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Factors Related to Hypnotisability Research Paper

Table of Contents Executive Summary Introduction Results Time and Hypnotizability References Executive Summary The scope of the research is to measure people’s levels of hypnotizability and whether it relates to empathy, absorption and imagery. Studying hypnosis susceptibility helps us understand and identify different characteristics that make individuals react to hypnosis and how effective the proposed measurable scales are. Hypnosis susceptibility study is conducted through experimental analysis that employs computer generated and self-report measures. Our comprehensive analysis concluded that all the three mentioned factors were positive predictors of hypnotizability. Importance of conducting this study was that medical professionals will be able to relate to new events and develop effective treatment inventions and therapeutic techniques to treat the most diverse forms of pains. Introduction Manmillar et al (2005) defines hypnosis is a mental state, usually induced by a procedure known as the hypnotic induction. According to their definition, hypnosis uses the imaginative role-enactment which relaxes individual’s objective area of the mind, or may be delivered in the presence of subject. To broaden our understanding Carli (2007) defines hypnotisability as “the cognitive trait allowing subjects to module perception, emotion and behavior according to specific suggestions” (p.64). Their contemporary research suggests that hypnotisability is a procedure that awakens our focused attention. Accompanied by physical relaxation and induced mental concentration, hypnosis scores are obtained after hyptonic induction, on a standardized hypnosis scale. The ability to destruct the metal concentration is engrossed in the idea of training thoughts which may subsequently result to individual unconsciousness or even the progressive relaxation term known as ‘nervous sleep’. Most clinicians agree that hypnosis is an effective therapeutic technique that can be used with people suffering from diverse forms of pains. It’s however argued that the degree to which people receive hypnosis vary from one individual to another and the levels of susceptible hypnosis as mentioned by Manmillar et al (2005) may range from high and low hypnotisability. To come to a better understanding of the relationship between high and low hypnosis, Manmillar et al (2005) defines high hypnotizable generally as the ease of relaxing minds while Brynt and Idey (2001) defines it as the display of more fantasy proneness and greater absorption. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While there are many similarities in high hypnotizable definition, Hilgard (1979) adds that individuals which such susceptible experience greater imaginary involvement while Kumar at al (1996) strongly focuses on their conscious experience in response to the imagery offered by the hypnotist. In measuring hypnosis effectiveness, Braffman and Kirsch (2001) suggests two detrimental methodologies to include; simple and go/no go reaction times. His analysis further concluded individuals on hypnozability were positively related with simple reaction time and correlated with go/no go reaction time, when non hypnotic suggestibilities were statistically controlled. It is evidenced that different characteristics make individuals react to hypnosis different and some may be more susceptible to hypnosis than others. Since their applications in both clinical and research settings, hypnotizability scales have never been evidenced to measure effects of hypnotizability. Since hypnotizability is a stable construct, identifying its predictors would be helpful in comprehending individual differences observed in suggestibility (Paul and Mathews, 2003). Using a set of standardized suggestions to check individuals’ responses, followed by a standardized induction, to know the measure of hypnotic ability they posses is applied. Barber, Spanos and Chaves (1974) further clarifies that individual differences in ability to respond to hypnosis could be described with the aid of imagination and absorption constructs. Paul and Mathews (2003) on the other hand suggests that hypnotic suggestibility and individual differences are most likely to be experienced with people with the ability to respond to waking and may not necessarily lack the ability to respond to hypnotic procedures. Kogon et al (1998) define imaginary as the ability of a person to receive an experience or emotional state in one’s mind. He provides that relationships among imaginary and hypnotisability are complex and the methodologies used can easily inflate the relationships. In this case, Kogon et al (1998) suggests for careful application of the results obtained as many may differ in their degree of association and functionality depending on context of their hypnotic application. In vivid imagery hypnosis application, Kogon et al (1998) performed an experimental analysis where they correlated computer generated and self-report measure of imagery with hypnotizability to measure the degree of their relationship. We will write a custom Research Paper on Factors Related to Hypnotisability specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Computer generated imagery measures were used due to their ability to provide accurate results and because they are better predictors of hypnotizability. Credited as good hypnotizability measure, the computer generated results did not yield satisfactory results as most of the experiments were conducted outside hypnotic setting. Moreover, the imagery modality used in measuring correlation between imagery and hypnotisability were valid. This is according to (Carli et al, 2007) reports that stated that “instructions of globally reduced perception” (p.14). In this case the research should have based their analysis on particular sensory modalities which would have yielded positive results that related to the study question. Milling et al 2000 define absorption as an individual’s characteristic, which encompasses openness, to experience changes in cognitive and emotional, state over rage of circumstances. Green and Lynn (2008) defined it as the capacity for self- altering attention that is considered to be significant component of hypnotozability. When relating back to highly susceptible individuals, Milling (2000) argue that individuals with highly susceptible are believed to get involved in a variety of imaginative practices more on faster when measuring absorption. Another study conducted by Council, Kirsch and Gran (1996) considers absorption as a predictor of hypnotizability and suggests use of scales designed specifically for measuring absorption to be used. However in determining the relationship between absorption and hypnotic susceptibility, the most commonly used measures implied that the absorption scales were consistent and reliable related when tests were administered in the same experimental setting (Green and Lynn, 2008). Szlyk (2003) defines the emotional processes underlie the experience ad creation of hypnosis. He speculates that empathy plays an important role in hypnotic subjects put together in hypnotic experiences. Szlyh (2003) experimental analysis included observations from various researches speculating the particular trait empathy and its relationship to hypnotizability. He first defined empathy as the ability to understand another person’s feelings and motives. His experimental analysis however showed strong correlation of trait empathy with hypnotic ability. Higard (1970) further examined an individual’s capacity to empathetically recognize characters in drama and literature makes empathy a notable predictor of hypnotizability. Wickramasekera (1998) study of ‘High Risk Model of Threat Perception’ that examined relationship between emphatic process of emotional contagion and imitation in relations to behavioral and experimental indices of hypnotic ability observed that development of psychosomatic symptoms were more susceptible in high hypnotizable’s as a result of increased empathetic characteristics they posses. Not sure if you can write a paper on Factors Related to Hypnotisability by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Same clinical observations conducted by Spiegal and Spiegal (1978) confirmed that individuals with high hypnotic ability tend to relate to new events and begin to develop symptoms that resemble the ones they have observed in others. Results The study recruited 244 participants among whom 239 successfully completed the questionnaire booklet. The study was aimed at identifying factors that best predict hypnotizability, along with the effect of time on hypnotizability. A series of correlations were employed in investigating factors favorable for hypnotizability completed with t-tests aimed at measuring the effect of time on hypnotizability Our experimental analysis measures whether hypnotizablity relates to three factors; empathy, absorption and imagery. I first hypothesis that mpathy would be the highest predictor of hypnotizability. And secondly, there would be little difference between pre-group and post-group scores. The results did however find correlation and intercorrelation values for hypnotizability to be as follows; the correlation for hypnotizability and empathy were r (237) =. 254, the correlation between hypnotizability and imagery as r= (237) = .1.141, hypnotizability and absorption is r (237) = .196 Table 1: The Relationship between Absorption, Imagery, Empathy and Hypnotizability Factor Formula Hypnotizability Results Absorption Pearson Correlation N Imagery Pearson Correlation N Empathy Pearson Correlation N Correlation values ranged from p<0.1 to p<0.5. When measuring the absorption, empathy and imagery rates against hypnotizability on a measurable scale on 0.1 indicating weak while 0.5 indicating strong correlation, imagery indicated a relative value of 0.5 against hypnotizability, which was in deed a strong correlation. Absorption against hypnotizability on the other hand indicated a vale of 0.5, also an indication correlation between the two, while empathy against hypnotizability recorded 0.2, which was an indication of weak correlation between the two factors. When using inter-correlation measurement, empathy and absorption were rated as r (237) = p .503, while empathy and imagery as r (237) = p .274, and imagery and absorption as r (237) = p .445 Table 2: The Relationship between Absorption, Imagery, Empathy and Hypnotizability Factor Formula Hypnotizability Results Absorption Pearson Correlation N Imagery Pearson Correlation N Empathy Pearson Correlation N Inter-correlation values ranged from p<0.1 to p<0.5. Measuring absorption, empathy and imagery rates against hypnotizability on a measurable scale on 0.1 indicating weak while 0.5 indicating strong correlation, imagery indicated a relative value of 0.4 against hypnotizability, which was in deed a strong correlation. Absorption against hypnotizability on the other hand indicated a vale of 0.5, also an indication correlation between the two, while empathy against hypnotizability recorded 0.1, which was an indication of weak correlation between the two factors. Time and Hypnotizability The research used time to focus on the relationship it has on hypnotizability. With regard to the hypothesis empathy would be the highest predictor of hypnotizability and little difference between pre-group and post-group scores will be evident, a pre-hypnosis questionnaire was compared to a post-hypnosis questionnaire group. The overall hypnosis results showed a mean rate of 5.38 (SD 2.58). Below is a detailed summary of the results. Green – Control group mean Blue – Treatment group mean Group comparison indicated the group that had the questionnaires before hypnosis (n=120) had a mean of 5.44 (SD 2.55) whereas the group that had hypnosis after the questionnaire (n=119) had a mean of 5.31 (SD 2.62). Am independent sample t-test was considered to compare two mean groups to determine whether the mean Group 1 was significantly different from mean Group 2. The results showed no significant differences between the means and the two groups, t (237) = .391 given p<. 0.5. on both groups References Brynt, R. A.,
Office automation systems are computer based information systems that collect, process, store and transmit electronic messages, documents and other forms of communications among individuals, work groups and organizations. Such systems can increase the productivity of managerial end users and other professional and staff personnel by significantly reducing the time and effort needed to produce, access and receive business communications. An overview of office automation systems are given below: Office publishing systems are word processing and desktop publishing systems. Image processing systems are image processing, optical scanning and storage, document management and interactive video systems. Electronic communication systems are electronic meeting, tele-conferencing and telecommunicating systems. Office support systems are electronic calendar, ticket file, notebook, directory system, work scheduling and task management systems. The above are described in brief: Office Publishing Systems Word processing – It is the use of computer systems to automate the transformation of ideas into a readable form of communication. It involves manipulating text data to produce information products in the form of documents (letters, memos, forms and reports). Desktop publishing – Organisations can use and develop publishing systems to produce their own printed materials. They can design and print their own newsletters, manuals, brochures and books with several types of styles and graphics and colours on each page. Voice store and forward systems – It is also known as voice mail or structured verbal-response exchanges. It has the capability of storing verbal data and/or communicating it to another location. It is one of the latest systems and found useful to corporate houses and the society at large. Electronic Meeting systems – If electronic meeting systems are used, people may not appreciate spending money on travel to attend meetings away from their normal work location. It involves the use of video and audio communications to allow conferences and meetings to be held with participants who may be scattered across a room, a building or a country. Teleconferencing – Participants at remote sites key in their presentation and responses whenever convenient for their online terminals or workstations which are connected to a central conference computer. Since all participants don’t have to do this at the same time, this form of EMS is called computer’s conferencing. Sessions are held in real time with major participants at remote site who take part with voice input of questions and responses. Telecommuting – It is the use of telecommunications by workers to replace commuting enabling them to work from their homes. It is also used to describe the use of telecommunication to carry on work activities from temporary locations other than offices and homes. Some people consider telecommuting as the creation of virtual offices. Multimedia – Another evolving set of technologies for systematically managing graphics, drawings and photographs in addition to text and data are multimedia datamanagement systems . Some of these are called hypermedia systems. Image Processing Systems Image processing systems, also known as electronic image management system, allow users to electronically capture, store, process and retrieve images of documents. Image databasemanagement systems are becoming more versatile. The LAN-based image processing systems are also being common, which include several servers each dedicated to a specific function. Document Management Systems These systems are sophisticated image processing systems. These often interface with other office systems such as word processing, desktop publishing, electronic mail, voice mail etc. These systems allow digitized ‘voice notes’ to be attached to specific document images and may have other special features as well as the ability to store multi-colour documents and colour photographs. The Automated Office Office automation is defined as a separate sub-system or included within information processing. It includes a wide range of support facilities for knowledge work and activities.

specific program student learning outcomes, Signature Assignment help

specific program student learning outcomes, Signature Assignment help.

About Your Signature AssignmentThis signature assignment is designed to align with specific program student learning outcome(s) in your program. Program Student Learning Outcomes are broad statements that describe what students should know and be able to do upon completion of their degree. The signature assignments might be graded with an automated rubric that allows the University to collect data that can be aggregated across a location or college/school and used for program improvements.Purpose of Assignment The purpose of this assignment is for students to synthesize the concepts learned throughout the course. This assignment will provide students an opportunity to build critical thinking skills, develop businesses and organizations, and solve problems requiring data by compiling all pertinent information into one report. Assignment Steps Resources: Microsoft Excel®, Signature Assignment Databases, Signature Assignment Options, Part 3: Inferential StatisticsScenario: Upon successful completion of the MBA program, say you work in the analytics department for a consulting company. Your assignment is to analyze one of the following databases:ManufacturingHospitalConsumer FoodFinancial Select one of the databases based on the information in the Signature Assignment Options. Provide a 12-15 slide PowerPoint statistical report including the following:Explain the context of the caseProvide a research foundation for the topicPresent graphsExplain outliersPrepare calculationsConduct hypotheses testsDiscuss inferences you have made from the results This assignment is broken down into four parts:Part 1 – Preliminary AnalysisPart 2 – Examination of Descriptive StatisticsPart 3 – Examination of Inferential StatisticsPart 4 – Conclusion/Recommendations Part 1 – Preliminary Analysis (3-4 slides)Generally, as a statistics consultant, you will be given a problem and data. At times, you may have to gather additional data. For this assignment, assume all the data is already gathered for you.State the objective:What are the questions you are trying to address?Describe the population in the study clearly and in sufficient detail:What is the sample?Discuss the types of data and variables:Are the data quantitative or qualitative?What are levels of measurement for the data? Part 2 – Descriptive Statistics (3-4 slides) Examine the given data.Present the descriptive statistics (mean, median, mode, range, standard deviation, variance, CV, and five-number summary).Identify any outliers in the data.Present any graphs or charts you think are appropriate for the data.Note: Ideally, we want to assess the conditions of normality too. However, for the purpose of this exercise, assume data is drawn from normal populations. Part 3 – Inferential Statistics (2-3 slides)Use the Part 3: Inferential Statistics document.Create (formulate) hypothesesRun formal hypothesis testsMake decisions. Your decisions should be stated in non-technical terms.Hint: A final conclusion saying “reject the null hypothesis” by itself without explanation is basically worthless to those who hired you. Similarly, stating the conclusion is false or rejected is not sufficient. Part 4 – Conclusion and Recommendations (1-2 slides)Include the following:What are your conclusions?What do you infer from the statistical analysis?State the interpretations in non-technical terms. What information might lead to a different conclusion?Are there any variables missing?What additional information would be valuable to help draw a more certain conclusion?Format your assignment consistent with APA format. Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.
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SNHU If You Let Me Play Campaign by Nike Discussion

cheap assignment writing service SNHU If You Let Me Play Campaign by Nike Discussion.

First, watch the commercial If You Let Me Play. You may also want to revisit your discussion posts from Modules One and Four. Then, in your initial post to the discussion, address the following:What social, political, and/or cultural events might have contributed to the commercial’s message?Why do you think this campaign was effective?Do you think the commercial would be effective if it aired today?Are there any common themes or marketing strategies you notice between this memorable campaign and the ones featured in Module One (“Mean Joe Green”) and Four (“Be Like Mike”)?How has your understanding of what makes a marketing campaign effective changed since the start of this course?In analyzing the various marketing strategies used in these campaigns (and explored throughout the course), what is your biggest takeaway, and how do you see yourself applying the course concepts—including brand awareness, consumer motivational attitudes, and licensing— as a sport marketing professional?Refer to the text and/or other course resources to support your responses. Refer also to your own work in the course, including your work on the final project. In responding to your classmates, be sure to comment on any ideas that they mentioned that you had not thought of.To complete this assignment, review the Discussion Rubric document.
SNHU If You Let Me Play Campaign by Nike Discussion

Conflict between India, Pakistan, China and Kashmir Report

The Kashmir conflict For a long time, the conflict between India Pakistan, China and Kashmir over Kashmir region has remained unresolved. Each of these countries claims ownership of a part of Kashmir. Kashmir is a region in northwest south Asia found between India and Pakistan and also bordering china and the Russia. Historical background Kashmir was initially governed by the Pashtun Durrani Empire during the 18th century. The leader of the Sikh overpowered Kashmir in 1819. Later, it was sold to the Raja of Jammu by the treaty of Amritsar. The raja was consequently known as Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir. Despite being a Muslim region, Pakistan was under mahaja rulers. In 1947, India acquired her independence from British domination. This led to the formation of India and Pakistan (Schofield, 2000). According to India, all the previous treaties ceased with the proclamation of independence. This meant that the princely states were free to choose either to join; India or Pakistan or remain sovereign (Indian Independence Act 1947). Pakistan on the other hand hoped that Kashmir would become part of it owing to the fact that the region was predominantly Muslim. Some Pakistani tribes along with Kashmir radicals invaded Kashmir with the aim of freeing it from the Sikh. The Sikh in return transferred his mandate to India through the Instrument of Accession (Schofield, 2000). The subsequent radical reactions from Pakistan and India’s counter reactions resulted in wars which have carried on till today. The major wars include the 1947, 1965 and 1999 Indo-Pakistani wars. Hence, the conflict in Kashmir springs from the partition of India into the currently known Pakistan and India with it historical factors and religious connections being the major driving forces. The current conflict The ongoing and seemingly endless conflict has raged from 1991. India lays claim to the Jammu and Kashmir states and has recently started controlling almost half of the territories of Jammu, the Kashmir Valley, Ladakh, and the Siachen Glacier. India’s assertion is however disputed by Pakistan who dominates, “37% of Kashmir area; that is Azad Kashmir, Gilgit and Baltistan. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More China dominates 20% of Kashmir territory” (Schofield, 2000, p. 24). The territories under Chinese influence are Aksai Chin which they took possession of in 1962 during the Sino- Indian war and the Trans- Karakoram tract or the Shaksam valley which Pakistan ceded in 1963 (Schofield, 2000). On one hand, India proclaims that Kashmir region is part of India while Pakistan states that Kashmir is a region under contention and it is only the Kashmiri people who can ascertain the final position of Kashmir. China argue that they should be given control over Aksai because it is under Tibet. However, some Kashmiri nationalist groups state that Kashmir ought to be a sovereign state from India and Pakistan. This constant strife threatens to pill into the neighbouring regions. The conflict has resulted in the killing and wounding of many civilians. The March 2008 violent explosion on the Indian controlled Kashmir highway close to the Civil Secretariat and the high court wounded 17 people. Armed combat between radical militias and Indian troops left scores dead and others wounded. It all started when the Indian army, which was carrying out a search for radicals, ambushed a home outside Srinagar. In the ensuing melee, thousands were killed though the human right groups and NGOs claim those killed were double the figure provided by Indian Home Ministry. Indian view According to the Indian government, the instrument of Accession of Jammu and Kashmir to the union of India was legitimate according to the Indian laws and international law and therefore cannot be revoked. The Maharaja’s Instrument of accession had been formally sanctioned by the constituent assembly of Jammu and Kashmir and it advocated for the union of Jammu and Kashmir with India. The constituent assembly then embraced the opinions of the people of Kashmir. The United Nations Security Council acknowledges and supports India’s position regarding unsettled issues between India and Pakistan and prompts them to settle the issues in a peaceful diplomatic manner, not through public opinion. We will write a custom Report on Conflict between India, Pakistan, China and Kashmir specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, considering that Pakistan refuses to remove its troops from Kashmir, the UN resolution cannot be put into effect. At the same time, owing to the permanent changes in the demarcation of Kashmir, the UN resolution 47 then becomes meaningless. India disregards the approach by Pakistan that the nationality of the people of Kashmir should be determined alongside religious lines and that since most of the Kashmiri are Muslims, then their right place is with Pakistan, not India which is predominantly Hindu. According to India, in spite of the fact that Kashmir is mostly Muslim, it remains in other ways a ‘constituent part’ of not overly religious India. India claims that her constitution made provisions for considerable self governance. The only way to attain a peaceful deal between the two countries would through mutual negotiations they both consented to when they signed the Simia Agreement of 1972 (Schofield, 2000). India has constantly accused Pakistan for supporting violent activities in the territory. Pakistani version As opposed to India, Pakistan disputes the Instrument of Accession by asserting that maharaja was generally not regarded favorably by many Kashmiris as he employed coercion to repress those who opposed him. According to Pakistan, India is pretentious since it disregarded the accession of Junagadh to Pakistan and the sovereignty of Hyderabad on the basis that the two princely states were mostly Hindu. India instead had invaded and used unlawful violence to incorporate them to India. The maharaja did not have the mandate to decide the future of Kashmir as he had taken flight during Pakistan’s invasion. The fact that the maharaja was compelled to sign the accession renders his deeds null and illegitimate. Furthermore, Pakistan states that India was the first to breach the standstill agreement signed between Pakistan and the maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir (Wilmot

Hiring Process Major Parts Analysis Research Paper

Recruitment and Selection Recruitment and selection is the process of acquiring a proper human resource for a company. Every organization wishes to recruit and select the best candidate for each vacancy. The process of recruitment must be fair, reasonable and consistent. Effective recruitment must follow effective and efficient human resource planning. Recruitment and selection of employees should therefore give equal opportunities to potential and actual applicants, regardless of sex and race, disability or country of origin so long as one has working permit. The process of recruitment selection entails: Job description and specification. Job description is the process of identifying the job title, the job summary, job duties and responsibilities, the relationship with other jobs, the supervision required, the tools and equipments to be used and working conditions of the jobholder. Job specification entails the characteristics of a jobholder like health, strength, body size, attitude, judgment, analytical skills, appearance and emotions, confidence and trust, sex and age. Corporate in the west today are faced with problems of aging workforce and racial discrimination. In order to do away with these problems, proper job description and specification policy should be put in place to attract huge and human resources from Asia and Africa. Advertisement: After job descriptions an organization will be having accrue as per the type of person, they want thus requiring advertisement. Advertisement can be in the business journals, circulating new papers, in the internet and through out sourcing. In the advert the following will detailed clearly job title, duration and the end of the contract, the advertising organization, the department requiring the person, description of the main duties, qualification, skills and experience required, salary to paid and closing date of the advert. It may also contain the country where the job will be. Short listing: – after advertising, the corporate will have start the initial stage of sorting and sifting. In sorting and sifting care should be taken to ensure no discriminatory practices. When in short listing consistence and fairness should be taken into account and no discriminatory practices. It should be carried out by more than one person and the selectors should not have relatives who had applied, it should follow the company’s policy. The selectors should be people who have full knowledge of the company’s job description and specification. This normally done by departmental heads and personnel with knowledge of the requirements of the job. Interview: – An interview is the process of selecting. The interview is used to access the candidate’s suitability, the accurate picture of the job and have a fair hearing from each candidate. More than one person should conduct the interview. The interviewed and interviewer should be prepared. The interview should be structured and have a two way process. It should be carried out in good environment without interruptions and give the candidate’s equal opportunities regardless religion, political views, marital status, family affairs cultural practices, ethnic origins. References: The last stage of selection is referencing from the people who know the candidates. Referencing should not breach confidentiality of some information. It should be used to get some information such as employment history, medical history, and absenteeism from work, reason for leaving, opinions about character and suitability and probably the opinion of the reference about his appointments. Retention After recruitment and selection of employees, the task ahead is retaining the employee selected. Retention begins the first day the new employee reports. This because the impression one gets at first time will show him the culture of the organization. For effective retention the policies must be in place Job training and development: After selection job training and development is carried out. Job training is the process of acquiring knowledge, skills and attitudes for performance of a particular job or task while job development is the process of improvement and growth of individual’s faculties, attitudes, insights and traits. (i) Job training: It involves induction and other trainings. Induction is the process of introducing and welcoming a new employee to the company staff, the company policies and procedures, providing with information about working arrangement and telling about his employment contract and pay roll issues. (ii) Job training imparts new knowledge and skills that assist employees to work effectively in their current positions through getting latest concepts, information and techniques. It also prepares employees for career progression and have interchange of experience. In order to carry out job evaluation is required. Job evaluation is the process of analyzing the output of the jobholder and his job specification. Job evaluation measures productivity of the person. (iii) Development: Development is process of determining the present and the future needs of an employee. It entails organizational planning, program targeting, managerial appraisal performance. This may be true job rotation, acting in senior positions and even inter-company exchanges. Performance Appraisal i: Performance appraisal is the process of determining or accessing an individual’s performance with the aim of identifying potential and weaknesses. Performance appraisal is important because of the following reasons (i) to uncover special abilities and potentials of the employees. (ii) To determine training needs and evaluate training effectiveness for staff development purposes. (iii)It serves as a means to measure improvements in performance of the individual employees. (iv)It helps the management to determine remuneration and promotion awards to employees based on merit. (v) The exercise enables the management to provide feedback to employees on their performance. Employees should be informed of their performance ratings to be aware of their weakness and potentials. In appraising a person or an employee, corporate should look for the following:- Knowledge of work, Quantity of work, responsibility and dependence, accomplishment, initiative and creativity, interpersonal relationship, punctuality, supervisory abilities and professional contributions. Wage and Salary Administration: after appraisal and recruitment, the staff needs to be compensated for their efforts. Salary and Wage administration refers to remuneration of any kind to staff members in the corporate. Salary refers to the remuneration paid at monthly intervals to white-collar workers who are under annual contracts or permanent and pensionable, while wage refers to remuneration paid to blue-collar workers. Wages and salary policy of a company may attract, retain and motivate sufficient numbers of suitable employees. It can also encourage employees to use their talents fully, and increasing productivity. It also recognizes the value of a job contribution to profitability of a company. It assists the employees to share growth and prosperity of an organization. There are a number of wages and salaries structures adopted by a number of organization, pay by time, pay by results, company wide incentive skims Motivation in corporate: Motivation means the process of energizing directing and sustaining employee’s efforts. It involves the process of leading people in behaving in a specific way. It varies in nature intensity from individual to individual depending on a particular mixture of influences. Effective managers motivate people to join the organization, remain in the organization, come to work regularly, perform at high levels while at work and be good corporate citizens. Employee empowerment: Employee empowerment is the process of giving employees authorities and responsibilities regarding decision making in their departments for customer satisfaction and product improvement. Recruiting and selection is an important activity of an organization. It is during recruitment and selection where a company selects an employee who will work and remain in the company for a long period. A good recruitment and selection process aims at acquiring and retaining the best employee for the organization. Selection gives potential employees an impression about the company and the reward offered when joining the company will attract and keep the employee with the organization. Therefore, recruitment and selection are important in retention of employees in an organization. References Jay Jamrog, recruitment practices, Human Resources management guide Human Resource Department, recruitment and selection, Leeds University website. Gochman, Hiring and orientation programs. Web.

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