Male theologians had done almost all theology in the Christian tradition.
Today women are waking up to their own dignity and finding their own voice. Some faith is now being reflected from the perspectives and experiences of women. This is commonly called Feminist Christology. There are many types of feminist Christology that can be divided into two categories. The revolutionary school of thought is produced by women who, upon examining the Christian tradition, find it so male-dominated that they pronounce it hopelessly irredeemable.The other category is of the reformist feminist theologians, who also find the Christian tradition male-dominated but find hope for it to be transformed. The reformist stay within the church and work for reform, while the revolutionists leave the church and form groups of prayer that emphasizes sisterhood.
The majority of Catholic feminist theologians work with the liberation model in the sense that they seek the dismantling of patriarchy and equal justice especially for the dispossessed.Feminist liberation theology arises out of the recognition of the suffering of a particular oppressed group, in this case women. Consciousness of the ways women are perpetually relegated to second class citizenship in society and church, in contrast to women’s essential human dignity, gives rise to outrage: this should not be; this is against the will of God. Reflection arises in groups actively engaged in praxis. The goal of this form of theologizing is not only to understand the meaning of faith tradition, but also to change it.The vision which guides feminist theology is that of a new human community based on the values of mutuality and reciprocity. The dream of a new heaven and a new earth takes hold here, with no one group dominating and no one group being subordinated.
The three steps of the method of liberation theology-analyzing the situation, searching the tradition for what contributes to the oppression, and searching again for what liberates-yield a new appreciation of the meaning of Jesus Christ for human beings who are women.Feminist theologists say that sexism is pervasive, and like racism classifies human beings, prescribes certain roles and denies certain rights to them on the basis of physical characteristics. So, on the basis gender sexism considers women essentially less worthy than men and sets up powerful forces to keep women in their proper place. Sexism shows itself in two ways. The first is in structures which are so shaped that power is always in the hands of the dominant male; other males are ranked in a series of graded subordination, with the least powerful forming a large base.This structure is known as patriarchy. Secondly, in patterns of thinking that takes the humanity of male human beings and make it normative for all.
Women are considered human not in their own right, but in a secondary way, in a way derivative from and dependent on the male. This thinking is called androcentrism. Almost all-historical theologians have thought in the androcentric manner. Thomas Acquinas was of the opinion that “woman is a misbegotten men”, a physiological view which then determined his assessment of woman’s essential nature.This is a view that is pervasive in the Catholic tradition, influencing not only theology but canon law and practice as well. In sexism with this thinking, women are excluded, marginalized, and rendered invisible in language and public life. Stereotyped as mindless, emotional, weak, they are prevented from assuming leadership roles.
A UN statistics show, while forming one half of the world’s population, women do three fourths of the world’s work, receive one tenth of the world’s salary, and own one hundredth of the world’s land.Within these kinds of experiences, women’s own self image comes in for a great battering, there is widespread lack of self-esteem and self-confidence that has been documented even among very competent women. Out of the system of sexism in all of its manifestations, feminist theology has developed a criterion or critical principle for judging structures and theories. Whatever enables this to flourish is redemptive and of God; whatever damages this is non-redemptive and contrary to God’s intent.The one example to demonstrate all of these discriminations is the denial of the rights of women as persons. What is called for is transformation of the self and of social systems that support exploitative relations, the relations between men and women key among them. The second step involves analysis of tradition and there, when the turn is made to Christology, the judgement is made that of all the doctrines of the church Christology is the one most used to oppress women.
It basically comes down to the way Jesus’ maleness was portrayed.The problem arises when Jesus’ maleness, this particular aspect of himself as a person, is lifted up and made into universal principle. This then operates in two ways which contribute to the subordination of women. First, it comes to be taken for granted that the maleness of Jesus reveals the maleness of God, or that the only proper way to represent God is in male images. Through the bible and throughout Jesus’ life God is imaged as the father, always in male terms, a naming which rebounds to the benefit of male human being.Feminist theologians believe that since God is Spirit, he can be neither male nor female. In the book of Genesis God gave no preference to either male or female.
In the Jewish scriptures God is imaged in female form by some of the prophets, as mother, midwife, etc. Jesus also images God as female. For example when he said the reign of God is like the yeast that a woman kneads into dough so that the whole loaf rises; this is an image of God as baker woman. Even in the parable of the woman searching for her lost coin, which is similar to the parable of the good shepherd in Luke 15:1-10.They both tell the same story, of God as Redeemer, of both leaving the rest of their coins or sheep, while searching for the missing way. The parables show how God cares for all of us even if we sin he’ll always look for us. However the story of the woman has been ignored while the good shepherd has been remembered.
At various times in the Christian tradition, female metaphors for God did come into use. Even in our present day, Pope John Paul I said memorable that just as God is truly our Father, even more is God our Mother, especially when we are in trouble through sin.The second way in which the maleness of Jesus has operated to subordinate women concerns human beings more than God. The gender of Jesus has been taken to be the mode of paradigm of what it means to be human. This is interpreted literally to mean that maleness is closer to the human ideal than is femaleness. Feminist Liberation Christology searches in Christology for ways to liberate women, and they have found ways in Jesus’ ministry, death, and resurrection, and the tradition of wisdom Christology. • Jesus’ preaching proclaims justice and peace for all people, inclusive of women.
The vision of the reign of God is precisely a vision of community where every human person is valued and all interrelated in a mutually respectful way. Jesus’ preaching of the reign of God is a powerful liberating force. • Jesus call God Abba, which represents this compassionate, intimate, and close Abba that releases everyone from patterns of domination and calls for another kind of community. Abba creates and sets up a place of mutuality, a community of brothers and sisters. • Jesus in all his workings and doings considered females just as important as males.He treated them with a grace and respect commensurate with their human dignity. One theologian remarks that the problem is not the Jesus wasn’t female, but that most males are not like him.
• Feminist interpretation of the stories of women in the gospels is making clear that while this point has been suppressed in our androcentric tradition, Jesus called women to be disciples. Women too left their homes and families to follow Jesus. They too preached and turned towns in followers of Jesus. An example is the Samaritan woman at the well (Jn4) which brought a whole town to Jesus.
is Robinson Crusoe an unchanging character or did he undergo a change by the end of the novel?
is Robinson Crusoe an unchanging character or did he undergo a change by the end of the novel?.
For your first essay, you will compose an essay that addresses a central issue within the genre of the “Robinsonade.” In your essay, you will engage with a critical term or concept that we have discussed or read (in the critical appendices to the texts) and show how this idea manifests itself in one of Robinson Crusoe, Foe, or The Female American. The goal of the essay is to make connections between analysis of the text and issues of transatlantic culture, supported by your engagement with a secondary source. Requirements • 5-6 pages, typed, double-spaced, MLA format for citations (including a Works Cited page), and submitted in Word .docx format to Turnitin via Blackboard’s Assignments. • The bulk of the essay must be critical analysis supported by details from the text (i.e. close reading / explication–analyzing the language and what it suggests). • The essay must have a thesis-driven argument, preferably stated in a sentence that begins, “In this essay I will argue….” • The essay must utilize at least one secondary source. This source can be one of the articles from the critical editions of the texts (i.e. Hunter on Robinson Crusoe). • Please email me a copy of any secondary sources that are not texts from class. • Submit a 300-word proposal at the beginning of class. The proposal must receive my acceptance. In the proposal, you need to state what text you’re using, what critic / critical concept you’re using, and what you will be analyzing (i.e. not a thesis, but a hypothesis at least). • If you change your essay topic, please email me a new proposal following the guidelines above. • Essays submitted without having gone through the proposal process and been approved will lose 10 points from the final grade (approximately one full letter grade). • Papers are due via Blackboard’s Assignments.
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