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Explaining The Physics Of Skateboarding Philosophy Essay

During the 1999 X Games in San Francisco, a wildly enthusiastic crowd edged on professional skateboarder Tony Hawk as he attempted to do the impossible. No one had ever done this trick before and every attempt that Hawk tried to do it was a potential trip to the emergency rom. Standing on the right side of the half-pipe, Hawk plunged down to gain momentum and flew up and out on the left side into the skies. Airborne and high above the ground, he quickly tucked his entire body, clutched his skateboard, and twisted his body for two and a half revolutions, equivalent to 900 degrees. As soon as he finished his revolutions, he extended his legs and pushed the board out beneath him before sliding back onto the left wall of the half-pipe. Tony Hawk had just completed the first-ever “900”, a trick that had eluded him for almost a decade and was considered the Holy Grail in skateboarding up until that day in 1999. The first question that comes to mind is what made the 900 possible? Although many professional skateboarders have never even attempted tricks as life-threatening as the 900, they still possess the ability to fly through the air in a fusion of unique twists and turns. This raises another question; what makes any of this possible? While the easiest explanation may be that skateboarders are defying the laws of physics, they are actually exploiting the forces of nature and using them to their advantage. Every trick a skateboarder performs utilizes a group of fundamental principles that control the forces of motion in nearly every sport: momentum, rotation, gravity, and a person’s own strength. Before the legendary 900 was ever dreamt of, there was the Ollie. It was invented in the late 1970s by Alan “Ollie” Gelfand and has become the foundation for more complicated tricks. The Ollie is a jump where the skateboard appears to be attached to the person’s feet and it allows the skater to hop over obstacles without getting off the board. Many onlookers assume that the board is stuck to the skater’s feet when he is performing an Ollie however, it’s not. In order for a skateboarder to propel into the air, he must first push down on the tail. A detailed explanation reveals that the secret behind this old-school maneuver is skillful control of the rotation around multiple axes. The Ollie begins in an explosive manner as the skater rolls across flat ground placing his front foot in the middle of the board behind the front trucks and his back foot on the tail of the board. Dropping into a crouch, he lowers his center of mass for maximum pop. Before a skater performs an Ollie, there are always three main forces acting on the board and the skater. They are the weight of the rider himself, the force of gravity on the board, and the normal force of the ground pushing up on the skateboard. These three forces balance out to zero and without any net force the skateboard does not accelerate. Assuming that there is no friction, it rolls at a constant speed. In the presence of friction, it would obviously stop at one point. Once the skater wants to perform an Ollie, he thrusts himself up with his arms, bolting his body in an upward motion before his feet rise. Coming from a crouching position, the skater has a greater distance to accelerate and thus a higher jump. During the pop, or jump, the skater’s back foot applies a much greater force on the tail of the board than the front foot does on the nose or front of the board. This counter force causes the board to rotate counterclockwise about the rear wheel. As the tail of the board strikes the ground with great force the board begins to pivot clockwise around the center of its mass. The tail then bounces back up and now the board is completely in the air, rotating forward with the nose of the board beginning to seep as the tail soars up. If left alone without any outside force, in this case the skater, the board would eventually flip tail over nose. However, the skater has no intention of abandoning the trick and while he is airborne he uses his feet to control the rotation of the board, sliding his front foot in an upward sweeping motion to drag the board higher into the air along with his rising leap. With the help of the grip tape on the skateboard’s surface, the dragging allows the skater’s foot to stay in contact with the skateboard because of its sand paper like features. Meanwhile, the skater rises up his rear foot to get out of the way of the popping tail. Done and timed correctly, the skater’s feet and board will rise in perfect unison, level at its maximum height. At this point, the board along with its skater will begin to fall down back to earth due to gravity. The skater then bends his knees to absorb the impact of the skateboard striking the ground. Once a skater masters the fundamental Ollie, they will usually move on to more advanced techniques such as aerial maneuvers. In a real life scenario, a skater launches high into the air from the top of a ramp. Hanging in the air for a split second, as if to tease the laws of physics, he suddenly rotates at the top of flight and flies back down the ramp. Skateboarders call this trick a front side 180. Physicists may call it extremely sneaky. At first glance, the front side 180 breaks the law of conservation of angular momentum completely. The law states that “If you’re rotating, you’ll keep rotating unless a twisting force or torque acts to stop you”. It seems like a very basic law. However, one thing to keep in mind is that the only force that can act on you while you are airborne is gravity. One more thing to remember is that on Earth, gravity does not have the ability to make you rotate; it can only make you fall down. So, how is it possible for a skater to go from a non-rotating state of motion to a rotating state of motion without any external forces acting on them? The answer to this riddle is very simple. Borrowed from a housecat, this trick allows skaters to rotate in midair while keeping their angular momentum constant at zero. A cat extends its hind legs and twists the front portion of its body toward the ground when falling. The rear half of its body also rotates in the opposite direction, but not as hard. The cat then pushes out its front legs and turns its rear legs down toward the floor. By repeating these motions, the cat gains a significant rotation that allows it to land with its paws on the ground. In order to understand this more in depth, an experiment can be conducted to show exactly what allows you to rotate in midair. First find a clear area in which you can stand and jump. Have an assistant at hand to help you out. Launch into the air and have your assistant point either left or right indicating which direction they want you to attempt to turn. Whichever direction they chose, quickly turn your body that way. By pulling this off, you have just mimicked what a skater does in the air; use his upper body to rotate. As your legs rotate beneath you, your arms and chest rotate in the opposite direction. By sticking your arms out you increase the rotational inertia of your upper body. The idea is that the large rotation of your legs is cancelled by a slight rotation by your arms. Because the two rotations effectively cancel, your angular momentum stays at zero and the law of conservation of angular momentum is not broken. A skateboarder does exactly the same thing when he is airborne. While in midair, skaters may twist their arms and legs in opposite directions. When they fall back to the ground, they manipulate the friction between their feet and the deck of the board to twist their torso back to being parallel with the board and skate along. One of the most apparent but overlooked application of physics in skateboarding is in the vert ramp. A vert ramp is essentially a half-pipe where the steepest section of the ramp is straight down and is usually over eight feet in height. (note, book) The goal in a vert ramp for the skater is to gain enough momentum to go over the top of one wall or side of the ramp, rotate in midair or basically perform a frontside 180, and go back down repeating the process on the other side. At the top of each ascent, they are airborne for a short period of time. The skaters are not just skating back and forth. They are working to get their momentum. Physics says that when you are at a certain point above the ground, for example a vert ramp in skateboarding; you have potential energy proportional to this height. By rolling down, you convert this potential energy into kinetic energy and convert it back to potential energy when you roll up the other side of the ramp. However a skater must take into consideration the loss of energy due to air resistance and friction between the wheels and concrete. If the skater wants to rise above the ramp they must add more energy. On a flat surface a skater would add more energy is by pushing off the ground. On a ramp however, a much more intricate method called pumping is used. Centripetal force keeps a body moving in a circular path, in this case a half-pipe, and makes it hard to rise up. Pumping overcomes the centripetal force and gives you a net energy gain. To pump in a half-pipe, the skater pulls down into a crouching position while rolling along the bottom of the half-pipe. When they approach the sloped part of the ramp, known as the transition, they straighten up their legs and pull their body back up. The skater raises their center of mass at the beginning of the ramp’s arc, and thus gains energy and creates an increase in speed. By repeating this process, a skater gives himself consecutive speed boosts every time he passes through the transition. This kind of pumping is identical to the kind that you do on a swing. You lift your ankles and feet as they pass through the bottom of the arc and then drop them at the top of the arc. Paul Doherty, a physicist at the Exploratorium in San Francisco explains; “When you lift your legs at the bottom, your muscles have to work extra hard against the gravity force and the centrifugal force. The energy you exert by lifting your legs against these forces makes you go higher and faster.” Most skaters know that in order to get big air, you need a big ramp. Larger ramps are much easier to master for the daredevil skater, because their bigger transitions ease the shift from a vertical motion to a horizontal motion. Also, since greater speeds mean a greater centrifugal force to push against, large ramps make pumping much more effective. However, eventually the energy added with each successful pump cannot make up for the energy lost due to wind resistance. The point? Height records will continue to be soar, but with each consecutive inch that is added on, a steeper price will come for the skater. It should now probably be clear how Tony Hawk was able to pull of the 900. He had to create a strong enough pump to propel himself high above the vert ramp and have time to rotate 900 degrees. Plus he had to create the necessary torque to twist his body two and a half times. The couple of seconds he was airborne was not sufficient enough for him to fabricate the 900 degrees of spin. So in order for Hawk to complete the mega trick, he had to leave the ramp already spinning. Then he had to manipulate this rotational energy into an even faster spin with a technique borrowed from ice-skaters. In order for ice skaters to accomplish their midair spins, they start with a wide spin, arms and legs extended. Once airborne, they retract their limbs inward, thus decreasing their rotational inertia, causing them to spin faster. In a similar fashion, before Hawk launches from the top of the ramp, he generates a significant amount of angular momentum. Approaching the top of the ramp with outstretched arms, he tucks and begins to spin his body, slamming down hard on the board to create an angular force. The momentum gained in this vital moment is all he will have throughout his flight. Once he leaves the ramp for good, he cannot get any more. Once he is airborne, he accelerates his spin by stretching one arm over his head to add rotational torque. He also drops his other arm in order to cradle the skateboard since there is not enough friction between his feet and the board in order to keep the board throughout his mind-blowing trick. Since his arms are now in alignment with his entire body, it speeds his spin giving him the ability to perform two and a half rotations in a split two seconds. Hawk has almost on control of what he’s doing. Turning at incredible speeds, his body is nearly parallel to the ground and he loses sight of the ramp from which he has launched his unbelievable trick and on which he must land. However Hawk maintains some control by lunging his arms wide after the second full revolution. This allows him to spot his landing by slowing down his rotation and as his skateboard touches back onto the ramp, he absorbs the impact by shifting into a crouching position, preparing for a controlled landing at the very bottom. Moments after Tony Hawk had just landed the first ever 900, people were already beginning to wonder whether he could do three full spins. An unheard of, absolutely ridiculous 1080, that could be a definite but delayed possibility. Hawk put rest to the speculation in an interview stating that he would leave the 1080 to younger, more robust skaters. Starting with the Ollie in the 1970s, skateboarding has advanced beyond its original boundaries and has extended to much more than the original “Just get down the hill” philosophy. In an Ollie, the main thing to remember is rotation around multiple axes and how keeping a low center of mass is crucial in order to get high into the air. The frontside 180 is performed by manipulating the law of conservation of angular momentum. The skateboarder uses his arms as a torque in order to turn himself around in mid-air. Centripetal force keeps objects moving in a circular path. When you skate in a half-pipe this force keeps you in a crouching position and by pumping you not only overcome the centripetal force but you boost yourself up and over the side of the ramp. Tony Hawk did what was considered the impossible back in 1999. Editor of Thrasher magazine, also known as the “skateboarder’s bible” enlightens us with his opinion: “The greatest thing about skateboarding is it changes every day. The first time I saw somebody Ollie on the street I was like, ‘No way!’ But now every kid can get on a board and make an Ollie. Today’s impossible trick is just cannon fodder for the future.” By understanding the laws of motion and the basic principles of physics, every skater can develop their skills and everyone who is amazed by these street performers can finally understand that it’s not magic; it’s simply science.
UWLA Relationship Between Sex and Reasons for Purchasing the Music Questions.

1) Conduct a cross-tab analysis to determine whether there is a relationship between sex (D2) and reasons for purchasing the music (V2). What is the obtained χ2 statistic? Is there a statistically significant relationship between sex and reason for purchasing music CDs/digital albums at the 95% confidence level? Explain the results of the cross-tab analysis.What is the most popular reason for purchasing CDs/digital albums for men? For women? Create a table that expresses the results of your cross-tab. 2) Is satisfaction with music CDs/digital albums purchase (V12a) related to the amount of time spent making the decision (V9), or the number of times a person has listened to the music (V11)?Conduct a correlation analysis among these three variables. Explain the results. answer those two questions with compete sentences and explain the results well not just couple sentences, need to understand SPSS well.
UWLA Relationship Between Sex and Reasons for Purchasing the Music Questions

There are very many hotels in the world and a great amount of them are luxury ones. The management of these hotels has an important job of retaining the best possible service and attracting new and previous customers. One of the major and primary problems with a particular hotel is the absence of a computer system and a connection to the internet. A manager would have to arrange purchases and installations. The hardware is a part of what makes technology work and available to the public. As such, the hotel needs to purchase iPads and several personal computers. An access to an online travel agent will allow an easier and quicker arrangement of accommodation and managerial control (Hayes 16). The access to a commonly shared database between all hotels will allow for a unity in the kind of information and implementation used in reservations. The clientele, products and services can all be accessed via online sources and databases within the shortest periods of time (Fallon 23). The vision or mission of any organization is to spread its influence over greatest area in the shortest time, so a lot depends on the functioning of an organization within the internet or the virtual world of information. The more people can gain access to a specific want or need, the better it will be for the company. As such, the online tools and databases have become a key to success of any business (Giovinazzo 5). One of the primary goals is to strengthen the inner structure of the hotel by making sure that all employees have access to a shared hotel network and the internet. As such, supervisors and select employees must be provided with a mobile device, iPad, notebook or some other gadget with access to the network. This would provide for quick access to the bookings, changes in the schedules, customer requests and staff meetings. Each hotel room must be equipped with access to the internet. This could be done with a wire connection jack available in the room or a Wi-Fi modem system, so that people can use their devices. Some rooms could be equipped with personal computers, and have a higher rate which would provide more profits, but also the ability for customers to chose such an option, in case they do not have a mobile device. For a more physical and hand-on managerial inclusion, a guided tour of the premises, as well as the demonstration of the technological advancements would be beneficial (Hayes 17). The next step would be to equip the hotel with stationary computers and databases which would store and organize all related information. Constant communication with other hotels is instrumental in advancing the services provided to a new level. As hotels and employees will be greatly connected, a software program which will adjust people’s schedule depending on the needs of the hotel could be used. For example, the hotel’s database can be connected to personal devices and employees off duty. In case there is a shortage of staff, a person will be contacted and requested to work. This would allow for a more flexible scheduling and working system, so people will feel less pressure and stress which will increase their positive output towards the employer and customers (Boone 220). The modern world requires people to be connected, especially in the conduction of a business. In the twenty-first century, the use of technology has become an everyday occurrence, alongside physical interaction. Works Cited Boone, Louis. 2012, Contemporary Marketing (16th ed.). Stanford: Cengage Learning, 2012. Print. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Fallon, Michael. Hotel Management and Operations. Hoboken: John Wiley
Please check the question below. I’m trying to study for my Management course and I need some help to understand this question.

Read and complete the case study titled “Wish You Wood Toy Store” that is on page 129 at the end of chapter 4. Read the entire case study and answer the 2 questions that immediately follow it. Do not forget to include scholarly research in your answers to support your thoughts, ideas, and opinion about the case.
Submission Details:

Paper should be approximately 500-750 words total.
APA format for your citations when writing up the case.
Use the attached document to develop your ideas.

Please review the sample case study that is attached. This is the work of a previous student that scored fairly well on this assignment. Please do not copy this case study but use it as a guide to understand my expectations for this case.
Please check the question below

Park Unit 8 Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy Case Study Questions

Park Unit 8 Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy Case Study Questions.

Which theory of counseling that we have studied this term provides you with the best frame of reference in understanding yourself? Specific concepts of the theory need to be identified and discussed as to why these concepts are particularly useful for you? Support your observations.What ethical code violation do you think would be the most destructive to the therapeutic process in a counseling relationship? The specific code needs to be identified and support provided for why this violation would be disruptive to the therapeutic process.What issue would bring the greatest challenge for you in the guidance and/or counseling process. How would you address this problem? Referring to another counselor is not an option.Read the following case study and select 1 model that would be the most effective model in addressing the person’s problems. Answer the questions below the case study by applying concepts and terms from the model. Answers need to utilize specific terminology and techniques from the model you have selected and reflect a solid understanding of this model. There are 2 case studies in this essay part of the final exam and a different model needs to be used for each case study.The questions need to be answered individually and each question needs to be numbered: 1, 2, 3.Case Study:Jake, who is middle-aged, is seeking therapy because he wants to learn how to deal with his anger. As long as he can remember, he has felt anger toward someone: his mother, his wife, his children, his boss and his few friends. He says that he is frightened of his anger and of what he might do, so he keeps it all bottled up. He reports that as a child he was always given the message that anger is a bad emotion and that you should surely never show angry feelings. Jake also realizes that he fears getting close to people and he would like to explore his fear of intimacy as well as his fear of his anger.Identify a model and techniques from that model that you think would be most appropriate for this case if you were providing counseling for this client.Describe how you would apply this model and the techniques.Discuss why this model and these techniques would be particularly useful and the best choice for this client?Read the following case study and select 1 model that would be the most effective model in addressing the person’s problems. Answer the questions below the case study by applying concepts and terms from the model. Answers need to utilize specific terminology and techniques from the model you have selected and reflect a solid understanding of this model. There are 2 case studies in this essay part of the final exam and a different model needs to be used for each case study.The questions need to be answered individually and each question needs to be numbered: 1, 2, 3.Case Study:Herb comes to therapy to help work through his feelings about his divorce. He feels that the divorce was his fault and that if he had been different his wife would not have left. He keeps bemoaning the fact that she left him. He feels devastated to the extent that he can hardly function. He is preoccupied with getting her back.Identify a model and techniques from that model that you think would be most appropriate for this case if you were providing counseling for this client.Describe how you would apply this model and the techniques.Discuss why this model and these techniques would be particularly useful and the best choice for this client? The Williams FamilyThe Williams family includes Angelica, who is 68 years old, her daughter Maria, who is 48 years old and her four children Tamara, Chandra, Sharon and Brandon (ages 12, 10, 6 and 4 respectively). Angelica, the matriarch, has four other children, Terrance, who is 49 years old, is married and has two children, Michael and Tina (ages 10 and 6). Veronica, who is 45, is married and pregnant with her first child. Sheila, who is 41 years of age, is divorced with two children. Sheila’s children, Thomas and Beverly (ages 7 and 6), are close to their father and see him every other weekend as well as two nights a week.Angelica was divorced when the youngest of her children was 6 and has been a single mother most of her life except for the time she was married to her ex-husband, George. After the divorce, he was emotionally cut off from the children. She relied on her extended family for support and was also very close to her church community. Her father, a minister, never approved of her marriage to George, who died of a heart attack 2 years ago. Two years prior to George’s death, George’s mother died in an accident which brought George and the children together. Although that relationship was tense, they were able to resolve some of their issues and a sense of connection was established.Angelica, on the other hand, never resolved her conflict with her ex-husband. They were distant and always had bitter words for each other. Angelica is very close to her children and her mother’s family. The Williams family is African American and family members are proud of their cultural and family heritage. They have strong spiritual beliefs and practicing their faith is an important aspect of their lives. In the last therapy session, Angelica told the family therapist, “God helps me deal with anything in life. He is my strength.”Maria separated from her husband 8 months ago. After this separation, Angelica allowed Maria and her children to move in with her until she was “on her feet” financially. Angelica has been working two jobs to make ends meet. The children seem to be struggling academically with the exception of Tamara who excels in school. There are conflicts about disciplining the children because Angelica finds her daughter to be too lenient. Maria feels that she has to protect the children from Angelica’s disapproval. Angelica complains that Maria has become totally dependent on her and cannot make a decision about anything. Maria got her mother to agree to family counseling to help deal with the issues in the new family makeup. Angelica is skeptical about therapy.Answer the following questions from the Bowen Systems perspective—specific Bowen concepts need to be identified.Each of the 4 questions need to be answered separately and each one needs to be numbered–1, 2, 3, and 4.Bowenian therapists are interested in family patterns that go back several generations. In this family, discuss what patterns (positive and negative) you see that have been passed from one generation to the next? If you were completing a Genogram for this family using the patterns identified in Bowen theory (triangles, emotional cutoff, etc.), what relationship patterns would you observe that are creating problems for this family and would be important to address in therapy? What levels of differentiation do you observe in the Angelica and two of her four children? What information supports your observations?In order to get Angelica to engage in therapy, how might the family therapist integrate the cultural and religious background in a way that is respectful?Your Answer:
Park Unit 8 Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy Case Study Questions

Effect of Social Media Sites on Our Lives Essay

essay writing service free Table of Contents Introduction Effect on Business Effects on Education Effects on Social Life Conclusion Reference List Introduction Social networking sites aim to promote the establishment and maintenance of networks of friends over the Internet and allow individuals to easily connect with one or all members of their social networks, regardless of time or geographic location. According to Kotecki (2011, p. 279), social networking sites are essentially online communities that allow users to come together, communicate, and share things such as photographs, music, or other files. Ordinarily, people use social networking sites to ask their friend’s questions, say how they feel and what they are up to, or comment on something they have seen on another person’s page. Although there are numerous negative effects associated with the use of social networking sites, a number of benefits can also be identified. To some extent, the positive effects of some types of Internet use may offset the negative effects of others. Effect on Business Globally, social networking sites are huge businesses with the main players earning billions of US dollars annually. Revenue is generated through advertising and technology allows adverts to be targeted, for example, geographically and even personally, to the users based on age, gender, ethnicity, and browsing habits. In general, social networking sites are among the most frequently visited websites on the Internet. The traffic stampede to sites like MySpace, Facebook, Bebo, and YouTube continues to grow and now reaches the vast majority of Internet users of all ages and backgrounds. As a result, business operators who advertise on the Internet have the capability to expose their products to a wider market. By doing business through social networking sites, enterprises are able to cut down on advertising costs and increase the speed at which information about their products gets to potential clients. Setting up and running social media marketing can be significantly less expensive than buying advertisements or using traditional public relations campaigns. Successful marketing campaigns on MySpace employ elements of interactivity and engagement to build a relationship with the audience. They also employ marketing techniques that encourage visitors to share the site’s content with friends. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Proper usage of MySpace marketing campaigns allows business enterprises to build relationships that convert visitors to advocates and evangelists. LinkedIn, one of the top social networking sites for business, has profiles of several millions of professionals and, apparently, 25 new members join the site every minute. Presently, many human resource recruitment processes include Internet and social networking site searches to find prospective employees and contractors. Social networking sites can reveal how professional a person can potentially be, the various activities that he or she is involved in, and also validate information on their resume. Prospective employees can also do research on enterprises for which they are applying for a position. On the other hand, when an employee is exhibiting strange behavior and is reported for disciplinary actions, the human resource department can use a social networking site to see if the enterprise is possibly being slandered or discussed by the employee in question. With caution and validation of the information researched, social networking sites can benefit an enterprise. The use of social networking sites also helps organizations to effectively undertake global business operations. Virtual teams, for example, may be created to enable employees from different branches across the world to work on joint projects. This eliminates the need to spend on traveling, air tickets, or accommodation. Effects on Education Due to the negative publicity given to social networking sites, they have been blocked by many schools. As such, social networking is something that young people mostly do during their free time. According to Tatnall and Jones (2009, p. 322), social networking sites can be used effectively to expand learning activities. Such expansion may include a network of peers, teachers, professional experts, and other communities. Researchers believe that these sites can be used to complement traditional and online classroom activities. Although not originally created for educational purposes, social networking sites such as Facebook and MySpace are popular among students. Among other things, they can encourage informal dialogue and knowledge sharing, mediated by students themselves. With such technological advancements, students are likely to learn as much from social networking sites as they are from their assigned tasks and text books in class (Tatnall

Question four chemistry

Question four chemistry.

What is the base SI unit for measuring temperature?Centigrade (C)Absolute (A)Fahrenheit (F)Kelvin (K)
Question four chemistry

HSE 1010 Arizona University Roediger & McDermott False Memories Journal Summary

HSE 1010 Arizona University Roediger & McDermott False Memories Journal Summary.

I’m working on a writing report and need a sample draft to help me learn.

Write a report (350 words) of the Roediger & McDermott (1995) journal article to receive 1 credit. This article should be available on your course blackboard site. You should get the article and prepare your summary before you go start this topic. T Since these articles have an Introduction, Method, Results, and Discussion section, use this sections below for your summary: What the researcher expected to find. What are the study procedure and important independent variables and dependent variables? The major result or findings of the study. The main conclusion(s) of the study. What you liked and disliked about the article.
HSE 1010 Arizona University Roediger & McDermott False Memories Journal Summary

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