Also another factor of this syndrome is that mothers who are drinking early in the pregnancy also risk that the baby’s facial features will be deformed. Other symptoms of this syndrome may not become apparent until after the child is born and starts to grow, some of the symptoms are as follows: learning difficulties, problems with speech, poor short term memory, poor attention span, poor coordination and failure to thrive.
Each child with Foetal Alcohol Syndrome is different and I would need to be patient and sensitive in my approach to care, I would need to attend relevant training and also work closely with health care professionals, Social workers and teachers. I would also need to be very aware of the difference between chronological age and mental age when choosing activities and organizing routines and boundaries. Premature Birth Personal Factors
Premature birth is a baby that is born before 37 weeks gestation, there are many reasons why a baby can be born prematurely such as Pre-eclampsia, high blood pressure, maternal diabetes, placental abruption, drug taking and infections. These babies are normally kept a neonatal unit where they can be monitored closely. Premature babies are very small and have a low birth weight, they may have jaundice and suffer from respiratory problems and have little resistance to infections. In caring for a premature baby I would ensure that they are kept warm, as they have not had time to build fat stores like full term babies.
Some babies need to have an oxygen supply if they had experienced breathing difficulties, so I would ensure that a health care professional trained me in how to use this correctly. Also these babies are prone to infection so I would take care to maintain high standards of hygiene during the early months and years. Downs Syndrome Personal Factors Downs syndrome is a life long condition, babies born with this condition tend to be floppy and have very flexible joints. The characteristic signs of Down’s syndrome are fairly easy to recognize soon after birth, whilst others may look and behave no differently from other babies.
Downs Syndrome children will suffer with life long learning disabilities, and it will take these children longer to process information, to learn new things. They may also have speech or hearing difficulties. I would ensure in caring for a child that I sought the appropriate support from schools and specialists. Ensure that they integrated with the community, encourage movement and for them to explore and provide them with toys and activities, while letting them learn at their own pace. Ensure that I got support from an early intervention programme to provide support for the child and myself and family.
Maternal Nutrition Personal Factors A woman carrying a baby needs a healthy balanced diet in order for the baby to grow and receive the correct nutrients, if the mother has poor diet this can increase the risk of the baby being prematurely, small in size and suffering with breathing problems. If mothers don’t increase their folic acid in take via supplements or diet they also risk their child suffering from a birth defect known as a neural tube defect. Neural tube defects are problems with the development of the spinal cord and brain and can include pina bifida. In caring for the baby I would ensure that I had the support of the paedtrician/dietian to ensure that special supplements and feeding regimes were correct in order to stabilize their condition and then to gradually introduce them to a normal diet. 2. 2 Explain how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of external factors. Attachment Disorder External Factors: Attachment is a connection made between a mother and child and is vital in a child’s development, as it helps to regulate emotions and behavior.
If the mother or main care giver has had problems making the bond with a child or is unable to meet the child’s needs i. e. offers no comfort when child cries, neglects, abuses physically or sexually, or doesn’t talk with or smile at the child. The child may suffer from Attachment Disorder, children with this disorder find it hard to trust and make bonds with people and possibly new care givers, they find it hard to make eye contact and will reject attempts made to calm them if upset, and will find it difficult to interact within social groups.
These children may also experience anxiety, lack of self-esteem and possible aggressive behaviours. To help children with attachment disorders they will need help in learning to develop secure attachments, this can be done with the support of a therapeutic worker and the support of carers giving the child a secure base (to enable them to feel safe), providing boundaries and routines, taking time to listen and talk with children and using therapeutic parent modeling called PACE (Playful, Acceptance, Curiosity, Empathy). Domestic Violence External Factors:
Children that are exposed to domestic violence have often seen their parent hit or beaten, also controlling behaviours, taunting. Children will have experienced similar themselves, there are many factors that may cause domestic violence, poverty being one of them, one parent may feel trapped in a relationship that they are unable break free from, drugs and alcohol may also be involved but that alone will not be the reason for the violence but will have an adverse affect on the situation. Children who witness this are also likely to copy the behaviours seen in the family home.
In looking after a child that has experienced domestic violence, I would ensure that I had help from professionals such as social and therapeutic workers, also provide an environment in which the child could feel safe and secure, while giving them a secure base. These children will experience fear and anxiety, emotional and psychological damage these children will require long-term support and sensitive care. Neglect External Factors: Some adults struggle to manage their lives and that of their children, which can lead to a chaotic home life for children.
Possible causes for this could be that the parents up bringing was inadequate, Parents may be suffering from mental health issues, and this could lead to them to being unable to meet their child’s physical and emotional needs. In caring for a neglected child I would work closely with health, social work, and therapeutic professionals. Neglected children may suffer from a variety of issues: shame, attachment disorders, lack of social skills, Encopresis and Enuresis (wetting and soiling), non attendance at school, struggling at school due to lack of involvement from parents.
Again these children need sensitive and long term care. Teenagers Personal Choice External Factors: As teenagers become more independent, their peers play a greater role in their life. School and other activities take them away from home, and they may spend more time with their peers than with parents and family. They may develop close friendships with some of their peers, some of their peers may pressure them into trying things such as shoplifting, doing drugs or drinking, taking dangerous risks when driving a car, or having sex.
In trying to care for a teenager, I would ensure that I talked with them about the risks they may be taking or thinking of doing, ensure that they were aware of places like “connections”, where they can access help and support with things like, sexual health, drugs and alcohol. 2. 3 Explain how theories of development and frameworks to support development influence current practice. Social Learning Theory – Albert Bandura 1925 – Albert Bandura’s theory is that children learn their behaviours from watching other people, and that children learn through praise, pride and accomplishment.
He believes that children develop by gathering information by observation. Bandura devised three ways or concepts of learning: Observational, internal mental states, learning does not necessarily lead to changes in behaviours. His most famous experiment to show learned behaviours is the “Bobo Doll”. In my current practice you can see Bandura’s theory, with the placements I have they came from a violent and neglectful background, and easily express emotions by lashing out and hitting, we are now working on showing them different ways to express emotion without hurting others around them. Constructive Theory – Jean Piaget 1896-1980
This theory was developed by Piaget, who was interested in children’s cognitive development. He believed that children learnt by constructing or building thoughts of things that they experienced in the world around them. Piaget believed that children’s thinking went through four separate stages; Sensor motor stage – Birth to 2years, Pre-operational stage – 2-7years, Concrete operations – 7-12 years, Formal operation – 12 years and over. Piaget believed that children should be given the opportunity to explore, discover and experiment as they are active learners and think differently to adults.
Piaget stated that children think differently not because they know less but because their thought processes are different. A various age’s children will use different strategies and ways of problem solving. Piaget believed that children’s thought processes could only mature as they grew up. Piaget’s theory works in practice but only if children have been given the correct building blocks, with our placements we have to take them back to the basic’s and help them learn so that they can start to progress and start to use there thinking and problem solving skills.
Humanist Theory – Abraham Maslow 1908-1970 Maslow was a psychologist who developed the theory based on the “Hierarchy of Needs”. His theory is based on the principle that the order of need is the same for all children, if their needs are met then children will progress and learn (this is also relevant for all ages). The five levels of are: Basic needs, Safety needs, Social needs, Esteem needs and Self-actualization. Maslow believed that your lower or basic needs had to be met in order to progress; once all needs have been fulfilled you can reach self actualization.
Maslow’s theory can be seen in practice, as many looked after children haven’t had their basic needs met. This is one of the first things that you start to work with ensuring that children feel safe and providing food, warmth and comfort. Attachment Theory – John Bowlby 1907 – 1990 & Mary Ainsworth 1913-1991 Bowbly’s theory is based on attachment or the bond of special affection between two people, one of which experiences comfort security and affection from the other. An attachment is characterized by; a secure base, proximity seeking and separation protest.
Bowlby work with Ainsworth who helped to develop the theory with the “strange situation” experiment, from this experiment they formed four distinct and different patterns of attachment, which are: secure attachment, ambivalent attachment, avoidant attachment and disorganized attachment. In my current practice I do a lot of attachment-based work, as both my placements did not have secure attachments with anyone in their family and have no bond at all with their birth mother. One child suffers with disorganized attachment and the other with ambivalent attachment disorders.
Building trust is key to caring for these children, while also working on giving them a secure base on which to start building bonds, trust, confidence and also for their future relationships. Frameworks to support development The Early Foundation Stage: The EYFS sets the standards for all early years providers, which they must met and provide to ensure that all children are developing and learning at the correct level. EYFS ensures that children receive a wide range of skills and knowledge through seven areas of learning and development.
Many theories are used in the EYFS as no one theory alone covers all aspects of development, some of the theorists used are; Piaget, Vygostsky, Bowlby and Montessori. All the theories used help to develop the seven areas of learning and development. The National Curriculum The national curriculum is a set of standards and subjects used for primary and secondary school children. It is organized so that all children learn the same thing and should reach the same standards via key stages.
At the end of each key stage teachers will assess children to measure progress. Theorists that support this framework are Piaget and Vygostsky. Using the above theories, children learn the same skills and are then assessed to measure and monitor progress. Social Pedagogy Social Pedagogy is used in many educational settings across Europe and has been piloted in some areas of the UK. Social Pedagogy is a combined approach of education and care for children and adults; it focuses on the person and overall development with an enabling approach. LO. Understand how to monitor children and young peoples development and interventions that should take place if this not following the expected pattern. 3. 1 Explain how to monitor children and young people’s development using different methods. Daily notes of looked after children: These notes are written on a daily basis and give a picture of the child’s mood and how or what has happened in their day. The notes give a limited overview of daily life but not a complete overview and need to be used in conjunction with Social workers, contact books and other reviews.
LAC Reviews: These meetings are for all professionals and carers to attend in order to plan for the child’s future needs, reports such as PEP’s, can be included along with views from carers and social workers, if the child is old enough they can attend and put their point of view across also. Reviews are good for gathering necessary information and planning, but not always good at giving an overall picture of the child’s more personal needs. Parents Evenings: These are a good way to see the progress a child is making in school and how they may need more help to progress.
This will only show how the child is at school and not give information on general development and health. LAC Medical: Medicals for looked after children happen about every six months, they are quite extensive for the child, they are examined visually, measured and weighed and any health problems discussed including, sexual health if the child is older. These are good for continuing health problems and to check on general health and are vital for information at LAC review as it can show the progress a child has made if it has come from a neglectful background.
The medical cannot be used on its own to assess need or development and has to be used in conjunction with other reports and assessments. Social Workers: Social workers are there to support children and to help organize and advise on what is best for the child, social workers tend to visit children on a six weekly basis to check on general well being and speak with parent or carer. Unfortunately social workers only see children for a brief time and have to rely on carers, reviews etc. o form a picture of the child and its development. EYFS: Will give a good indication of learning and development using various observations methods while younger children are at nursery and preschool. This is good way to monitor learning development but will not give an indication of other problems that maybe occurring outside of that environment. 3. 2 Explain the reasons why children and young peoples development may not follow the expected pattern.
There are many reasons why a child’s development may not follow the expected pattern, one the reasons could be from neglect, these children may struggle at school or may not be attending school on a regular basis, this coupled with the possible lack of food and basic levels of care will have a profound effect on the development of children. Neglected children may suffer from a variety of issues: shame, attachment disorders, lack of social skills, Encopresis and Enuresis (wetting and soiling). Referenced from 2. 2 Neglect External Factors. 3. 3 Explain how disability may affect development Asperger Syndrome
Asperger’s is a form of Autism, people with Asperger syndrome can find it hard to read the signals that most of us take for granted i. e. Facial expressions. This means they find it more difficult to communicate and interact with others. Asperger’s is a life long disability and is sometimes called a “hidden disability”, as outwardly they appear to have no disability. There are three areas in which people have difficulty they are: communication, interaction and imagination, this is know as the Triad of impairments; will experience difficulty understanding gestures, facial expressions, tone of voice.
Will struggle to know when to start or end a conversation, choosing topics to talk about. May use words and phrases but may not fully understand what they mean, they can be very literal in what they say and can have difficulty understanding jokes, metaphor and sarcasm. People with Asperger’s tend to have very few problems with speech and language and have average or above average intelligence, but may suffer from specific learning disabilities, which could range from ADHD, Dyslexia or dyspraxia.
The families of people with Asperger’s need a good support network of professionals and friends, Senco’s can help within the school environment, any mental health issues that occur from bullying and low self esteem can be discussed with a GP and he may make a referral to CAMHS (Child and adolescent mental health service). 3. 4 Explain how different types of interventions can promote positive outcomes for children and young people where development is not following the expected pattern.
Different types of interventions are; Health visitor, Senco’s, Portage workers, Paediatrician, Theraputic workers (BRS), Social workers, ELSA’S, Enuerisis Clinician, Nurse Specialist, Psychologist, Youth workers, Physiotherapist, EYFS. Children’s Social Workers: Social workers work with children and their families/carers and form relationships with children who are facing challenges. Offering support and working with them, the social workers should help in developing long lasting solutions. Social workers, should act as advisers, and advocate on behalf of the children and sometimes just a listener.
They will also work with families of the children and will also liaise with other professionals like teachers, doctors, nurses, health visitors, police and solicitors. Social workers help in a positive way as they are able help assist and find the best options available to help and support the child as well as families and carers. Portage home visitor: Portage workers are professionals offering a home visiting educational service for pre-school children with additional support needs and their families, visiting weekly or fortnightly.
They can help in identifying strengths and goals for future learning, activities are based on play, in everyday situations to provide fun and stimulation for the child while supporting special educational needs. Portage helps parents and carers to learn new skills to support their children. * Senco’s: Work within schools to provide support for pupils with specialist learning needs. They work to provide pro-active and preventative strategies to help identify needs at an early stage and source help as quickly as possible. This is can be a very positive support for pupils and their families to alongside.
Health Visitors: Are nurses or midwives who have become specialist community public health nurses. They work to promote the health and well-being of children and families by working with parents to assess the need for care, provide routine child development checks, and have responsibility for child protection issues and developing appropriate support programmes where needed. Health visitors are in a good position to monitor development and help families access support and help they may need in order to promote development. *
You will demonstrate your understanding of Module 2 topics and interact with your classmates through this discussion.
Requirement: Please use the correct grammar and explain clearly the answers (you can include some examples in your answers)
Air passenger traffic increases significantly during the holidays. How would you show this increase using the demand-supply model in the market for air travel?
What is the likely impact of this surge in air travel on the price of aviation fuel? Explain.
Aviation Fuel and Gasoline (used in cars) are both derivatives of crude oil. Will the change in the price of aviation fuel impact the market for gasoline? How?