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Explaining a Concept Research Paper

Sociological theories are the key components of sociology as a discipline. They function as guides for researchers and also guide practitioners who conduct intervention strategies. Sociological theories are defined as a set of concepts which are interrelated. They explain, describe and predict the relationships among different parts of the society. The theories are made up of ideas and concepts that have close relations and are scientifically tested and brought together to expand, clarify, magnify and enlarge how human beings understand people together with their unique behaviors and the society in general. The theories assist sociologists to perform different types of studies with particular questions that examine the assumptions in the theories (Ritzer 110). This is a concept explaining paper that focuses on the concept of sociological theories. In the following example, two researchers, Henry and Cumming conducted a study that focused on the process of aging. They developed an aging theory that comprised of assumptions. In the theory, they assumed that once elderly people realize that they are about to die, they stop their youthful actions. At the same time, the members of the society shift their focus from them. The researchers tested their theory by using a large number of aging people and found out that the generalizations and findings they had devised resulted did not support the theory. The theory was therefore abandoned since the findings did not support it. This showed the importance of research in determining the validity of sociological theories. Theories are used to study millions of people in societies and even at other levels. When they are used to study large groups of people, they are referred to as macro theories. On the other hand, when theories are used to study small groups of people such as families, couples or teams they are known as micro theories. The macro theories are basically comprised of functional and conflict theories while the micro theories include social exchange and symbolic interactionism theories. In most situations, most theories are used at both the micro and macro levels. There are two broad categories of theories. The first category is referred to as the grand category of theories and focuses on universal qualities of social issues or problems. Its basis is abstract concepts and ideas as opposed to specific evidence. Such theories include symbolic interactionism, conflict, and social exchange theories. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The second broad category of theories is the middle-range category of theories. These theories are formed on the basis of scientific findings which are specific and centre on the interrelation between or among concepts in a specific social problem or process. Conflict theory is an example of a macro theory. A macro theory is used to study issues that affect larger groups of people. The founder of the theory was a German economist, philosopher and a sociologist known as Marx. He was disappointed because the educated people in the society mistreated the less educated and the poor. He could not tolerate the capitalist ideals that allowed the powerful individuals in the society to exploit the poor and perpetrate inhumane acts on them. The theory was later developed by Max Weber and took a moderate ground. In the development, he conducted a thorough study of capitalism but did not agree with Marx on rejecting the theory. Conflict theory is very important when trying to understand poverty and wealth, war, revolutions, slavery, child abuse, domestic violence and political strife among others social issues. The theory asserts that the society is constantly in conflict and people always compete for scarce resources. It assumes that individuals who have wealth in the society strife to earn more of it at the expense of those who do not have. It is usually a power struggle that favors the elites and the wealthy while the poor become the victims of hard situations. Power is the capacity of individuals to seize whatever they want even when they face strong opposition. The second type of grand theory is the structural functionalism or functionalism. Functionalists argue that society must sustain a state of balance as the different components of the society perform their functions. This theory has a relationship with ecological and biological concepts. The functional and non-functional systems in the society are analyzed the same way the human body is analyzed to detect problems. Some of the processes that express functionality in the society include romantic relationships, growth or decline of the population, socialization, religious practices and friendship among others. We will write a custom Research Paper on Explaining a Concept specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Functionalists agree with proponents of conflict theory that the society experiences some breakdowns and that mistreatment of the poor in the society is a reality. The societal breakdowns are referred to as dysfunctions and threaten the stability of the society. However, functionalists exhibits a more positive and optimistic attitude than the conflict theorists. They acknowledge the fact that societies experience problems just like the body does. Functionalists study the parts and processes of the society to find out how societies maintain their stability in the wake of factors that make society unstable. The third type of theory is symbolic interactionism. Interactionism takes place as either social exchange or symbolic interaction. Symbolic interaction theory argues that people in the society interact with one another on a daily basis. It is a useful theory that is used to improve communication, understand people, and impart skills among individuals of different cultures and foster good relations in the society. Generally, the theory is used to understand most of the aspects that make up the society. It is a theory that provides a magnified understanding of meaning. The fourth type of theory is called the social exchange theory. This theory argues that in the society, individuals constantly interact as they try to maximize rewards and incur minimal costs. Its assumptions resemble those of the conflict theory. Human beings exhibit rationality since they have the capacity to differentiate between the good and the bad after they have learnt the advantages and disadvantages of every choice. People look at the available options in every situation and figure out how the rewards can be maximized and costs minimized. One of the most outstanding features of the theory is its equity concept (Axelrod and Cooper 10). All the sociological theories are applicable when it comes to conducting studies on collective and individual behaviors. However, some theories are best suited in some circumstances because they handle certain issues better than other theories. A particular issue may be studied through several theories in order to establish certain aspects of the issue. Sociological theories are important since they are used by researchers to establish various societal facts and solutions to specific problems. Works Cited Axelrod, Rise and Charles Cooper. St. Martin’s Guide to Writing. New York: Bedford Books, 2007.Print Not sure if you can write a paper on Explaining a Concept by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Ritzer, George. Sociological theory. New York: McGraw-Hall, 2000.Print

Harvard University National Security Policy Brief

Harvard University National Security Policy Brief.

The policy brief includes an evaluation of and recommendations to deal with a specific national security challenge. It comprises a situation brief, analysis and evaluation, and policy recommendations to the national security decision-makers.Typically, up to 1500 words, the writing should be analytical rather than descriptive and is expected to present logically organised, clearly written, and powerful arguments. You should avoid writing a paper that presents normative arguments or political polemics.The brief should outline the vision and recommendations about your country’s national security policy for the next political mandate of four years.Based on a study of the available country-specific sources (appropriately quoted) in terms of documents, data, and analysis, you should identify the key sectors of the comprehensive security concept relevant to the country’s needs and demands. In each sector, you should define one-two strategic objectives and select appropriate approaches and instruments. For example, revitalising economic security after the US’s COVID pandemic is connected with debt reduction, while there is no such problem in Bulgaria.
Harvard University National Security Policy Brief

Costing and Budgeting Case Study

essay writing service free Costing and Budgeting Case Study. Accounting is a key success of a business, but the word accounting is more sophisticated. Almost every business, before dealing any project or any other important function, should design an appropriate budget. To make the budget first we should think about the cost because the cost of the production is always variable. A well-planned budget will bring success for a project. In my academic case study, I have to make a budget for Rayner’s plc. Company, which is a renowned company in the UK. Cost classification: P1 In the managerial accounting the word cost is using various ways. The main reason is that there are many types of costs, and these costs are classified differently according to the certain management process. For example, managers may want cost data to prepare external financial reports, to prepare planning budgets, or to make decisions. There are some relevant costing methods according to the task: Direct/Indirect cost: Direct cost is a cost where everything counting easily and conveniently traced to the particular cost object. But it is not incurred due to the product or activity countless. On the other hand indirect cost is fully reverse of the direct cost where counting process is more sophisticated and inconvenience and it incurred even productivity or activity change. Prime cost: The cost normally counting for labour and material to make product. This cost depend on ability and capacity of the labour that how much performed they are to make production and which way is the best way to use material. Fixed cost: A cost which is not only related to production is called fixed costs. In other words, it is a cost that remains constant even with variations circumstances and situations. VARIABLE COST: Variable costistotally opposite word of fixed cost. When a cost which is varies exactly in proportion to the change in activity (production or sale) would be term as variable cost. This is sometime called engineering cost or a formula cost and can be calculated in advance. Full Absorption cost: A managerialaccounting cost method of expensing all costs associated with manufacturing a particular product. Absorption costinguses the total direct costs and overhead costs associated with manufacturing a product as the cost base. Generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) require absorption costing for external reporting. Costing methods: (P2) According to the marginal cost, another name of fixed cost is period cost that means one need to deduct the total cost from contributions where under absorption costing, fixed cost is part of unit cost/production cost. Therefore deduct the total FC from contributions. Fixed cost does not change at any level of activity. F.O.A.R = Budget O/H Budget Activity (Note that if budget is equal to Actual production, then the absorption will be same). Now, if we will analyse the information and data as a case study of Rayners plc. Year 1 Marginal Costing method: 108,000 Sales: 90,000 X 12 Less cost of production Opening Inventory 0 Add productions (100,000 X 5) 500,000 500,000 Less closing Inventory (10,000X5) – 50000 450,000 Contribution 630,000 Less Total FC: Production (270,000) Admin Costing (20,000) Net Profit 340,000 Year1Absorption costing method: £ £ 108,000 Sales (90,000X12) Less cost of production Opening Inventory 0 Add production (100,000X5) 800,000 800,000 Less closing Inventory (10000X8) (80,000) Cost of production (720,000) Gross profit 360,000 Over absorbed (10,000X3) 30,000 Less admin cost (20,000) Net profit 370,000 Reconciliation statements: £ £ Absorption profit 370,000 Les increase in Inventory (Closing inventory – opening inventory) Multiply by F.O.A.R (10,000 – 0) X 3 (30,000) Marginal profit 340,000 Year2 Marginal costing statement: £ £ Sales (110,000X 12) 132,000 Less cost of production Opening Inventory (10,000X5) 50,000 Add production (110,000X5) 550,000 600,000 Less Closing Inventory (10000X5) (50,000) 550,000 Contribution 770,000 Less total FC: Production (270,000) Admin (20,000) Net Profit 480,000 Year 2 Absorption costing statement: £ £ Sales 132,000 Less cost of production Opening inventory (10000X8) 80,000 Add production (110,000X5) 800,000 900,000 Less closing Inventory (10,000X8) 80,000 (880,000) 440,000 Over absorption (20,000X3) 60,000 Less admin cost (20,000) Net profit 480,000 Year 3 Marginal costing statement: £ £ Sales (750,000X12) 1140,000 Less cost of production Opening inventory (10,000X5) 50,000 Production (90,000X5) 450,000 500,000 Less closing inventory (5000X5) 25,000 (475,000) Contribution 665,000 Less total fixed cost: Production (270,000) Less total fixed cost: Admin 120,000 Net Profit 375,000 Year 3 Absorption costing statement: £ Sales 140,000 Less cost of production Opening Inventory (10,000X8) 80000 Add production (90,000X8) 720,000 800,000 Less closing inventory (5000X5) 40,000 (760,000) Gross Profit 380,000 Less Admin (20,000) Net profit 360,000 Reconciliation Statement: Absorption profit 360,000 Add decrease in inventory (5000-10000) X 3 15,000 Marginal profit 375,000 Unit cost: (P3) According to the data of the Rayners plc and using the marginal costing method the unit cost is: Direct material 2 Direct labour1 Prime Cost 3 VC/Unit 2 Marginal cost 5 So according to the marginal cost the value of each unit will be £5. F.O.A.A (unit) 3 Absorption cost 8 Full cost/Total cost 8 F O A R – Budgeted F/C Budgeted Of Level Activity= X/90000 =£3 X=£270000 (Budgeted Of Overhead Collect analyse and present data using appropriate techniques. (P4) In the management accounting there are different ways to collect data for the business. The basic role is the participants a taste of the various tools and techniques available for collecting monitoring and evaluation data. Participants focus on what makes a good questionnaire and discuss tips on how to conduct interviews and focus groups. Participants also have the opportunity to explore more visual, participatory tools so that they can choose which methods are most appropriate for collecting information from their particular stakeholders. Moreover, the source of information that means the entire item for particular enquiry. E.g. invoices, customers and to show these customers feedback those are will be taken into consideration for further used of data collected. Another important technique to analyse and collect data is various sampling such as: Random sampling: This is the purest form of probability sampling. Because due to the large group of population it is really difficult and not possible to identify every member of the population, so the pool of available subjects becomes biased. Systematic sampling: It is often used as a random sampling. Another name of the sampling is selection technique. Its only advantage over the random sampling technique is simplicity. Systematic sampling is frequently used to select a specified number of records from a computer file. Convenience sampling: It is used in exploratory research where the researcher is interested in getting an inexpensive approximation of the truth. As the name implies, the sample is selected because they are convenient. Judgment sampling: One common non probability method isJudgment sampling. The researcher selects the sample based on judgment. This is usually and extension of convenience sampling. Quota sample: This is a sample method where items, usually people, are selected in a given quantities and according to pre-defined characteristics. These different methods are used for different purpose where user must identify a sampling method in order to review the presentation at the intention. These methods can also be used in a wide range of area and activity where there is lots of member with different types of users. Routine cost report: (P5) The report generally include the financial performance for the end of the year .E.g. Profit, Debit, share, price and dividends. It will also advice about transfers to reserves, assets that have been acquired or disposed of the names and shareholding of directors active in the last year, and other business activates that will be interested to stakeholders. Even, sometimes the report also cover the business polices on employment, training, welfare, creditor, creditor payment and corporate responsibility as well. There are some different ways to finding cost report: Monitoring Cost: Cost monitoring means supervising the economic progress in the management system in the business. This is the main reason of cost or expense monitoring is collecting information to check performance against an expectation. Controlling: Cost controlling is process where the common goal of the management is improving business cost-efficiency by reducing costs, or at least restricting their rate of growth. Businesses use cost control methods to monitor, evaluate, and ultimately enhance the efficiency of specific areas, such as departments, divisions, or product lines, within their operations. Planning: It is called a plan make supreme success. In term of business it is invincible part to make appropriate costing plan.It comprises iterative quantification and costing, derived from benchmarking and market exploration exercises, and is aimed at establishing a realistic and acceptable cost limit. This information is critical for obtaining project financing and for determining whether a project can be profitable or not. Without cost planning, property owners would enter blindly into construction projects and possibly into insolvency. Evaluation: Evaluating the cost of the overall business management is really sophisticated task. According to the business activity there are three types of evaluation specification: Background: Background means description, context, scope and objective of the business. The Selection Process: Analyse briefly the selection process, starting with the advertising the establishment of the shortlist, expressions of interest, and withdrawals of firms before proposal submissions. Technical evaluation: Describe briefly the meetings and actions taken by the evaluation committee formation of a technical evaluation team, outside assistance, evaluation guidelines, justification of sub criteria and associated weightings as indicated in the Standard Request for Proposals; relevant correspondence and compliance. Profitability Ratio: (p6) 1)Gross profit margin =gross profit/sale*100 = xf 2)Net profit margin = PBIT/sales*100 = xf 3) Retained on capital employed = PBIT/capital employed*100 = xf 4) Assets= sales/capital employed = x times Efficiency ratio: Lido ltd New ltd. Assets = 640/350 75 Assets=1600/1600 20 =1.5 times =.987 Productivity Unit produce for employees 20000/34 =588 unit 5000/78=64.1 Operating profit margin 128/640*100=20 256/1600*100 =16 Cost productivity Operating profit per employee 128/34 =3.77 256/78=3.28 Principles of quality: (P7) The basic principle of Total quality management is that costs of prevention are less than the costs of correction. There are various types of roles are involved in term of quality: Assurance: Quality assurance focuses on preventing faulty occurring, instead of fixing them afterwards (which is the ‘quality control’ approach). Describe everything to find out the causes of defects are identified and ways to fix the system to make sure the problem doesn’t happen again are agreed. Reliability: The most important and valuable principles of quality are consistency and reliability. Each link in the quality chain must deliver to the next link on time, in the quantity ordered, to the right specification and at the agreed price, time after time after time. Customer-driven: customer driven quality means many things to many people, in the end it is the customer’s opinion that counts. In these cases the customer’s quality ideals must be met every step of the way from the farm to the marketplace. Continuous Improvement: This is an essential part of any good quality system. The market environment for popular product is always changing and highly competitive, so the popular programme must constantly evolve to ensure the industry stays ahead of the completion. Principles of value: Implementing the Principle of Value requires leadership and management with particular, conscious focus and intent.It is always to develop and sustain durable, value-driven, win-win relationships. Everything can be evaluating by relative activity such as Products for payment Salary for performance Investment for profits. Everywhere we look, we see win-win relationships as the core of durable success. If we lose those relationships, we eventually lose everything. Another important principle is core value which is completely design by roles of fairy, ethos, human morality, dignity, and customer service. If an organization does not cause its members to understand and focus on these important elements, it will soon find participants becoming solely “profit-centric.” This behaviour inevitably leads to a short-term focus and potentially illegal practices that provide the seeds of self-destruction. Remember that management is to build business value by making the right decisions; and, decisions about core values are essential. Purpose and nature of Budget: (P8) Budgeting is a basic and essential process in a business which allows businesses to gain many goals in one course of action.The budgeting process may be carried out by individuals or by companies to estimate whether the person/company can continue to operate with its projected income and expenses. There are several purposes to create and implement a budget include control and evaluation, planning, communication, and motivation. Control and Evaluation This is most important matter after finalized a budget is providing sufficient control and evaluating its performance.If performance does not meet the budget, action can be taken immediately to adjust activities. Budgeting allows a company to have a certain range of control over costs, such as reducing many types of unnecessary expenses or assigning responsibility for these expenses. A budget also gives a company a benchmark by which to evaluate business units, departments, and even individual managers. Unfortunately this purpose of budgeting may be effect on employees to have negative thinking about the budgeting process because their compensation and, in certain situation, even their jobs may be operating on meeting certain budgeting target. Planning Planning is initial purpose of budgeting. It is also design by decisions, and many questions must be answered. Besides that, budgeting allows a business to take stock of revenue and expenses from the previous period, and judge where the business will be in future periods. It also allows the organization to add and remove products and services from its plan for the future period. Communication and Motivation: Other goals that an organization may use its budget to achieve that are less obvious include communication and motivation. It is important that make correlation according to the chain of command like from management level to supervisor level, this is only to gain mentally satisfaction of the staff. When an employee is involved in creating his or her department’s budget, that person will be more likely to strive to achieve that budget. Budgets also allow a company to motivate its employees by involving them in the budget. Budgeting method: (p9) A budget is an individual and written estimate of how an organization or a particular project, or business unit willperform financially. If we can accurately predict our company’s performance than we will be certain that resources such as money, people, equipment, manufacturing plants, and the like are deployed appropriately. There is various kind of budgeting are available for a business such as: Cash budget: An important estimate of a company’s cash position for a particular period of time. . Labor budget: The total cost for labor to be expended for a set period of time calculated by taking every person’s position in an organization, department, or project and multiplying the number of hours they are expected to work by their wage rates. Sales budget: An estimate of the quantity of goods and services that will be sold during a specific period of time. Production budget: A forecast thatstarts with the sales budget’s estimates of the total number of units projected to be sold, then translates this information into estimates of the cost of labor, material, and other expenses required to produce them. Expense budget: An estimate prepared for travel, utilities, office supplies, telephone, and many other common business expenses for a given period. Incremental Budget: These types of budget are normally starts with previous period’s budget or actual results and add an incremental amount to cover for inflation and other known changes. Advantages of incremental budgeting The budget is stable and change is gradual. Managers can operate their departments on a consistent basis. The system is relatively simple to operate and easy to understand. The impact of change can be seen quickly. Disadvantages of incremental budgeting Assumes activities and methods of working will continue in the same way. No incentive for developing new ideas. No incentives to reduce costs. Encourages spending up to the budget so that the budget is maintained next year. The budget may become out of date and no longer relate to the level of activity or type of work being carried out. Zero-based budget: This is a traditional technique of planning and decision-making which reverses the working process. By contrast with incremental budgeting, in zero-based budgeting, every department function is reviewed comprehensively and all expenditures must be approved, rather than only increases. Advantages Drives managers to find cost effective ways to improve operations. Detects inflated budgets. Useful for service departments where the output is difficult to identify. Increases communication and coordination within the organization. Identifies and eliminates wasteful and obsolete operations. Identifies opportunities for outsourcing. It responds to changes in the business environment. Disadvantages It emphasize short-term benefits to the detriment of long term goals The budgeting process may become too rigid and the organisation may not be able to react to unforeseen opportunities or threats Difficult to define decision units and decision packages, as it is time-consuming and exhaustive. Forced to justify every detail related to expenditure. The RCosting and Budgeting Case Study

Word project and exam

Word project and exam. I need support with this Computer Science question so I can learn better. click this link and type in Lebanon Trail High school for the school then use 163128 as the username and 04142003 as the password. Next click launch under bim 1B. Next scroll down to word 3 and click the drop down arrow the word 3 Sam exam needs to be done along with the capstone project and project 2 and the textbook project. For the projects you will click it and you will have to open up the 2 links one is the instructions and one will be the one you will be changing, just follow the instructions and when you go to submit you will save it and click next to go the page after the links where you will have to make sure the name you saved it matches the one it tells you and then you will attach it
Word project and exam

Using Infrared Technology to Determine the Hydrocarbons in Contaminated Soil Dissertation

Literature review A number of literature reviews have been documented on using infrared technology to determine the hydrocarbons in contaminated soil. Ten literature reviews will be utilized in the research below. Their reliability had to be checked to ensure that they are scholarly. A New Perspective to Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy asserts that spectroscopy focuses on the analysis on infrared light as part of wavelength emanated, reflected, or spread from a substance (Ge et al. 2007). According to the authors, spectral measurement enables the assessment of the amount of light reflected or emanated from a gas, solid, or liquid. Analysis of Diesel Fuel Contamination in Soils by Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectrometry and Solid Phase Microextraction-Gas Chromatography assert that because soil is assorted in nature the standard physicochemical assessment of its characteristics is costly and inefficient (Malley

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