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Export Diversification and Economic Growth

One of the earliest ideas in the theory of economic development is that the degree of specialization or diversification of a country’s production and trade structure is important for its economic development (Wim Naudé and Riaan Rossouw, 2008). But, the question whether developing countries should diversify their export production to achieve economic growth or rather specialise in order to achieve comparative advantage has been a debatable issue. Some researchers find that export diversification is better for economic growth in developing countries as their dependence on primary commodity production and exports leaves them vulnerable to commodity shocks, price fluctuations and declining terms of trade, especially since the income elasticity of the demand for primary commodities is low (Prebisch, 1950; Singer, 1950 and Rosenstein-Rodan, 1943). While others advocate for specialisation, for example, from Adam Smith’s recognition of the importance of the division of labour and specialization for economic growth and development, to the standard Heckscher-Ohlin Samuelson (HOS) model of international trade, the position in neoclassical economics has been that countries should specialize in producing and exporting according to their comparative advantage (Wim Naudé and Riaan Rossouw, 2008). Thus, many theories are based on; “Should developing countries focus on diversifying their export basket or should they rather specialise their exports according to their existing comparative advantage?” 2.1. Definitions Export diversification, by definition is the changing of a country’s export structure. This can be attained by changing the existing basket of commodities or by embellishing them through innovation and technology. Dennis and Shepherd (2007) define export diversification as widening the range of products that a country exports. As a matter of fact, export diversification can take two forms, namely, horizontal and vertical. Export diversification has different dimensions and can be analysed at different levels (Ali et al., 1991). Herzer and Nowak-Lehnmann (2006) explain that export diversification can occur either horizontally or vertically. Horizontal diversification causes changes in the primary export mix in order to reduce the effect of the fluctuation of global commodity prices. It also implies that the number of export sectors has increased. This reduces the dependency on a few sectors to lead export-oriented growth (Marianne Matthee and Wim Naudé (May 2008). It brings forth stabilisation in export earnings (Al-Marhubi, 2000). If growth is to be achieved though horizontal export diversification, a country can either enlarge the share of products with increasing growth rates in export earnings, or it can add new products based on the growth rates of world prices (Ali et al., 1991). On the other hand, vertical diversification involves contriving further uses for existing and new innovative commodities by means of value-added ventures such as processing and marketing (Poverty and Development Division, United Nation, June 2004). Vertical diversification occurs when the export mix of a country shifts from primary products to manufactured products. The production of primary exports does not result in as many spill-overs as the production of manufactured exports (Marianne Matthee and Wim Naudé, May 2008). In the latter, externalities on, for example, knowledge and new technologies are created. These externalities benefit other economic activities (possibly creating horizontal diversification) and improve the ability of all industries to compete internationally (Chuang, 1998; Al-Marhubi, 2000; Herzer and Nowak-Lehnmann, 2006). Vertical export diversification also contributes to stabilisation in export earnings, as the prices of manufactured exports do not fluctuate as much as those of primary exports (Ali et al., 1991). If growth is to be achieved though vertical export diversification, a country can either introduce, expand value-added activities, or it can choose new products based on their value-added potential (Ali et al., 1991). Hausmann et al. (2005) conclude that the composition of a country’s exports matter, as countries that produce higher productivity goods experience greater export performance and are subsequently able to benefit more from the gains of globalisation. Both horizontal and vertical diversification can be favourable for a country’s economic growth; however their performance would vary in terms of technological, managerial and marketing skills. Vertical diversification policy, compared to horizontal diversification policy, requires more advanced technology, skills and initial capital investment than horizontal diversification policies do. In result of that, vertical diversification may produce greater dynamic externalities than that of horizontal diversification. 2.2 Theoretical Review There are many theoretical reasons, put forward by researchers, which says that export diversification leads to higher per capita income growth. Because of fluctuations in export, many developing countries opt for export diversification. As mentioned is made above, this instability arises as commodity products are often subject to very volatile market prices so that countries that are dependent on these commodities may suffer from export instability (Heiko Hesse, 2008). As a result of the stated instability, risk-averse firms might not invest in the country which can create macroeconomic uncertainty and in turn can be disadvantageous for long run economic growth. To prevent this instability many countries have liberalised trade. Michaely (1958) studied export and import concentration using GINI co-efficient on the dataset for 44 countries and 150 Standard International Trade Classification commodities and notes that countries with more diversified export structure are more developed in terms of income per capita, and more industrialized in terms of primary commodity share in total export. Export diversification could therefore help to stabilize export earnings in the longer run (Ghosh and Ostry, 1994); Bleaney and Greenaway, (2001)). According to structural models of economic development, countries should diversify from primary exports into manufactured exports in order to achieve sustainable growth (Chenery, 1979 and Syrquin, 1989). However, the concept of export diversification seems to contradict trade theory, especially Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage where a country should specialise (Salvatore, 1998). Ricardo laid emphasis on the role of specialization in international trade and increases total productivity. According to him, export is said promote economic growth by specialising in sectors in which a country has a comparative advantage. In the same way, Helpman and Krugman (1985) pointed out that greater economies of scale due to increased exports can lead to an increase in the productivity level. In spite of the relationship identified between trade and productivity, the impact of specialization on the long run growth remained uncertain to many scholars. Sachs and Warner (1997), for example, identified a negative impact of a comparative advantage in raw materials on economic growth. More recently diversification and specialization has been studied as the part endogenous outcome of a country’s stage of development (e.g. Acemoglu and Zilibotti, 1997; Imbs and Wacziarg, 2003). This theory is based on countries’ production and therefore has an effect on their export, as there is a relationship between production and export. Ramacharan (2006) finds that a one standard deviation increase in diversification is associated with about a 0.81 standard deviation increase in the level of credit to the private sector. Thus, diversifying the sectoral composition of the economy, will benefit financial development, which in turn, as shown by Chang (1991) may allow countries to engage in more specialization of exports, given that developed financial markets may provide insurance against risk. This analysis may lead one to conclude that countries export structure may go through phases, from less diversified to more diversified, followed by a phase of less diversification and more specialization, as the financial sector development deepens (Saint-Paul, 1992). Diversifying the production structure of the domestic economy may therefore be a requirement for export diversification and later export specialization. Another theory has been put forward by Marianne Matthee and Wim Naudé which states that, this trend in trade has led to spatial inequality. This is so because, with trade liberalisation, small local businesses suffer which can result in a decrease in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and eventually economic growth. Marianne Matthee and Wim Naudé (May 2008) mentioned that in a more open economy with firms being able to export more, local firms become less reliant on the local market with a subsequent reduction in the forces of agglomeration. Furthermore, not all developing countries will gain with high export as their location can be an important determinant for their export propensity. But, export diversification contributes to growth in a country (Herzer and Nowak-Lehnmann, 2006) and many studies have proven so on a country level. Related to export diversification, there could be knowledge spill-overs from new techniques of production, new management, or marketing practices, potentially benefiting other industries (Amin Gutierrez de Pineres and Ferrantino, 2000). Producing a growing basket of export commodities can be seen to have an active effect of export diversification on higher per capita income growth. Agosin (2007) develops a model of export diversification and growth where countries with low technological frontier widen their comparative advantage by imitating and adapting existing products. Furthermore, models in the product cycle literature (Vernon, 1966; Krugman, 1979; Grossman and Helpman, 1991) obtain diversity of export products by the North innovating and the South predominantly imitating and exporting the products from cheap labour countries.
University of Houston Healthcare in South Africa Presentation.

I’m working on a health & medical Presentation and need support to help me study.

Choose any country except the USA. write about inpatient/ outpatient, inpatient facilities, and managed care and integrated organizations. you can make most of the slides based off of the most info you find but include some with other informationdo not make the slides too wordy- get to the pointdon’t copy and paste from other recourses please add photos, do an overview of the country and add a photo tooo!15 slides not including title and reference page.
University of Houston Healthcare in South Africa Presentation

Importance of Vision and Mission Statement. The vision of any organization at some future time shows very small image of any organization. Normally it is make or set for the organization, that what is the organization plans for future or upcoming, basically the purpose of vision to find something. Mission statement shows the exact purpose of the organization. This statement is primary objective of the organization to show the plans, aims and programs of the company. A mission statement is bit different from the vision statement. Values are the basically principles of thoughts which help us to understand and predict an individual or group level actions. Normally values of any organization define and describe the nature as well as stand for the organization, to operate the organization it establishes, ”the rule of conduct” it describes the organization values in a very authentic images that how you will easily apply on a running organization. ”According to Weyerhaeuser what a vision statement means in the introduction to the company’s statement, ”our vision” and ”our values.” An organization vision statement present the upcoming or future desire which is valid and it should must be go on and never ever should be change with each cycle of an organization. ”According to Meridian Bancorp our vision is meridian’s statement of core values that defines the company’s culture and the meridian way of working.” “According to Stephen Covey if you don’t set your goals based upon your Mission Statement, you may be climbing the ladder of success only to realize, when you get to the top, you’re on the wrong building” A clear mission statement also focus on what are the advantages which is you are offering to your patrons as well as consumers it also tells you exact purpose of your organization. Benefits/Importance Of VisionImportance of Vision and Mission Statement
BSHS 335 Rasmussen College Ethics and Values for Human Service Professional Paper.

In your Module 02 Course Project Assignment, you have been asked to assist your supervisor in preparing a presentation for the conference on the Human Services Professional’s ethical duty to the public. Draft three separate scenarios in which a Human Services professional is at risk of violating one of the standards of the Human Services Code of Ethics.RequirementsIn a 2 – 3 page double spaced paper:Create three different case scenarios in which a Human Services
worker is facing an ethical dilemma with the public or the profession.Explain which standards of the Human Services Code of Ethics, Responsibility to the Public & Society, or Responsibility to the Profession the worker is at risk of violating.Reference at least one different standard (Standards 10 -18 or 26-33) in each scenario.With each scenario, make sure you discuss the following:
What ethical dilemma is the Human Services professional facing?Describe what action steps the worker should take to lessen the risk of an ethical violation.What is the risk of harm should the worker respond in the least ethical manner?
Apply APA standards to your work. Please note that the cover page and
references are not included towards the length of the paper. Be sure to
cite the Human Services Code of Ethics in your work.
BSHS 335 Rasmussen College Ethics and Values for Human Service Professional Paper

EDLE 601 Bridgewater State University Vision of Leadership Paper

EDLE 601 Bridgewater State University Vision of Leadership Paper.

I’m working on a education & teaching writing question and need a sample draft to help me understand better.

Visionary leaders build organizations working with knowledge that promotes the success of every member by collaboratively facilitating the development, articulation, implementation, and stewardship of a shared vision through the collection and use of data to identify organizational goals, assess organizational effectiveness, and implement plans to achieve goals; promotion of continual and sustainable improvement; and evaluation of progress and revision of plans supported by stakeholders collaboration. Visionary leaders present a challenge that calls forth the best in people and brings them together around a shared sense of purpose. 1a & 4c.Direction to Students : Please provide a two-paragraph statement outlining your vision of leadership. Include in your statement the theories of leadership that shaped your vision of leadership (You may use researched-based theories not included in course materials)
EDLE 601 Bridgewater State University Vision of Leadership Paper

Criminal Justice police in society

online assignment help Criminal Justice police in society.

Popular Media Analysis Assignment Instructions The assignment is designed to assess your understanding of issues that are critical to the academic study of policing. The paper must engage with some of the conceptual and critical ideas discussed in the course in relation to the film you select from the approved list. You are expected to rely extensively on the materials from the course, using appropriate reference materials from the course readings, textbook and lecture slides. All citation from the lectures and readings should include in-text citation and a full reference on a works cited page. You are to use APA citation style in this paper. I will provide instruction on APA style in class. As well, you can find a comprehensive guide to APA style here: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01…. The assignment (worth 25% of your final grade) is a 7-10 page paper (not including your title page and references). The paper is to be typed on 8 1/2 by 11-inch paper, 12- point font, with one-inch margins. The title page should include the title of the paper, course name and number, name of the instructor, your name and student number. Please ensure you keep a copy for yourself. Normal university standards of correct spelling, grammar and organization are expected. The paper is due by 11:59pm on Nov 17, 2017. It must be submitted electronically through the portal provided on Blackboard. Late papers will be penalized at a rate of 5% a day inclusive of weekends. What films may I choose from? Training DayDirty HarryThe Departed These films were uniquely selected for this semester and depict concepts we will be engaging with in the course this term. Ava and Kajuan will be grading these assignments and you should feel free to direct questions to them. What should the structure of my paper be? Your assignment should consist of five major sections: a title page, an introduction, a body section, a conclusion, and an APA formatted reference list. A clear thesis statement – this is what you aim to do in the essay – must be given in the introduction (no later than the first page) and the conclusion should summarize what you have covered. The purpose of this assignment is for you to critically consider how concepts from the course are represented (or not represented in the same way) in the film you select. This will involve thinking about the film in its entirety as well as particular excerpts from the film that serve to illustrate your statements. Your paper should include a brief summary of the film you selected, but the body section of your paper should primarily focus on analyzing how concepts discussed in class are relevant to policing as depicted in the film. In doing this, you will want to dedicate space to describing the course concept as well as discussing how it is represented in the film. Because you would be shocked by how few people actually read instructions: send me an email before the paper is due with the title of one of your favorite television shows for a one point bonus on your paper. Strong papers will have a clear and logical structure, will engage with several concepts from the course, and will strive to link the popular media representation to a broader understanding of policing. You must use a minimum of 4 sources from the course not including my lecture slides (though you can reference the slides as supplementary sources). Each chapter from the text counts as a separate source but also must be referenced separately in your reference list. There is considerable opportunity for freedom in this assignment; focus on what interests you! How do I analyze the film? Using themes and theories from the course you are to analyze the film and explore what the film says about key topics such as: the policing mandate, the nature of police work, police culture, police misconduct and accountability, police use of force and coercion, officer health and wellbeing, or policing strategies (e.g., community policing, zero-tolerance policing). These are just suggestions. You can draw on any information that you feel is relevant from the course. Note that some themes and theories of the course will apply to your film better than others – choose the theories and themes that make sense for your movie. You can focus on certain characters, or particular scenes, or both in your analysis. This is NOT a film review – but a critical analysis of the film to demonstrate that you learned something in the class and can apply it to a film using course resources to substantiate your key points. Presume that the reader has seen the film in question – do not summarize the entire movie, except very briefly. Your paper should be an analysis of the film. What does the grade breakdown look like? FACTOR What am I looking for? Spelling, Grammar & Mechanics 5 POINTS General writing competency. Clear unambiguous writing. Competent expression. Separate Paragraphs. Simple clear sentence structure. Punctuation. Correct grammar. Word usage/vocabulary (not complicated and used in the appropriate way). Correct spelling (spell check is not enough). No run on sentences (three sentences squashed into one). Clearly structured, clear development and flow of ideas with excellent transition of ideas or logical progression of ideas. Well organized and coherent. Focused and purposeful writing. Critical Analysis 7.5 POINTS Depth of understanding and analysis of issues and ideas. Evidence of original thought and logical reasoning. Writing demonstrates unusual insight or superior understanding. Presents fresh thesis in an original manner while displaying unusual insight. Demonstrates more than a commonplace understanding of the topic at hand. There is a breadth of understanding. Opinions are based on fact and/or logic. The arguments are logical and consistent. Original and interesting ideas about topic. Use of course materials, supporting evidence 5 POINTS Arguments supported by evidence, examples, sources and quotations. Shows clear understanding of materials. Makes appropriate use of sources. The relevance of the material to the point being made is clear. Evidence of excellent amount of reading. Provides close textural analysis. Persuasive and well-chosen use of sources. Used a minimum of four sources. APA adherence 2.5 POINTS Proper in-text citation used, not directly quoted without page numbers, not paraphrased without citation, not plagiarized. Adherence to spacing, sizing and general APA formatting requirements. Title page and reference page on separate pages from essay. Reference page properly formatted according to APA style. Assignment success 5 POINTS Did the assignment present an insightful analysis of the selected film and follow instructions properly? Has the film been clearly described with strong examples selected to illustrate connections to the course concepts? GENERAL COMMENTS
Criminal Justice police in society

Organization structure

Organizations structured in many ways. It can be depend on their objectives and culture. Company structure can directly effect to organization performance. Organization structure is the one which allocate responsibilities for different departments or employees. Organization structure is very important part because the wrong organization structure will delay the business success. Aim of the organization structure is maximize the productivity. An effective organizational structure can built relationship between various function of organization. Organization structures are mainly biased on the size of company .in starting period of the company structure very simple. Because company cannot afford huge amount of money for the salary, basically number of staff is very low. Company try to keep it like that to save money. But it will not work in a long time. So in a business world we can find lot of organization structures. * Flat structure * Tall structure * Hierarchical structure * Net work · Bureaucratic structure * Matrix structure · Flat Structure Organisation Compare to all other organizations flat structure is very simple. These types of organisation will have few layers or just one layer of management. This means that the chain of command from top to button is very short so easy to control. Normally new companies are using this flat structure. So this structure common in small organizations Diagram: Flat Structure Flat structure Advantages of flat Organisations Disadvantages of flat Organisations * Easy to communicate between managers and workers * Workers may have more than one manager. * Better team sprit. * May be have some limit to growth of the organisation. * Decision making process is very easy * Only few of people are involving in decision making process so decisions are might be wrong. * Only few managers so can save money * Function of each department/person could be blurred and merge into the job roles of others. · Tall structure In this structure have more steps comparing with flat structure. There is along chain of command, running from top of the organisation e.g. Chief Executive down to the bottom of floor workers/ workers. Diagram: Tall Structure Tall Structure This structure basically exceeds 8 levels of management. This because of members of layers has increase. Advantages are more important than disadvantages Advantages of tall Organisations Disadvantages of tall Organisations * Each manager has a small number of employees under their control. This means that employees can be closely supervised. * The freedom and responsibility of employees is limited * There is a clear management structure * Most of decision is right. Because many people are involve taking that. * Decision making could be slowed down as approval may be needed by each of the layers of authority. * The function of each layer will be clear and distinct. There will be clear lines of responsibility and control. * Communication has to take place through many layers of management. * Clear progression and promotion ladder. * High management costs because managers are generally paid more than other workers. Each layer willtend to pay its managers more money than the layer below it. · Hierarchical structure In this structure employees are ranked at various levels within the organization. Each level is one above the other. Number of employees is working under one person. Every stage is in the chain. Hierarchical structure divided in two parts, which is Tall Hierarchical structure and Flat Hierarchical structure. Flat hierarchical structure only has few stages. Traditional hierarchical structure tells each employee duties clearly · Matrix structure Matrix structure simple and very effective one. Each person has specific function or role in the organization. This structure design to show each employer has an important part in the organization. This structure does not show that one person important or valuable than another. Another special thing is one person is working under two managers So he gets right direction. And every person has freedom and autonomy to take responsibility for their work activities, it is like motivation method. Advantages of matrix structure * Motivate people from giving responsibilities * Able to communicate between team members * Have a chance to solve problems by face to face speaking, through team * Facilities regular change of membership in product team Disadvantages of matrix structure * Employers might get confused, because of working under two managers * Not more chance to get promotions.(not vertical to upper management position, go team to team ) * High level of stress Bureaucratic structure The large organizations are using this structure. The essential part of this bureaucratic are a. Use all standard method and perform at work b. High level of control to make sure standard performance. There are two types of bureaucratic structures one is stranded and other one is professional bureaucratic. Standard bureaucracy is based on well-organized performance of all the same schedule work. Professional bureaucracy depend winning well-organized performance of all the same but complex work. So it needs specialised skill or knowledge. The structure of standard bureaucracy is based on functions, large technical staff and many mid-level managers. In contrast, professional bureaucracy has few mid-level managers. Bureaucratic organizational structure After analyse all of this structures, we cannot tell this structure is the best one for any organization. Because every structure has advantages and disadvantages as well. In this business world we can find different size of organizations. So organization has to choose right structure for their organization. As an example, flat structure is not suitable for big organization like coca cola, because there target market is very wide one. But we cannot say this structure is useless one, because it can be suit for small organization like family business or starting period of company. After considering all this fact we can say each organization structure is helps to growth of the organization. Culture Organization structure and culture are depending on each other. There is no one definition for organization culture. Culture has been calculated from range from outlook verity from discipline such as anthropology sociology to the applied discipline of organizational behaviour management science and organizational behaviour. A set of common understandings around which action is organized, finding expression in language whose nuances are peculiar to the group (Becker and Geer 1960). A set of understandings or meanings shared by a group of people that are largely tacit among members and are clearly relevant and distinctive to the particular group which are also passed on to new members (Louis 1980). These are some definition for organization culture Basically culture is personality of organization. If the organization culture is poor it will affect to growth of organization. An organization culture is comprised set of values, believes, principles and type that people actually think decide and perform. In book of organizational culture and leadership define culture as a” basic set of assumptions that defines for us what we pay attention to, what things mean, and how to react emotionally to what is going on, and what actions to take in various kinds of situations” (organizational culture and leadership 2nd Edition, 1992, Jossey-Bass), There are few mogels to describ the culture of an organization . Harrison (1992)suggest four diffarent types of culture and he also classifies in terms of “Greek gods” Types of cultures * Power or club culture * Role culture * Task culture * Person culture Relation between organizational structure and culture and effect on business performance It is hard to define relationship between organizational structure and culture. But this two are unavoidably linked. To have effective organization culture there should be some kind of organizational structure to allow for efficient work and effort. To have a more strong and efficient organization structure it should have a strong culture as well. A week or poor culture most likely has an inefficient and less effective organization structure. Which mean week culture can build week structure as well? Or week structure makes week culture? This is the problems that two tend to come in. So this shows this two are related, but no how In the end best way to describe the relation between this two are somewhat figurative. If the organization culture is the plumbing or water, structure is the pipe. Or in another way to describe this two is, organizational culture is a foot ball team the coach and players are act as a structure. This shows us this two are hardly combine each other .without organization culture organization structure cannot survive. Because these two depending on each other. Facts which influence individual behaviour In an organization, individual behaviour has a big role to do. Otherwise organization cannot achieve their goals. There are lot of factors which affecting individual behaviour at work place. * Beliefs * Leadership * Motivation * Training * Skill knowledge and abilities Some of them, Belief Everyone has believes, It might depend on their religion. Specially Buddhist, Muslim and Hindu people have lot of belief. These beliefs can effect to the business. Because they never try to cross these limits or never Leadership Leadership means ability to take responsibilities and confidant to lead a team. In an organization manager is not the only one leader in that organization. Other employees also need to have some leadership qualities. Motivation The job of managers is getting done jobs from employees. To do this manager should motivate the employees. So the one who guides them has to appreciate their work. Otherwise they might loos his enthusiastic to work. Training If the workers has had proper tanning they will able to give a good service. So productivity will go high. Skill knowledge and abilities Each and every one is not born with same talent and skill. Skill is can be specific to each one. If the worker did not get the job what he is capable does the person can get board? Organizational theory Leadership style Leadership styles mean the way they give direction to people and motivate them to approach their target. There are few major leadership styles, Authoritarian and autocratic Participative or democratic Delegative or free reign

Could the 2022 World Cup Really Move from Qatar? Essay

Table of Contents Weather Issues Human Rights Violations Bribing Reference List Weather Issues There are several important reasons that prevent the officials of FIFA from making their final decision about the World cup 2022 that initially was scheduled to be held in Qatar. Because of these reasons the country now is facing the possibility of being stripped of the right to host the championship. Four years ago the jury of officials voted in favour of Qatar. Today Sepp Blatter is close to admitting that choosing Qatar as the country hosting the World Cup was a big mistake. Now the leaders of FIFA have to deal with several dilemmas and issues related to the upcoming tournament. One of the problems the officials of FIFA are trying to solve is the complications caused by the climate conditions in Qatar. After four years it occurred to the leaders of the committee involved into the evaluation of the preparation for the World Cup that the weather in Qatar is not suitable for any sport events whatsoever. First of all, the average summer temperatures on the territory of Qatar vary between forty and forty two degrees on the Celsius scale with a significant risk of the heat reaching forty eight and forty nine degrees. Such conditions would be simply impossible to adjust to. For a comparison, the average temperatures in Brazil, where the World Cup is currently going on, are at least ten degrees lower, but the referees of the games were still given a right to stop the matches in order to organise a short pause for the players to refresh and drink some water because the heat there is physically exhausting. The climate in Qatar is harsh enough to cause lethal outcomes to the people that are not used to such high temperatures. It is simply dangerous for people to spend time outside, especially in the day time and without a chance of going into the shadow. It is hard to imagine how the players are going to survive in such conditions during the games. It is scary to think what the sun may do to the people at the stadium. The advantage Qatar has is finances. The stakeholders seem to be wealthy enough to be prepared to create the whole infrastructure from scratch. Of course, the technological progress of the modern world allows installing air conditioners at the stadiums, but Sepp Blatter stated that the air conditioning, which initially was one of the most important and emphasised arguments of Qatar’s representatives and their bid, is only possible in the areas for fans, players and the officials. Blatter is concerned about the other groups of people that are going to be present at the games. The president of FIFA mentioned that the committee has to care about their partners such as the mass media workers and commercial representatives (Masters 2013). After all, media and business are two of the crucial aspects of the sports nowadays. This is the disadvantage of the project. The organising committee of Qatar and its head, Hassan Al -Thawadi, noted that even though the country bid for the summer championship, they are still open to an opportunity of re-scheduling the tournament for some other time of the year, when the weather in Qatar is not as hot. There was a suggestion to move the games and have the Cup in winter. It is a well known fact that timing is everything in the world of sports, especially in the case of football. The national competitions will be held during the year as usual. Moving the World Cup to the winter time means that the players will have to be torn apart between the teams. The strongest and most influential clubs such as Bayern Munich, Barcelona or Real Madrid consist mainly of the players of national class. Does this mean that these clubs will fall out of the national tournaments and the Champions League? Or will the best national teams have to skip the World Cup? Or maybe some other players will be invited to represent the countries at the World Cup? Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The situation with the biggest football tournament of 2022 is highly confusing at the moment. The officials of FIFA are hesitating. No final answers are given, no definite opinions are formed. It seems like Sepp Blatter is waiting for the organising committee to come up with more solutions. Besides, the World Cup that is going on today in Brazil serves a serious distraction for the officials of the International Football Association. Human Rights Violations The climate and weather conditions in Qatar during summer are, of course, just one of the reasons that make the FIFA officials have doubts about letting this country have the World Cup in 2022. The other issues are much more serious. Qatar is a very small Middle Eastern country. Its general population counts only two million people. It is important to know that only fifteen per cent of the country’s population are the citizens of Qatar. The rest are workers from abroad. The total number of guest employees in Qatar equals one and a half million people. These workers come to Qatar from such countries as India, Pakistan, Nepal and the Philippines. They are mainly involved into doing a very hard work such as construction. The independent investigators that spent some time exploring the lifestyle and inner policies of Qatar stated that the situation there is horrific. The migrant employees have to live and work in awful conditions and they have illegally long shifts. Due to that they have to spend long time outside in hard labor, the heat is unmerciful towards people’s health, this is why the lethal cases are not rare among the guest workers at Qatar’s construction sites. Besides, the investigation showed that there is a certain system involved into the process of bringing the foreign employees to the country and then keeping them for an unlimited period of time, so that these people are forced to perform the hard and life threatening labor in order to survive. After these facts were revealed, they immediately attracted the attention of masses. An influential and respected organisation such as FIFA will not ignore this shocking information. The modern world will not agree to favour severe human rights violations and back them up with an event like World Cup in football. Qatar, just like other wealthy Middle Eastern countries, is developing very quickly. This is its main advantage. The horizons of it constantly change because new beautiful projects of skyscrapers and business centers are being employed. In the pictures the cities of Qatar look very modern, they are filled with contemporary architecture and the miracles of the powerful engineering thought. The urban areas of Qatar are impressive in the daylight, and they look just marvelous in the night with all the sparkling city lights and illumination. In the photographs it truly looks like a futuristic place very suitable to be the face of the World Cup of 2022. Of course, a country with such small number of native citizens has to use the help of guest workers in order to keep moving along with the technological progress of the globalising world. Qatar, just like other rapidly developing countries, is willing to keep up with the global North and maintain its own authority. It is normal that a country that grows and builds up so quickly is hiring over a million of foreign workers. We will write a custom Essay on Could the 2022 World Cup Really Move from Qatar? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Guest employees have always been one of the most available sources of cheap work force. Besides, it creates an opportunity for the citizens of other countries to find jobs they cannot have in their motherlands. It looks good from the outside, seems like a fair exchange. The guest workers receive jobs and income and in return the country keeps developing quickly and spreading its influence throughout the region and the rest of the world. Hiring foreign workers is a positive thing, unless it turns into something that resembles slavery, which seems to be happening in Qatar nowadays. The investigators of the process of preparation and organisation of the upcoming tournament have reported multiple cases of severe human rights violations on the territory of the country. Statistically, the number of foreign citizens dying at the construction sites of Qatar every year counts hundreds of people. The embassy of Nepal located on the territory of Qatar reported that four hundred of Nepalese workers had passed away building World Cup structures since 2010. Indian embassy reported five hundred deaths of Indian citizens in Qatar since 2012 (Stahl 2014). The investigations counted that if the building process keeps developing at this pace, around four thousand of people will die by the opening of the tournament in 2022. The World Cup will literally be played over the dead bodies of the migrant workers from India, Nepal, the Philippines and Pakistan. Moreover, the migrant workers in Qatar have basically no rights at all. According to the law called “kafala” the employers are permitted to take away the passports of the guest workers and prevent them from getting exit visas. This way the employees are kept on the territory of the country against their will. After all of these horrific facts were revealed to the publicity the reputation of FIFA officials became endangered, because not so long ago they openly stated that there is no doubt that the tournament will be hosted by Qatar. Two standard questions arise in the minds of the masses today. Why did not the FIFA officials gather enough information about Qatar before assigning it as a host for the Cup of 2022? Does the fact that this country is highly oil-rich play a role here? When the officials of FIFA confronted the organisational committee of the Cup in Qatar about all the issues, the leaders promised to do everything possible to get rid of these problems. For example, they announced the decision to reduce kafala and stop withdrawing the exit visas for the foreigners, yet they never mentioned when exactly this reduction will become active. They also explained that neither of the hundreds of late Nepalese and Indian workers died while working on the projects for the upcoming World Cup. The other kinds of constructions must have killed them. None of these explanations and promises affected the leaders of FIFA. They did not calm down the reaction of the shocked masses either. Qatar keeps having serious problems with the organisation of the World Cup 2022 and with the trust of people all around the world. Bribing Four years ago millions of fans and sport experts were surprised by the FIFA committee’s decision to assign Qatar as the host of the World Cup in summer of 2022. Today, the current tournament in Brazil is the main concern of the FIFA officials. The preparation for this Cup was surrounded by the great deal of scandals and social protests against the unfair distribution of costs. Brazil was dealing with lateness and delays during the preparation, which caused a lot of stress to the leaders of FIFA committee. As soon as the championship in Brazil is over the situation in Qatar will become the most important issue for Sepp Blatter and his team. According to the information provided by the investigator of FIFA Michael Garcia, the committee that voted in favour of Qatar four years ago was bribed. This information recently leaked to the mass media and the publicity found out about the incident. The causes of the unexpected decision of FIFA to choose tiny Middle Eastern country with impossibly hot climate as a host of the World Cup 2022 started to make sense. Not sure if you can write a paper on Could the 2022 World Cup Really Move from Qatar? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The advantages of this case are hard to find. Corruption is one of the biggest problems of the contemporary world. It is widely believed that not many forces today remain fair and noble. FIFA officials have been struggling to preserve the purity of their reputation for years. Their last two decisions concerning the World Cup in Russia that will be held in 2018 and the tournament in Qatar have caused many doubts and discussions, although, in spite of all the rumors and prejudices, the solution about Russian Cup of 2018 does not look as unbelievable as the one about Qatar. The only positive thing about this scandalous case of bribery in the Middle East is the fact that it was uncovered and investigated. Diego Maradona, the legendary player from Argentina, publically judged this incident and encouraged the officials of FIFA to investigate the situation deeper in order to find out the final destinations of money received from Qatar’s financiers, and figure out who and why took it (Diego Maradona Slams FIFA “Bribes” over Qatar World Cup Bid 2014). The Argentine legend hopes that soon football will return its reputation of a fun game that stays away from corruption, lies and dirty manipulations. Michel Platini is being attacked by the press and accused of being one of the receivers of the bribes. The former French player is struggling to save his authority and reputation in the world of football standing up to the accusations of the journalists that are looking for a target of more scandals. According to Michael Garcia, soon the investigators of FIFA will complete their probe related to the FIFA committee’s decisions about Russia and Qatar. This scandal is carefully followed by the football fans and expert all over the world. The situation in Qatar is embarrassing for the whole Association of Football. Another possible advantage of this situation may be the fact that if the case of bribery in Qatar is proven, the World Cup will be moved to another country, and the United States of America is very likely to become that country. The corruption claims against the bid of Qatar 2022 are believable. There are too many factors that make the FIFA’s decision to assign this country as the host of the tournament shocking, irresponsible and irrational. If the case of bribery is proven the reputation of FIFA will have to go through a lot of hard times. Today, all of the biggest sponsors of the World Cup 2022 such as Coca Cola and Sony insist that the investigators explore the situation thoroughly. The reaction of some of FIFA delegates is even more radical – they suggest a re-vote. The investigators conducted a series of interviews with all the members of bidding committees of the tournaments of 2018 and 2022; they also interviewed the officials that represented FIFA at those two events. It seems that Franz Beckenbauer is under a lot of suspicion because he refuses to help the investigation even though he was one of the jury members that voted for Qatar. From the side of the host country there is just one name that keeps appearing in the discussions of this scandal. Mohammed bin Hammam, the former Asian football chief, is called the source of the bribes. According to the information that leaked to the mass media, bin Hammam has paid five million dollars to the FIFA officials in order to secure the country’s right to host the Cup. The organising committee of Qatar denies all of the accusations and states that Mohammed bin Hamman has never been a part of their big team, yet he is a former football chief in Asia, this is why they do not deny their connections with him. Garcia’s investigation team has examined all the evidences and relationships carefully. Not so long ago the former New York attorney stated that his people seem to have found the original source. The data collected during the investigation is being processed and is kept secret. Sepp Blatter and the other leaders of the International Association of Football are in a very difficult and frustrating position today. They need to find the people that are responsible for the scandalous and disgraceful situation with the World Cup of 2022. They also need to make a quick and clever decision about the further destiny of the tournament. At the moment, there are several ways out. The Cup could stay in Qatar, but be held in winter when it is not as hot, yet this will create a lot of discomfort in the whole world of football and overlap with the winter Olympics that will happen that year. The Cup could be moved to some other country, but the authorities need to choose wisely, because the new host will have much less time for the preparation for the event. The United States claims to be ready to handle this mission. Whichever solution Blatter chooses, the responsibility for the further outcomes will fall on his shoulders. Reference List Diego Maradona Slams FIFA “Bribes” over Qatar World Cup Bid. (2014). NDTV Sports. Masters, J. (2003). FIFA Head: Qatar Too Hot for Summer World Cup. Stahl, J. (2014). The Qatar World Cup Is a Human Rights Catastrophe. It’s Time to Do Something about It.