Racine, Jaen. “Racine’s Phaedra. Trans. Colin John Holcombe”. 2008. Web. Symons, Arthur. “Jean Racine”. Theatre Database. 2010. Web.
Seattle High School Marketing Management Programs and Policies Presentation.

All instructions are below, please follow and use the slide attached. Please remember it is HIgh school assignment.Select a specific marketing career category—product/brand management, marketing management, customer service, service marketing, sales, merchandising/buying, public relations, advertising, direct marketing, digital marketing, marketing research, and marketing operations. Research the education, training, and skills needed to succeed in its assigned careers. Create a presentation that explains the education, skills, and work experience needed for success in its assigned career category. Add more details as appropriate.The following career site may be helpful: following slide deck may be helpful:
Seattle High School Marketing Management Programs and Policies Presentation

CRJ 413 Research Method

CRJ 413 Research Method.

I’m an undergraduate and I have to do a Literature Review Paper. I’ve chosen the topic on (correlation) Interrelation between recidivist dui offenders and alcohol addiction, and I’ve use these first two resources thus far: (Links to an external site.) I have to use more peer reviewed articles or journals when it comes to the final Literature Review paper; however, the peer review direct quotes can only make up five percent (5%) of the total submission…meaning if submission is 500 words =25 words for direct quote or 750 words =37 words for direct quotes & so on (if not then I will receive a zero & final the class) For this week, it’s two assignments due complete the following steps of the research process. The first assignment is use the article or scientific fact that I posted in my first discussion (please attached) to propose a research scenario on the given topic. Please summarize the following: Identify one question that is unanswered from this articleFor example, if I am posting a link on an article on the most common crime in America (Links to an external site.) and learn that it is property crime, I might ask: What can be done to effectively reduce property crime?Next- identify the following for your unanswered question, as if you were a researcher seeking to answer that question:Your hypothesis-how would you go about answering your question?Your independent variableYour dependent variableHow you would operationalize (measure) your variables?Whether you are asking a basic or applied research questionWhether you would collect quantitative or qualitative data and whyWhat evidence you would look for to see if your hypothesis is correctA brief conclusion-explaining how answering your question would benefit criminal justice policy or procedures. Next assignment, I have complete the following steps of the research process by addressing the following questions and tasks:1. Identify the topic you have selected for this assignment.Discuss your preliminary goals for your research-In other words, what is the purpose of your research? What would you like to learn about this topic? How would you like to use this information in the future (either to conduct your own research or perhaps in a professional setting)? In other words, would you have a basic research or applied research focus for your assignment? Then use some of the key research terms from week one to help set up a framework for our research by doing the following: Identifying the independent variable (the presumed cause) & Identifying the dependent variable (the presumed effect). I think I will use applied research focus for my assignment.3. Finally, at least one citation for a resource you are planning to use for your final paper and describe briefly (2-3 sentences) how using this resource helps illustrate your information literacy competency.The professor is expecting APA format, double space, Times Roman, 12 size font.Please see attached documents. I would like to have one of the assignment done today (if possible) and the other can be completed by tomorrow morning (if necessary).
CRJ 413 Research Method

The Negro Speaks of Rivers

term paper help “The Negro Speaks of Rivers” is Langston Hughes’s most anthologized poem. Hughes wrote this brief poem in fifteen minutes in July, 1920, while crossing the Mississippi on a train ride to visit his father in Mexico. It is one of Hughes’s earliest poems, and its subject established the emphasis of much of his subsequent poetry. Hughes’s poems may be divided into several categories: protest poems, social commentary, Harlem poems, folk poems, poems on African and negritude themes, and miscellaneous poetry on various other nonracial subjects and themes. “The Negro Speaks of Rivers” centers on African and negritude themes. Hughes’s writing always shows an identification with Africa, and his later poetry on African subjects and African themes demonstrates his growing sophistication and knowledge of the history and problems of Africa. Along with its emphasis on African themes, this poem so poignantly and dramatically expresses what it means to be a black American that it helps to assure Hughes’s continuing fame. Through the images of the river, Hughes traces the history of the African American from Africa to America. The muddy Mississippi makes Hughes consider the roles that rivers have played in human history. The first three lines introduce the subject of the poem. The primary image of water symbolically represents the history of humanity, acknowledging the fact that rivers are more ancient in the history of the earth: I’ve known rivers: (Langston Hughes: I’ve known rivers ancient as the world and older than the flow of human blood in human veins. The next line connects the poet with the river and acknowledges the influence of waterways on the history of the African American: “My soul has grown deep like the rivers.” This line is repeated at the end of the poem, reestablishing the connection between the human essence and the river as well as the river’s role in African American life. The middle section reveals the connections between the history of the African American and four important rivers of the world: the Euphrates, the Congo, the Nile, and the Mississippi. The three African rivers are a part of the ancient history of black people when they were free, living in majestic kingdoms and forming the great civilizations of Africa. The poem more specifically relates to the African American, who is the victim of slavery and discrimination in the New World, where rivers were used to transport black slaves. The last section of the poem, “I’ve known rivers:/ Ancient, dusky, rivers// My soul has grown deep like the rivers,” re-emphasizes the beginning section by restating the influence of rivers on the soul and life of black people from antiquity to the twentieth century. (Langston Hughes: The final line of the poem repeats the statement that connects the human soul to the rivers of the world. Forms and Devices According to my point of view, “The Negro Speaks of Rivers” is a lyric poem. Lyric poetry is rooted in song and establishes the ritual of the human condition, in this case the condition of black people. In this poem, Hughes is both teller (poet) and participant (African American) in the drama being described. Through the intense images of this poem, the reader is able to participate in the emotion and poignancy of the history of black people. Since Hughes discusses this history beyond that in America, he transcends localism and projects upon his reader a world experience. The diction of the poem is simple and unaffected by rhetorical excess. It is eloquent in its simplicity, allowing readers of all ages and levels of sophistication to enjoy a first reading; however, as one reads this poem, the deeper meaning reveals itself. The primary image of “The Negro Speaks of Rivers” is water; its function as the river of time is to trace the heritage and past of the African American. The flowing, lyrical lines, like water, are charged with meaning, describing what the river has meant to black people in America. Hughes’s poetic ability and technical virtuosity are nowhere as evident as in this short poem, which formed the basis for his early acceptance as a brilliant poet. Hughes uses the repeated line “My soul has grown deep like the rivers” to emphasize the way rivers symbolize not only the physical history of the African American but the spiritual history (“my soul”) as well. The river is also a symbol of the strength of black people as survivors who move through history. Finally, the rivers reflect the direct path of blacks to America. The entire poem is based on an extended metaphor comparing the heritage of the African American to the great rivers of the world. The poet reveals the relationship between the river and the lives of black people, starting with a river known to be important during the earliest great civilizations and ending with a river on which slaves were transported, to be bought and sold in the slave markets of America. Themes and Meanings As I think, Langston Hughes was deeply concerned with the history and social condition of his people. “The Negro Speaks of Rivers” reflects the poet’s interest in both topics. This poem also speaks of a mystic union of blacks throughout the world, for it traces their history back to the creation of the world, giving them credit for spanning time and for founding the greatest civilizations that humanity has ever known. Hughes received the inspiration for this poem as he crossed the Mississippi River by train, feeling melancholy yet drawing pride from thoughts of the rivers that played a part in the history of his race. The images of beauty and death, and of hope and despair, all fused in his adolescent sensibility, causing him to create one of his most beautiful poems. The use of words such as “soul” and “rivers” allows Hughes to touch the deepest feelings and spiritual longings of his own soul and the souls of his people. With the use of the words “deep,” “flow,” “dusky,” and “ancient,” Hughes describes the actual rivers that were involved in black history, all the while emphasizing the long and glorious history of his race. With this poem, Hughes, often called “the poet of his people,” plunges into the deep well of African American history, uniting it with global African history. The poem, with its allusions to the setting sun, human blood, and deep, dusky rivers, suffuses the images of death as it speaks of the immortality of the soul. Hughes celebrates the life of black people by acknowledging death, but the images of death presented in the poem are overshadowed by emphasis on the life of the soul—in this case, a racial soul which runs throughout time like a river. As the muddy water of the Mississippi turns golden in the sunset, so does the poet turn the memory of the history and survival of his people into brilliance. With images of water and pyramid, the verse suggests the endurance of the black physical presence and spirit from ancient Egypt to the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The muddy Mississippi caused Hughes to think about the roles in human history played by the Congo, the Niger, and the Nile, as slaves were passed down these waters to be sold; once sold, these same slaves may have ended up being sold again on the Mississippi. The Mississippi also caused Hughes to think about Abraham Lincoln and the role he played in the abolition of slavery in the United States. Pride in one’s history is a constant theme in the poem. Hughes views the history of black people, even in slavery, with a sense of pride as he points out the ability of his people to survive their harsh and violent treatment in America. Hughes’s confidence in the strength of blackness is a major part of his theme of pride; this confidence and pride is his legacy to African Americans. Black culture is still embattled, but Hughes provides a device for countering the argument that black people are without a vital and universal history. Works cited Langston Hughes. Retrieved from on 25th February 2008. Langston Hughes. Retrieved from on 25th February 2008.

public relation writing paper -01

public relation writing paper -01.

One of our core functions as a public relations practitioner is to tell the public what’s happening at our organization. We report our organization’s news, telling our organization’s story. We do so in a variety of ways, including on our website, via the news media, and across our social media channels.Total word count at least 550 words. One and a half page at least. One great place to see this process in action is PR Newswire website. For this assignment, you will go to, pick a news release of your choice, and then do a little digging and analysis.Check the attached file about writing instruction with expectations, submission logistics and grading criteria.There is one example essay, write one similar format with the example essay. Another attached file is the writing steps. Make sure follow all writing steps .
public relation writing paper -01

Calculate (do not use a calculator): (8.0×105)/(2.0×10-2). Express your result w

Calculate (do not use a calculator): (8.0×105)/(2.0×10-2). Express your result w.

Calculate (do not use a calculator): (8.0×105)/(2.0×10-2). Express your result with the appropriate number of significant figures.Question 4 options:
Calculate (do not use a calculator): (8.0×105)/(2.0×10-2). Express your result w