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Fascism And Nazism In Europe

The First World War left Europe devastated. A war of this magnitude not only rendered people completely hopeless but also created a power vacuum that needed to be filled. The democratic governments had failed to deliver, therefore people in hope of change welcomed extreme left and right winged parties. Around this time, the predominant right-winged political ideologies of Nazism and Fascism came to the forefront. In the period between the First and Second World War, Hitler’s Nazi Germany and Mussolini’s Fascist Italy provided the ideal alternative to the ineffective parliament democracy. Although considered comparable due to their ideological similarities and the reasons behind their popularity, Nazism and Fascism were “closer in theory than in practice” (Macdonald, 48). While the similarities cannot be disregarded, they were quite different in many aspects, which primarily include the Nazi emphasis on racism and anti-Semitism, the extent to which totalitarianism was practiced by both and the authority exercised by the Church in the two. In theory, the ideologies of Fascism and Nazism contain certain parallels. Fascism is “a political philosophy, movement, or regime that exalts nation and often race above the individual and that stands for a centralized autocratic government headed by a dictatorial leader, severe economic and social regimentation, and forcible suppression of opposition” (“Fascism”). Nazism is “the body of political and economic doctrines held and put into effect by the Nazis in Germany from 1933 to 1945 including the totalitarian principle of government, predominance of especially Germanic groups assumed to be racially superior, and supremacy of the führer” (“Nazism”). Both were anti-democratic ideologies with one-party dictatorships; the leaders enjoyed unchallenged supremacy and any kind of opposition was considered absolutely intolerable by both and thus, it had to be crushed. Another similar aspect of the two was the reasons behind their popularity. In both cases, the world war had left Italy and Germany economically and politically crippled. It was not only the failure of the democratic system that contributed to the swift growth of Fascism in Italy and Nazism in Germany. The perceived threat of communism taking over the European peninsula was so massive that people were willing to support these rightist ideologies partly because they were opposed to communism. As Betts puts it, “Fascism and Nazism … gained popularity as defenders against an imposing Communist menace” (1). On the other hand, one stark contrast between the two was the Nazi racial and anti-Semitic policy. While for Fascism the state was most important, Nazism considered Hitler’s concept of ‘Aryanism’ and the master race to be the most significant of all. As Stewart said “Hitler did believe the Germans were a master race and that other races were inferior … Jews and Slavs were sub-humans” (26). Hitler not only passed laws against Jews, stripping them off their nationality and rights, he also forced them into concentration camps, where they were ruthlessly murdered. All over the Nazi empire Jews were arrested and sent to extermination camps where they were starved and worked to death (McKay, 923). Also there were gas chambers, where the captives were locked up and choked to death on poison gas (Mckay, 923). In contrast, “The one thing that the Mussolinian Fascism did not openly espouse, ironically, was racism. Unlike Hitler’s National Socialism, Mussolinian Fascism was at its theoretical core a non-race based political philosophy” (Borsella, 126). Mussolini, unlike Hitler, never expressed any such obsession with the glorification of a particular race. This staunch hatred for the Jews was a major difference between the two philosophies. Coming to the next difference, ideologically both Fascism and Nazism were totalitarian in nature i.e. the political systems had complete authority over every aspect of the society, with no freedom given to any individual or group of people. However, once in practice the German Nazi regime was more totalitarian than the Italian Fascist regime. As Hannah Arendt points out, Mussolini’s regime was “Not totalitarian, but just an ordinary nationalist dictatorship…” (qtd. in Germino, 132). Hitler was the head of state as well as Chancellor whereas in Italy King Victor Emanuel remained Head of State which, in essence, limited Mussolini’s freedom of policy making. The police and security services were more repressive in Germany with no mercy given to even the slightest opposition. Italy’s secret service, OVRA, on the other hand, was relatively lenient. The Nazis literally controlled every aspect of the society, from the curriculum in schools with history and biology books re-written to match Nazi ideas, to the role of women and families in Germany (Lowe, 312). This was not the case in Italy. All things considered, Nazism exercised totalitarianism to a further extent than Fascism did. Lastly, the Church was considered a traditional source of authority and guidance all over Europe. It exercised considerable amount of power, with countries taking its opinions into account. During the Fascist regime, the Italian Catholic Church exercised a powerful position in Italy and was a constant opposition to the Fascist ideology. But even then the Fascist government never did anything to undermine the Church. However, under Nazism the Christian Church was Germanized (Walmer, 134). In Germany, when the church became disillusioned with the Nazis and began to protest, Hitler dissolved it and organized it into a Reich church with a Nazi as the archbishop (Lowe, 314). Where Fascism did not oppress the traditional source of authority, under Nazism any source of authority, other than Hitler, was eliminated. In conclusion, Fascism and Nazism were welcomed by the world as they offered the best possible alternative to a failed democratic system. During those times of hopelessness, people wanted a leader to guide them which is why these ideologies flourished. Theoretically they were considered to be same, with Nazism being considered as an extension to Fascism. However, Hitler took Nazism to an unprecedented level of racial discrimination and brutality, which was the complete opposite to Fascism in practice. Overall, both the ideologies come across as more different than similar.
UMUC Training Evaluation Levels and their Importance Discussion Question.

This is a two part discussion question. Using only the references provided to support intext citation.Topic #1 – Kirkpatrick’s Four Levels of Evaluation Use at least two resources from the class. Review Kirkpatrick’s four levels of evaluation and justify why you would use all these levels even though your boss was interested only in the last one (results). Explain in detail why each level of this evaluation model is important. Topic #2 – Evaluation Tools — Surveys and Beyond Use at least two resources from the class. You previously created a training plan assignment and an evaluation tool to assess the training plan. Surveys are the most common form of assessment, but there are other choices. Compare and contrast (1) online surveys (such as an online training workshop evaluation using Survey Monkey) with another type evaluation tool (such as testing, interviews, or focus groups as examples). (2) Identify how each can best be used in a training evaluation. (3) Explain why these two evaluation tools can be an effective way to assess your training objectives of displaying professionalism and customer focused behaviors. Be sure to label I, II, and III.
UMUC Training Evaluation Levels and their Importance Discussion Question

Sustainability Discussion Forum

Sustainability Discussion Forum. I’m studying for my Business class and need an explanation.

Discipline: Business
Type of service: Article Critique
Spacing: Double spacing
Paper format: APA
Number of pages: 1 page
Number of sources: 2 sources
Paper detalis:
Referencing the Inc. Magazine article, Why Shark Tank’s Kevin O’Leary Wants You to be Evil: Do You Need a Social Mission? Hell, no. Profit is the Mission (Links to an external site.): 1. Discuss the question of whether companies do (or do not) need to need to be organized differently in the context of sustainability challenges. 2. Drawing from your text, Management Reset, and one other outside reference provide a reason for your point of view. 3. Give examples of what might need to change or stay the same. Your postings/insights in the Discussion forum are based on the following: 1. Application of course concepts; 2. Ability to articulate your analysis clearly; and 3. Integration of student colleagues’ contributions and insights leading the discussion to a deeper level of understanding.
I only have the hardback copy of the textbook, but here are the powerpoints for the chapters that were covered in lecture.
Let me know if this clarifies the subjects any better.
Please don’t include ch. 10 in the discussion. We haven’t gone over it in class. So just ch. 1,2,4, and 9.
Sustainability Discussion Forum

Benefits of Using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Discussion

programming assignment help Benefits of Using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Discussion.

I’m working on a psychology discussion question and need support to help me understand better.

Topic 5 DQ 1 (Obj. 5.1, 5.2, and 5.3) CNL-500 DQ 1 What are the benefits of using cognitive behavioral therapy versus using behavioral therapy?This discussion question is informed by the following CACREP Standard: 2.F.5.a. Theories and models of counseling.TEXTBOOKS Murdock, N. L. (2017). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy: A case approach (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. ISBN-13: 9780134240220.URL:http://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/pearson/2016/theories-of-counseling-and-psychotherapy_a-case-approach_ebook_4e.php
Benefits of Using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Discussion

Freed Hardeman University Phonemic Awareness in Young Children Article Critique

Freed Hardeman University Phonemic Awareness in Young Children Article Critique.

Part1: Comprehension Article Critique Each student will find 1 article on each of the 5 five areas in reading (phonics, phonemic awareness, fluency, comprehension, and vocabulary) and 1 for writing. All article responses must include an APA bibliography at the beginning and 2-3 page, double-spaced summary and reaction with each one labeled. Part2: Comprehension Awareness Article Comprehension Awareness Article Critique Five Websites with descriptions – type those up and upload them Ten Activity Ideas with Title and Description – type those up and upload them/pictures would be great also!! Part3: Please find and create two activities tied to Comprehension Awareness. Create one activity to use with students in K-3 and one activity to use with students in grades 4-6. *(Keep in mind that one or two of your 13 overall activities should be whole group activities and 2-3 of your 13 overall activities should be designed for reading centers/workstations.) The activities may not be worksheets. When creating activities for learning centers, you must have enough for each child in the center. A whole group activity is one that you would do with whole group instruction. While it can be something like a graphic organizer, it can also be a whole group activity or using manipulatives of some kind. Remember that you should have enough items made in their entirety for a class set. Each activity should include a card stating the title of the activity, the objective(s), and the area in which the activity fits. In addition, each activity should have a separate instruction sheet to be placed with the activity for the students to follow. Each individual must have his or her own activities. An answer key should be provided if it is age appropriate. For each activity, please provide a 100 -word explanation for the purpose of the activity, what students would benefit from doing the activity, what part/s of reading are addressed by the activity, how the activity will be completed, and how you will determine completion/mastery of the activity’s objective.
Freed Hardeman University Phonemic Awareness in Young Children Article Critique

Mentoring in Practice

Thembelani Dube Mentoring is described by Kinnell and Hughes(2010) as the transferring of knowledge ,skills and attitudes from health professionals to the students that they are working with. The royal college of nursing states that the role of the mentor is to enable the student to make sense of their practice through the application of theory, assessing, evaluating and giving constructive feedback and facilitating reflection on practice, performance and experiences. the NMC(2008) adds that a mentor is a nurse ,midwife or specialist public health nurse who facilitates learning, supervises and assesses students in a practice setting. The Nursing and Midwifery council (NMC,2006) have set standards for Nursing and Midwifery practice education, the standards to support learning and assessment in practice(SLAIP). The eight standards are a mandatory requirement for both students and mentors. The standards clearly outline the mentor’s responsibility for developing and ensuring the practice competence of students and provide a more defined statement regarding accountability for decisions that lead to entry to the professional register. These domains are going to be discussed individually in depth. Establishing effective working relationships Mentorship is the process that allows transference of knowledge, skills and attitudes from health professionals to the students that they are working with (kinnell and Hughes 2010). Wilson (2014) in his study concluded that mentoring involves modelling nursing practice, selecting learning opportunities for students, articulating one’s own practical and theoretical knowledge and assessing student’s competence in practice. By being role models, mentors provide an observable image of imitation, demonstrating skills and qualities for the student to emulate, Ness (2010). Wilkes(2006) points out that it is important to establish an effective working relationship where a mentor offers support but can also be objective and analytical. The student mentor relationship is crucial to the student’s learning experience particularly because the mentor’s role includes assessment of practice. Gopee (2011) listed some of the qualities of a mentor as nurturing, role modelling, focusing on the professional development of the student, sustaining a caring relationship over time and functioning as teacher, sponsor, encourager and friend, Beskine (2009) suggests that orientation is the gateway to a successful placement. Starting off well promotes the quality of the placement. To establish an effective working relationship with the student a mentor should start by orientating a student to the placement, this provides an opportunity for the student to express any concerns. However the RCN (2007) recommends that in preparation of the placement a checklist should be discussed on the first day of working and this should include an up to date orientation pack. Walsh (2010) adds that there are two major facets to establishing effective working relationships, managing the student’s first day and week in a productive and welcoming way and mentor’s good use of communication skills and active listening. Gopee (2011) states that skills and techniques of communication are some of the most important tools the person undertaking the mentor’s role has to utilise. Facilitation of learning The major role of the mentor is to assist and encourage students to link theory and practice in a practical setting (Botma et-al,2013) the author adds that the student should be passionate, eager to learn, participate and be committed to make the relationship work. A study done by Jokelainen et-al(2010) identifies that facilitation of learning includes advance planning of training and placement learning , which includes ensuring planning and organising learning opportunities and being aware of details of the student and their training documents. Naming mentors and organising the student’s first day at work and ensuring that the student has the same shifts as the mentor. The NMC(2008) code of practice specifies that the registered nurse must be willing to share skills and experience for the benefit of others and has a duty to facilitate students and others to develop their competence. Wilson (2013) recommends that in order to facilitate learning, nurses should include students in their daily work, teaching clinical skills, giving written and verbal feedback. Aston and Hallam (2011) agrees that facilitation of learning includes planning relevant experiences for students, providing support and assessing clinical performance. However Kinnell and Hughes(2010) argues that finding out how a person learns is the key, this area should not be underestimated as it requires thought, insight and clinical background. The authors confirms that it is worth spending some time to think the student, the level they are at and what the best strategy would be to ensure their learning and development is facilitated appropriately depending on where they are at on their course. Walsh(2010) identifies that there are many different theories and models of learning , but the three major ones are behaviourist, humanistic and cognitive. Gopee(2011) states that the humanistic learning theories have been developed with regards to how learning occurs. Carl Rogers’ student centred approach to learning reveals that a learning environment where a learner feels able to speak their mind and give their views is a healthy one. Thus mentors provides a safe, encouraging environment, guides the student to resources and opportunities and facilitates the student’s exploration of them. Marslow’ s humanistic hierarchy of needs model(1943) identifies that student mentor relationship and the learning environment are important elements of learning as this would ease anxieties and give the student a sense of belonging therefore enabling the student to achieve their learning needs. Malcolm knowles’s andragogy learning theory(1990) highlights that it is important to acknowledge students as adult learners.it describes adult learners as being more self directive, motivated and having a wealth of experience. Therefore it is important how mentors relate to and teach their students most of whom are readily regarded as adult learners. Assessment and accountability Kinnell and Hughes(2010) believes that it is a statutory requirement to assess healthcare students, it is necessary to assess student nurses during their training in order to licence them as competent practitioners and subsequently protect the public. Assessments highlight weaknesses and strengths and provides a baseline for future learning needs Nicklin and Kenworthy(1995).There are many methods of assessment including testimonies, reflective writing or discussions, direct observation and feedback from colleagues. Gopee(2011) points out that there are a number of other essential facets of assessment, this part is going to discuss formative and summative. The primary aim of the formative assessment is to promote learning so that the learner can do the skill safely and effectively and knows the rationale for each step of the intervention. Summative are conducted to determine whether the learner is now competent to work without direct supervision. it is summative that constitute a periodic record of the student’s achievement of the aims and outcomes of a course or module. The NMC(2008) requires that most assessment of competence are to be undertaken through direct observation in practice and therefore registered nurses have a duty to facilitate students to develop their competence, they are accountable for ensuring that the individual who undertakes the work is able to do so and they are given appropriate support and supervision. Andrews et-al (2010)comments that assessment has become a major element of the mentor’s role. Many take on the role willingly but when faced with the notions of continuing assessment process become overwhelmed by the responsibility. Many nurses have difficulty taking responsibility for the student learning, especially making decisions about competency required while Lauder et-al (2008) argues that while mentors are crucial to developing students ’achievement of fitness to practice, they are hampered by lack of time to undertake the role. Walsh(2010) identifies that because the assessment process is for a whole host of good reasons it must be very robust. lt should accurately enable mentors to make realistic judgements about the students’ level of competence and thus whether to pass them or not. For the student a good assessment process also gives them valuable feedback, it helps them to identify what they need to do and enables them to set realistic future goals. NMC (2008) validity for assessment ensures that assessments measures what it’s designed to measure, there are two important key issues, how to measure and what to measure. The code of conduct points out that as professionals, nurses are personally accountable for their actions and omissions in practice areas and must always be able to justify decisions therefore it is important that weak students are identified early and given the right encouragement and support, and concerns are dealt with in a timely manner. Sharples et-al(2007)points out that it is wrong to assume that all students entering clinical placement will have the knowledge, skills and attitude to be successful. They will always be students who struggle to achieve competence and mentors who fail to evaluate a learner’s unsatisfactory performance accurately are said to be guilty of misleading the learner, and potentially putting the patient care at risk and thus failing in their accountability to the NMC (2006). The Duffy report of (2004) ‘failing to fail’ concluded that there are several reasons why some mentors are failing to fail students like not identifying problems early to the student therefore not giving the student sufficient time to improve, leaving it too late and that mentors may give students the benefit of the doubt when it comes to a final judgement regarding their clinical competence. Failing to fail creates poor standards, it leads to having practitioners entering the profession that are not fit for practice (Wells and McLoughin,2014) Evaluation of learning Mentors have the responsibility of developing the practice learning experience they are providing for students, evaluating how effective or ineffective the practice environment helps to fulfil this role (Aston and Hallam,2011).NMC(2008b)requires that registered nurses participate in self- and peer evaluation to facilitate personal development and contribute towards the development of others. In a mentor’s role the term evaluation is used in the context of the student’s practice learning experience. Evaluation assist in identifying areas that need to be improved as well as what is working well, it enables mentors to improve their mentorship skills and the learning experience for future students. NMC (2010) points out that feedback from students and mentors is used to inform the programme and enhance the practice learning experience. Elcock and Sharpes (2011) adds that just as evaluation is the key for improvement, without it there is a risk of making the same mistake over and over again. Aston and Hallam(2011) comments that evaluation is not to be confused with assessing as this is to measure the overall value of the learning experience or how worthwhile the practice learning opportunity has been. The process of evaluation involves obtaining feedback from relevant people, reviewing and discussing the feedback and planning action to implement change, and this can either be formal or informal Price (2006). Kinnell and Hughes states that mentors and students are exposed to a variety of evaluation approaches, from patient care to facilitation of learning. Students are required by the universities to evaluate their experiences in practice at the end of each placement and this contributes to the university quality assurance process Elcock and Sharples(2011). Students are asked to reflect on their practice placement and comment on the experience that they have gained based on four dimensions, the mentorship process, the available learning resources, their mentor and the quality of the practice placement.it will be at this stage that action of plan is developed if there are issues to be addressed. Creating an environment for learning. Walsh (2010) states that this domain entails helping a student identify their learning needs. Students develop their attitudes, competence, interpersonal communication skills, critical thinking and clinical problem solving abilities in the clinical learning environment (Dunn and Hansford,1997)feeling part of the team is the key factor in student’s feeling that they fit in and they are then able to learn. Aston and Hallam (2011) have identified that another way in which mentors can provide consistency in an approach to providing good learning opportunities for students is to identify what experiences you can provide that will enable students to achieve their competencies. A rapidly embraced and welcomed student is one who will be able to take advantage of the learning opportunities early on in their placement, in contrary a student that feels excluded and unwelcomed will likely shy away, withdraw and have raised anxieties regarding their chances of achieving learning outcomes. kinnell and Hughes(2010) points out that mentors need to appreciate the importance of understanding the healthcare students and the potential individual needs that they have as this will influence the student mentor relationship. Nicklin and Kenworthy(1995) identified some issues that characterise a good learning environment and they included a supportive mentor, that is able to identify learning opportunities for the student and is able to respond to differing learning styles of individual students. Finding out what stage the student is at in their training and what their particular needs and interests are aids in creating an environment for learning for the student. Walsh (2010) states that consistency, a patient and understanding mentor, protecting student supernumerary status and giving a student a time to reflect creates a good learning environment. Hand(2006) indicated that factors that are important for the creation of a positive learning environment are said to be a humanistic approach, where all staff are kind, genuine, approachable and promote self-esteem and confidence to students, good team spirits with respect and trust, high standards of care being provided using efficient but flexible approaches as well as teaching students as a key feature. Context of practice and evidence based practice The slaip document cements that mentors need to contribute to the development of an environment in which effective practice is fostered, implemented, evaluated and disseminated. Being a mentor does not only mean direct involvement in facilitation learning and assessment but it also challenges them to consider their own evidence base and standards of practice Elcock and Sharples (2011). Kinnell and Hughes suggests that mentors must therefore remember that the end result of evidence based practice is the ability to offer research- based findings in order to justify aspects of care delivery and rationale experiences encountered by patients throughout their healthcare journey. Walsh (2010) says that by adhering to the local policies and procedures and mandatory training is another way for mentors to achieve their use of evidence based practice. In context of practice, mentors are required by the Nursing and midwifery council to demonstrate their ongoing knowledge, skills and competence and that this should be reviewed and assessed at annual updates and triennial reviews. Duffy (2012) suggests that nurses should have a portfolio of evidence to demonstrate updating and maintenance of competence as a mentor. The aim of annual updating is to ensure that all mentors and practice teachers continue to understand issues relating to supporting students, understand the implications of changes to NMC requirements, have current knowledge of NMC approved programmes and make valid and reliable assessments of competence and fitness for safe and effective practice Elcock and Sharples(2011)and NMC(2008). Leadership Leadership is an integral role that mentors have to undertake. Kinnell and Hughes(2011) identify that the mentor’s role is forever changing as they are expected to be co-ordinaters of patient care, a care manager, an expert in their own clinical field and they are also expected to teach and assess healthcare students within their commitment to mentorship. Gopee(2011) establishes that mentors leadership role is crucial in practice at facilitating student’s learning.One of the NMC(2008) outcomes of leardership domain requires that mentors provide feedback about the effectiveness of learning and assessment in practice. Anderson (2011)adds that helpfull feedback should be based on a recognised model of assessment feedback such as ‘praise sandwich’ and Duffy(2013) confirms that mentors need to provide students with regular feedback on their performance, this is integral to the assessment process. Kinnell and Hughes(2011) identified a number of leadership styles such as autocratic, consultative, democratic and laissez-faire, a mentor should have an insight into different leadership ship styles and evaluate the one that appears to be dominant within their practice placement and how that style could influence the student’s experience. This assignment has highlighted the impotence of the SLAIP domains as a guidance for mentors. It has explored the qualities and the skills that mentors need to fullful their roles in order to capitalize on the student’s learning experience whilst working towards developing a competent practitioner. 2700(words)Page 1