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fashion. Paper details Have you ever noticed that summer fashions have arrive in the stores way before the summer season arrives. Do you think customers like shopping early, or are they in a “buy now, wear now” mindset? Should retailers move their shipments closer to the season? Explain your answer as the business owner. fashion
Christina Samuel1, Sundararajan D2 1Postgraduate, 2HOD. Department Of Ophthalmology, Meenakshi Medical College, Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu, India ABSTRACT Background: Leprosy or Hansen’s disease is a chronic mildly contagious granulomatous disease of tropical and subtropical regions caused by the rod shaped bacillus, Mycobacterium leprae. It affects the skin, peripheral nerves in hands and feet, mucous membrane of nose, throat and eyes. When left untreated it is capable of producing various deformities and disfigurements. Aim: To study the ocular involvement in patients with Leprosy under the parameters of age group, sex type and duration of leprosy. To study the different ocular manifestations and identify the potentially sight threatening lesions and provide early management. Methods: A prospective study of 50 cases diagnosed with Hansen’s disease were included. Detailed history and thorough clinical examination done. Potentially sight threatening lesions were managed conservatively or surgically. Results: Out of 50 cases of Leprosy, 58% had ocular involvement and majority were of the age group 21-40years. Ocular involvement was predominantly seen in Lepromatous type with 35% having ocular lesions. The most common ocular manifestation observed was superciliary madarosis(48%). Potentially sight threatening lesions accounted for 72.4% of which lagophthalmos was common. No cases of blindness seen. Conclusion: Visual impairment is preventable in Leprosy if detected early. The risk of ocular complications increases with the duration of the disease, despite being treated with systemic anti-leprosy drugs. Keywords: Leprosy (Hansen’s disease), lepromatous, tuberculoid, slit skin smear, ocular involvement INTRODUCTION Leprosy or Hansen’s disease is a chronic infectious disease caused by an intracellular rod shaped acid fast bacilli Mycobacterium leprae which affects the skin, nasal mucosa, peripheral nerves and the anterior segment of the eye.1 Mycobacterium laprae was discovered by a Norwegian physician G.Armauer Hansen in the year 1874.1 The most ancient writings of ‘’SUSHRUTA SAMHITA’’ compiled in 600BC refers to leprosy as Vat Rakta or Vat Shonita and Kushtha2,3. Leprosy occurs in all ages and both sexes. Male: Female ratio is 2:14. Leprosy bacilli has a predilection for neural tissue and their target is Schwann cell. The fate and type of leprosy depends on the resistance and immunity of the affected individual5 ( Jopling, Mc Douglass 1996). There are 11million cases throughout the world and about 1/3rd have ocular manifestations.6 Prevalence of blindness due to leprosy is 4.7% of the population in India.7,8 Various studies shows ocular involvement in Leprosy patients. The frequency and types of involvement depends on the duration and form of the disease.2,9 Ocular lesions are common in lepromatous type of leprosy and presents with lepromatous nodules, conjunctivitis, keratitis, pannus, scleritis and uveitis. Lesions are rare in Tuberculoid type of leprosy and are secondary to the involvement of branches of facial nerve which presents with paralytic lagophthalmos, exposure keratitis and neurotrophic keratitis. Acute iridocyclitis and scleritis are seen in type 2 lepra reaction occurring in lepromatous leprosy.6 Blindness has been reported in 7% of patients secondary to lagophthalmos, uveitis, exposure keratitis and cataract8. Proper attention and early detection can prevent potentially sight threatening lesions. MATERIALS AND METHOD The present study was carried out in the out patient Department. of Ophthalmology and In patient department of Dermatology at Meenakshi Medical College and Hospital, Kanchipuram from March 2012-May 2014. In this study a total of 50 patients were taken, 38 males and 12 females of the age group 20years and above . Prior to the study an informed consent form from the patients and ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee. Inclusion Criteria: All diagnosed cases of leprosy. Old and new cases, both genders and age group of 20 years and above. Exclusion Criteria: Non compliant patients, Patients with pre existing ocular disorders due to other causes than leprosy. Type of study: A cross sectional descriptive study for a period of 14 months. Procedure: Relevant details of both ocular and systemic history, including details of lepra reaction and clinical examination of patients was recorded on a proforma. A detailed slit lamp examination of the anterior segment of eye was done. Visual Acuity recorded with help of Snellen’s chart10. Corneal sensation was checked with a wisp of cotton. IOP was recorded with help of Schiotz tonometer10. Fundus examination with 78D and IDO done. Lab investigations like haemogram, ESR, Urine routine and RBS done. Slit skin smear and skin biopsy from the ear lobe was performed by the Dermatologist and report obtained as positive for M.leprae (Ziehl Neelsen technique)11. Patients were started on systemic anti leprosy drugs(multi drug therapy) and treatment for lepra reactions. Patients with ocular manifestations were treated accordingly to their need of Lubricant eye drops, topical antibiotic with steroid drops, eye ointments, frequent blinking exercises, physiotherapy, lid taping at night time and spectacle correction. RESULTS: In this study of 50 patients with leprosy, majority belonged to the age group of 21-40years (46%). 76% were males and 24% were females. Out of 50 cases, 30% were tuberculoid type, 22% lepromatous type and 48% borderline type. Out of 50 cases 58% had ocular involvement in which 45% were within the age group 21-40years. Out of the 29 cases with ocular involvement 72% were males. 35%with ocular manifestations were of lepromatous type of leprosy. 41.4% gave a positive history of lepra reaction. The ocular involvement was directly proportional to the duration of leprosy. 55% had leprosy more than 5 years. Superciliary madarosis (48%) was the most common ocular manifestation. The potentially sight threatening lesions were Lagophthalmos(35%), seen more in lepromatous type(14%). 28% had corneal hypoesthesia, 21% with exposure keratitis, 17% had corneal opacity, anterior uveitis and conjunctivitis each accounted for 7%. It was interesting to note that 60% of patients with lagophthalmos had exposure keratitis. DISCUSSION: The involvement of eyes in leprosy is due to infiltration of the tissues by the bacilli and damage to the nerves12. In this study 58% of the patients had ocular involvement. This can be compared to other studies of Wani.S.et al 2005 which showed 69% of ocular involvement, Gnanadoss A S et al 1986 showed 59.2% 13. Studies conducted by Shields shows 33% of potentially sight threatening lesions which included keratitis, iritis, lagophthalmos and secondary glaucoma14. In our study the potentially sight threatening lesions were lagophthalmos, exposure keratitis, uveitis, corneal hypoesthesia and corneal opacity which accounted nearly for 72.4%. Majority of the patients in our study were of the age group 21-40 years and male predominance was seen in both for, affected eyes with leprosy(76%) and ocular involvement (72%). This can be compared with the study by Wani.S et al (82.6%)12 which also showed predominance for men. This study further shows that ocular manifestation were seen more in lepromatous leprosy (75.36%) followed by borderline(14.49%) and tuberculoid leprosy(10.14%)12. In our study conducted, ocular involvement was 35% in lepramotous, 31% in borderline and 17% in tuberculoid type. The reason being that M.leprea has a favourable environment in the anterior segment of the eye and the bacilli is found more in lepromatous type of leprosy. Madarosis was the commonest ocular manifestation in our study which was about 48% when compared with Shield’s 1974(54%)14 and Acharaya B P (59.2%)15 and Wani.S. et al (72.46%)12. Lagophthalmos accounts for 35% in our study when compared to Wani.S et al (28.98%)12 , Acharaya B P (34.3%)15 , Lamba et al 1983 (13%)16 , Shields 1974 (29%)14 and Weerekon 1972 (27%)17. Lagophthalmos is commonly associated with lepra reaction in the face and damage to the facial nerve and also depends in patients with lepromatous leprosy(14%) which is similar to the observation by Wani.S et al (18.84%)12. In this study corneal involvement was seen in 66% of the patients, corneal hypoesthesia 28%, exposure keratitis 21% and corneal opacity in 17%. In the study conducted by Wani.S et al corneal involvement (36.23%)12 . Radhakrishnan N et al observed that the major cause of blindness in leprosy was exposure keratitis due to lagophthalmos(23%) and leucoma (25%)18. Cataractous changes in lens was seen in 17% of the patients, but it was not a complication due to leprosy or MDT but merely due to senile lens changes in the older age group of the patients in our study. This is also supported by the study from Gnanadoss A S et al13. Iris pearls seen in anterior uveitis are said to be the pathognomic of leprosy19,20. But in our study uveitis was observed only in 7% of the patients when compared to Wani S et al12 which showed 31.88%. This probably is due to the small sample size of our study and also the duration of leprosy not being more than 10 years for all patients ,because uveitis is seen mostly in chronic cases of leprosy. This is supported by various studies like Lamba 1983 16(14%), Hornblass 197321 (16%) and Gnanadoss A S et al 198613 (5.6%). In this study all patients with ocular manifestations were either treated formerly(58.6%) or presently (41.4%) with systemic anti leprosy drugs. Courtright et al suggested that ocular pathology will still occur in MDT treated leprosy patients22. Thus treatment does not prevent the occurrence of ocular lesions12. Moreover once the patient is on treatment the ocular reaction is seen more in the first 6-12 months due to reactions23. The progressive leprosy related lesions are the result of chronic nerve damage. CONCLUSION: The risk of ocular lesions increases with the duration of disease, lepra reaction and facial patches in this reaction. Screening of all patients affected with leprosy can help in identifying the potentially sight threatening lesions which can be treated earlier. Visual impairment if detected early is preventable. The Multi Drug therapy for leprosy has improved the outcome of the affected with leprosy but does not retard the development of ocular complication. LIMITATIONS: Owing to the small sample size in this study many other ocular manifestations could not be assessed. A relationship between uveitis, Complicated cataract and leprosy can be suggested if the patients presents with a longer duration of leprosy more than 10 years, as in this study we had only 4 patients in that category. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It is with the sense of accomplishment and deep gratitude that we dedicate the work to all those who have been instrumental in its completion. We are greatly thankful to the RMO, Meenakshi Medical College Hospital and Research Institute, Kanchipuram. To our Associate Professors, Assistant Professors, Colleagues and Staffs of the Department of Ophthalmology and Dermatology for their timely help, support and constant guidance in our work. REFERENCE 1.Lewallen, Paul Courtright. An overwiew of ocular leprosy after two decades of multidrug therapy. International Ophthalmology Clinics – world blindness. Sept2004, vol47(3):87-99. 2. Dharmendra. History of spread and decline of leprosy. Leprosy.Vol I, Bombay: Kothari Medical Publishing House,197;7-21. 3. Rastogi N, Rastogi RC. Leprosy in ancient India. Int J Lepr 1984;52:541-3. 4. Park K. Epidemiology of Communicable Diseases. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine. 17thedn., Jabalapur: M/S Banarsidas Bhanot Publishers, 2002; 242-253. 5. The disease In: Handbook of Leprosy, 5th edn., Delhi CBS Publishers and distribution; 1996;10-53. 6. Sihota. Tandon disease of uveal tract. Chapter 17.Parsons’ Diseases of the Eye,20th Edition. New Delhi. Elsivier 2007;239-72. 7. Thompson Allardice et al, Patterns of ocular morbidity and blindness in leprosy: Leprosy review vol 77(2) June 2006. 8. Ffytche TJ. Residual sight threatening lesions in leprosy patient completing Multidrug therapy and Sulphone monotherapy, Lepr. Rev, 1991;62: 35-43. 9. Mark J. Mannis Mascai, Arthur. Leprosy, chapter 62. Eye and skin disease, Lippincott- Raven publishers, 1996;543-50. 10. “Orthoptists and Prescribing in NSW, VIC and SA”. The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists. Retrieved 29 July 2010. 11. PVS Prasad. Microbiology. In: all about leprosy. 1st edn. Jaypee brothers publishers,2005.pg 4-11. 12. Junaid S. Wani, Saiba Rashid M.S. Ocular manifestations in leprosy- A clinical study; JK- Practitioner 2005; 12(1): 14-17. 13. Gnanadoss AS, Rajendran N. Ocular lesions in Hansen’s (leprosy). IJO 1986;34:19-23. 14.Jerry A Shields; George O; Waring; AJO,1974,77;880-890. 15. Acharaya B P. Ocular involvement in Leprosy- A study in mining areas of India. IJO 1978; 26:21-4. 16. Lamba PA; Arthanariswaran: Leprosy India 1983,55;490. 17. Lloyd Weerekon: BJO. 1972,56;106. 18. Radhakrishnan N, Albert S. Blindness due to leprosy. IJO 1980;28:19-21. 19. Ffytche. T.J., 1981, Trans. Ophthal. Soc. U.K. 101:325. 20. Hogeweg, M.
PHIL Foothill College External World Radical Skepticism Argumentative Essay.

I’m working on a philosophy writing question and need guidance to help me understand better.

Guidelines: Select One Topic (and only one)Plagiarism of any kind will result in a grade of zero. This writing exercise should be 2 more pages. Use MLA guidelines. All references should be properly documented. Using MLA guidelines, properly document any references or ideas that are not your own. ❗❗❗ WARRNING: DO NOT USE WIKIPEDIA IN ANY WAY SHAPE OR FORM. WIKIPEDIA IS NOT A LEGITIMATE SOURCE. ANY USE OF WIKIPEDIA WILL RESULT IN A GRADE OF ZERO. USE ONLY TRUE PROFESSIONAL SOURCES.The purpose of this assignment is for you to intellectually explore a topic, issue, problem, or figure relevant to our course material. The readings from our course should be the primary “source” that you utilize. Practice standards of good writing. Have a clear thesis. Devise evidence for your thesis. Make a sound, logically constructed argument. Proofread vigorously. Correct English grammar is expected.Topics:(1) In considering Personal Identity watch: T.V. Episode “Which is Joseph Creeley” Naked City (Season 3, Episode 7, 1958 by Arthur Hill). What theory of personal identity is being articulated by the State? What theory is being articulated by the defense? Who wins the debate and why?(2) After Reading chapter 8 (Moral Philosophy), consider the film Boomerang!, (1947) by Elia Kazan. How does this film argue in favor of Kantianism and radically against Utilitarianism? (Hints: Think about Kant’s view of persons and the respect that we owe them as members of the moral community. Think of the accused man and the district attorney’s decision to defend him. Why would Kant recommend such a defense? Why would Utilitarian recommend against such a defense.)(3) Consider philosophical skepticism as discussed in chapter 5. Could someone disprove radical external world skepticism? If yes, how? If not, why not and what does this mean?(4) Consider the film Memento, 2000, by Christopher Nolan. Analyze “Lennie” in terms of the various theories of personal identity discussed in chapter 6. What theory is the film-writer probably promoting? Why?You have to base the book to write the essay, when you decide to choose which topic that you read which chapter.website:https://courses.learningtreepublishing.com/courses…
PHIL Foothill College External World Radical Skepticism Argumentative Essay

Unmotivated Employees and Managerial Solution Case Study

Table of Contents Introduction Scope of the Problem Major Issues Alternatives Measuring success/failure Conclusion Reference Introduction Motivation in the workplace is a big impediment to achieving maximum productivity from workers. At the onset of any worker’s career, the motivation to prove oneself can contribute to their performance. However, a new employee faces several hurdles when trying to settle in a new environment regardless of whether they are already highly experienced in the profession not. For the manager, this factor presents a challenge in helping them transition into their desired level of productivity. Scope of the Problem Stella had been habitually skipping workdays with the excuse that she was sick. Her claims of sickness later turned out to be false. Jim’s used a universal approach instead of a focused one in tackling the crisis (James, 2008, p.25). He called her for an informal talk and advised Stella to use the company’s counseling services. Unfortunately, this did not work and hence worsened the problem since she continued her absence from work. Additionally, she had begun misusing company resources by using too much time on her office phone; the time she could have spent handling her assigned duties. Consequently, she failed to complete her books for the previous month’s accounts and this meant that Jim’s reputation was going to be in trouble. Major Issues Some major issues about Stella’s character come up. In the face of personal predicaments, she can clearly be said to be unstable. She lacked several values including trustworthiness, accountability, responsibility, and resilience. Given that Stella’s behavior was directly affecting the performance of Jim’s department, he would have to also explain why he had not checked up on the progress of the monthly books given the prevailing circumstances with his subordinate. The other issue that would arise is the fact that Jim had not consulted with his superiors or other managers upon realizing that the situation was not improving. This would imply that he had the means to avoid the current situation but opted not to use them. Alternatives Jim would need to choose as to how to deal with Stella. Given her poor performance, it would be easy to draw the line and dismiss her from her role. Unfortunately, it would be a cost to the company to fire her, and, given her short period of service, hiring her would account for a loss to the firm. Again, by firing her, the firm’s ethics will come into question because her problems did not come as a result of her own mistakes. To avoid such a future turnout of similar events, Jim could choose to intervene by directly monitoring her progress with her counselor and making sure that she is at per with her therapy program. Ultimately, when Stella does recover from her breakdown she may owe it to the company and thus become more loyal and dedicated to it. She will also have learned how to deal with such personal challenges and to build on her character by exercising resilience. This will improve the quality of employees in the company. Measuring success/failure Stella’s improvements can be measured by the time she takes to complete her work and her ability to report to the office consistently. It would also be reassuring if she could voluntarily keep Jim updated on the progress in her personal life. This would show that she is devoted to maintaining progress. Conclusion In general, we can see that there is a need to maintain constant channels of communication with employees when trying to keep them motivated. Each day, new challenges may present themselves and they might not necessarily emerge from the office environment. Failing to do this can bring about repercussions that stretch into the business’s core operations. There is hence a need to keep in touch with the employee’s backgrounds while assisting them to build on personal values. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Reference James, R.K. (2008). Crisis intervention strategies. California, USA: Thomson Learning.

Central Washington University Voltmeter Acts Like a Galvanometer Discussion

essay help online Central Washington University Voltmeter Acts Like a Galvanometer Discussion.

open this link and asnwers the question: https://phet.colorado.edu/sims/html/faradays-law/latest/faradays-law_en.htmlBegin with a single coil and check the voltmeter box.Answer the following questions:1) How does the Voltage change as you move the south side in rather than the North?2) What happens if you move the magnet into the coil very slowly vs. very quickly. What relationship can you make between the motion of the magnet and the current produced?3) Can you produce a current when the magnet goes up and down in the loops?4) Next try two rings vs. four rings. What relationship can you make between the number of loops and the current produced.5) Lastly, try putting the magnet in the loops and click the magnet flip button. What happens as you spin the magnet several times?After completing this module, please list the following details in this reflection:Three things that you have learned from this lesson or from this text.Two questions that you still have.One aspect of class or the text that you enjoyed.
Central Washington University Voltmeter Acts Like a Galvanometer Discussion

UCSD Motivation in Different Spaces Questions

UCSD Motivation in Different Spaces Questions.

I’m working on a psychology Discussion and need an explanation to help me learn.

Goal:To define intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and describe how motivation varies in different settings.InstructionsAfter watching the assigned videos and reading chapter 10, please answer the following questions:What is the “candle problem” from the Ted Talk and how does it relate to the textbook content? Please be specific and provide AT LEAST 2 examples. NOTE: The candle problem is not discussed in your textbook, only in the Ted TalkIn your own words, define intrinsic motivation.Provide an example from your own life when you were intrinsically motivated.In your own words, define extrinsic motivation.Provide an example from your own life when you were extrinsically motivated.Based on the book, the video, and your own experience, please discuss whether extrinsic or intrinsic motivation is more effective when it comes to forming study habits.Now think of your own eating behavior. Describe a time when eating was biologically motivated and a time when eating was motivated by an external factor.
UCSD Motivation in Different Spaces Questions

engineering probability Project

engineering probability Project. Can you help me understand this Engineering question?

IE 3301 Project Instructions
In this project, you will conduct real-world data analysis. Each project is individual and
should not be shared with other classmates.
Any form of copying and pasting from
other sources and projects will be reported to the UT Arlington Office of Student
Conduct
.
Aim:
The overall aim of this project is to analyze real-world data. The specific objectives
are:
1.To sample one set of data from the real-world.
2.To summarize each set of data statistically.
3.To perform statistical chi-square test on data.
4.To describe the above steps, data, and results in a report.
Data Collection:
Students will collect one set of data from the real world. Data will be
collected from a large number of observations (at least 100) for a continuous random
variable from a population that is suspected to be normally distributed. Examples of such
data include the body weight of people, the circumferences of oranges, the extension
length of rubber bands at the point at which they burst, etc.
Descriptive Statistics:
Do the following:
●Calculate the sample mean.
●Calculate the sample standard deviation.
●Calculate the quartiles Q1, Q2, and Q3.
●Construct a histogram.
Chi-Square Goodness of Fit Test:
Using a Chi-Square Goodness of Fit Test with a
significance level of 0.05, test the hypothesis that data is sampled from a Normal
Distribution with a population mean equal to the sample mean and a population standard
deviation equal to the sample standard deviation. For the test, start with the data classes
from your histogram and merge them to ensure each class has a sufficient number of
observations. Then, calculate the following:
●Numbers of observations in the data.
●Class probability.
●Class expected value.
●Chi-square component values.
Finally, calculate the chi-square value, describe the degrees of freedom, and explain your
conclusion. Note that since you are using the sample means and standard deviations, you
will need to adjust your degrees of freedom accordingly.
Report:
Submission of the report via Canvas Unicheck and written report due
Tuesday, April 21st
. The project report is to be written in clear English with complete sentences.
Be sure to define all notations and include descriptions of all tables and figures in the
text. To improve your writing, you should consider taking your report to the
UTA
Writing Center. Your report should include a cover page, three sections, and two
appendices. On cover of your project report please transcribe the following statement:
“I _________________ did not give or receive any assistance on this
project, and the report submitted is wholly my own.”
Write your name in the blank and sign below it. You may use an electronic
signature such as
Adobe EchoSign and 11-point font, single-spaced. In Section 1,
describe the data collection process with enough detail that the reader could
replicate the process. In Section 2, include the descriptive statistics in a table and
the histogram in a figure. In Section 3, describe the chi-square tests with clearly
stated conclusions and tables for the calculated values. Appendices I and II should
include tables of you the raw data.
“I _________________ did not give or receive any assistance on this
project, and the report submitted is wholly my own.”
Write your name in the blank and sign below it. You may use an electronic
signature such as
Adobe EchoSign and 11-point font, single-spaced. In Section 1,
describe the data collection process with enough detail that the reader could
replicate the process. In Section 2, include the descriptive statistics in a table and
the histogram in a figure. In Section 3, describe the chi-square tests with clearly
stated conclusions and tables for the calculated values. Appendices I and II should
include tables of you the raw data
engineering probability Project

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