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Executive Summary Instructions: Purpose: The aim of the Executive Summary is to identify the link between theory and practice Essay

Executive Summary Instructions: Purpose: The aim of the Executive Summary is to identify the link between theory and practice and how theory can be used for solutions for real problems. The goal is to highlight what works—and what doesn’t, delivering solid, useful information that brings real value. Format: Write a summary of the article that relays information that is practical, timely, and easy to read and understand. Your Executive Summary will be three double-spaced, typed paragraphs totaling no more than two pages (not including your Title page and References page) and composed of three sections listed below. Use Times New Roman, 12-point font, and 1-inch margins. See the Note below about including your title page according to APA format. The WHAT – a summary of the content of the article SO WHAT? — what you learned from the article NOW WHAT? — how you can use what you learned from the article I have attached the article. Please read directions carefully

ENG 120 Cuyamaca College The American Dream Essay

ENG 120 Cuyamaca College The American Dream Essay.

Here is the prompt for the essay along with a video tutorial.This essay is a definition essay revolving around the topic of the American Dream. The first priority is defining what the American dream means. The American dream is a subjective idea, and you will want to narrow down your definition to one specific idea. For example, your definition of this dream might be owning a house, finding a lucrative job, or being debt free. Please avoid topics on gun rights, education, or immigration as these topics are covered in other essays for our class. This essay will be arranged in the following structure. You will begin with an introduction. The second paragraph will provide your definition of the American dream. The next two body paragraphs must address whether not your definition of the American dream is still possible. Lastly, you will need a conclusion. Essentially, you will need a total of five body paragraphs. I will grade your essay on the key elements of academic writing: a strong thesis (three-point preferred), topic sentences, transitions, etc. Furthermore, your essay will need to reach at least three pages total. You will also need a total of four sources minimum, and each all three body paragraphs should have at least one source. Also, you will want to make sure that your paper adheres to MLA and standards and that you provide citations.Lastly, please avoid first person in this essay.
ENG 120 Cuyamaca College The American Dream Essay

Stages of Growth Diagnostic Essay

custom writing service Table of Contents Existence Survival Success Take Off Resource Maturity List of References Various models illustrate the growth of businesses. The size of a company and stages of growth are used as the standards for determining business growth. This paper will examine a growth framework based on existence, survival, success, take-off and resource maturity phases. Existence At this stage, the organisation is at infancy and the owner is struggling to attract clients. For a small business, the owner handles all management duties including supervision of junior staff and decision-making. Many small business start-ups fail at this stage due to various challenges. Some businesses that succumb to these challenges are sold off at net present value (Poole 2002, p. 75). Survival Businesses at this stage have successfully overcome the challenges of the first stage. At this stage, the business has enough capacity of customers who are satisfied. The main objectives for the business are to break even and gather enough funds for expansion. The number of employees start to increase although the decision making function is still performed by the owner. At the end of this stage, the business may achieve growth in size and profitability. Some businesses however remain at this stage for a long period surviving on marginal returns until they cease operations based on the decisions of the owner (McKeown 2007, p. 61). Success Businesses at this phase have achieved growth and have collected enough funds that are capable of financing expansion. Market penetration and the volume of customers at this stage are healthy. The business can either expand or remain at this level while providing the owner with funds for diversification since the profits are above average. An increase in size of operations and the accompanying revenues prompt the owner to hire competent managers to oversee various functions within the business (Singh 2010, p. 15). The systems are developed and financial planning and other methods are introduced to ensure smooth operations. To ensure survival, the company should adapt to changing conditions in the industry especially competition. For instance, many automobile makers did not make it past the 1970s and 1980s since they could not adapt to changing conditions (Rao 2002, p. 214). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Take Off The company at this stage experiences rapid growth and the main concern is financing the growth. The owners delegate most of the duties to managers to improve efficiency. The managers should be competent enough to handle environmental dynamics. The systems at this stage are under duress from growth and they are therefore improved to accommodate the extra workload. Planning and decision making are improved. For decisions to be made by the owner, various factors have to be considered due to the increase in stakeholders and independence of the business from the owner. To graduate to the next level, the owner of the business must show maturity in management and financial planning (Churchill and Lewis 1983, p. 126). Resource Maturity The objectives of a company at this stage are to strengthen and manage well the financial gains achieved from the other stages. To cope up with the rapid growth, the company should also expand the management or it will succumb to the ineffectiveness arising from growth. At this stage, the business should be a separate entity from the owner. The systems should be broad and well developed. Moreover, the company should have adequate staffs who are experienced in their fields. List of References Churchill, N

need 1&2 in different docs with 2-3 reference each in APA format-no plagiarism

need 1&2 in different docs with 2-3 reference each in APA format-no plagiarism. I don’t know how to handle this Engineering question and need guidance.

1). must 400 words
The network restrictions surrounding the web authentication service is one layer of defense. Is that sufficient?

2) must 600 words
The network restrictions surrounding the web authentication service is one layer of defense. As was noted, this component is too valuable to trust to a single defense. Furthermore, authentication requests are tendered by the least-trusted component in the architecture. That component, HTTP termination, resides on the least-trusted network. What additional steps can be taken?
need 1&2 in different docs with 2-3 reference each in APA format-no plagiarism

Vodafone Group Plc Financial Analysis Report 2018

Vodafone Group Plc Financial Analysis Report 2018 Introduction This report will contain financial analysis of Vodafone with their competitor BT, to evaluate their success and failures. Vodafone is a British multinational, listed company and among the FTSE top 100 companies with the headquarters located in London. Currently, operates in more than 40 countries, having a strong presence in the Europe, UK, Africa, United States and Asia. Vodafone continues to be differentiating from their competitors, by investing in network infrastructure, to enable them to continue to offer services like Mobile, Fixed and TV (Vodafone annual report 2018). The sustainable business focused on their commercial objectives enabling them to meet their customers need and build a sustainable future. BT is also a British multinational company with their headquarters located in London. BT are one of the competitor of Vodafone. BT provides services worldwide, this includes providing range of services such as TV sports broadband, mobile communications, Web hosting, IT Support and Fix-Line broadband in more than 180 countries (BT annual report 2018). BT’s major assets and operations held in United Kingdom. (Vodafone annual report, 2018) Financial Performance Analysis Vodafone Plc Gross Margin Vodafone, gross margin declined by 2.2% between 2016/17 to 2017/18. This is due, to the change in accounting policy from IAS 8 to IFRS 15 on 1st April 2018 and impact of foreign exchange saw European revenue decline by 1.3%. While BT revenue declined only by 1%, but remain steady. Vodafone deconsolidation of Netherlands Vodafone and creation of joint venture of subsidiary Vodafone Ziggo saw revenues decline 4.1 %( Vodafone annual report 2018). Although BT decrease in revenue by 2% and enterprise businesses down 5% saw BT gross margin slide slight (BT annual report 2018). According to the research, Vodafone and BT hit hard by price competition forcing to cut down on prices (Independent 2018). Reuters (2018) predicts Vodafone Plc revenue will be record high in 2019, estimated to be £48,399. While BT revenue will also go towards the same direction. This supported by Statista, (2018) the telecommunication industry expects to achieve record high revenues of € 1.2 trillion by 2019, because of high demands in technology. (Statista, 2018) Operating profit margin (OPM) Vodafone operating profits between 2016/17 to 2017/18 increased from £3,725m to £4,299m up 5.4%. While, BT Plc operating profits fall from £4,135 2017 to £3,991. Vodafone sustained operating profits driven by improved EBIT up by 21.6% and reduction of €0.2 billion maintenance costs. This also resulted in dividend paid up by 2%, indication of growth in future profits (Vodafone annual report 2018). In addition, Market screener (2018) supports that Vodafone profits will increase to £5833m by 2021. However, Vodafone half-year results reported a loss in operating profits followed by 3.5m impairment loss and increase in costs by 0.3m ( 2018). Decrease in BT operating profits reflects, higher labour and pensions costs up by 3% accordance with higher inflation, as well as one-off investment charge of £763m, saw operating profits slide down, which do not reflects the actual true picture of the company if looking at the profitability overall. (BT Plc annual report 2018). This supported by the fact gross profit margin on decline by 1%. However, BT operating profits look set to increase, following the half-year results reported adjusted profits up 2% ( 2018). ROCE Vodafone ROCE between 2016/17 to 2017/18 improved slightly from 10.04% to 10.23%.while BT ROCE between 2016/17 to 2017/18 moved from 13.79% to 14.82%. Vodafone ROCE largely driven, by the growth in organic EBITDA, and lower capital add-ons (down 4.6% reflecting 15.7% of total revenues). Furthermore, the level of debt in India during 2017/18 stood at €7.7 billion down from €8.7 billion, this shows a decrease in debt finance (Vodafone Plc annual report 2018).BT ROCE improved was due to the sale of outdated non-current and current assets worth £3,022m, improving efficiency and utilisations of assets(BT annual report 2018). Vodafone ROCE will decline in future, as second quarter results reported a fall in revenue of £5.5m and a loss on disposal of £6.8 billion, as well as 3.5m impairment, this indicates increase in investment in future (BBC News). On the other hand, BT net debt increased by £1,600m in the second quarter in 2018, due to poor credit rating, making it harder to arrange loans at lower interest rates, this will cause gearing to go up in future because of more borrowings at higher interest rates (Williams, 2017). (ASK teacher to have look) Vodafone Plc 5 Years trend (BBC News, 2018) Cash flows Vodafone cash and cash equivalent from operating activities, shrunk from €14,223 to €13,600.This decrease, is due to tax payable liability increased from €761 million to €1,118 million, with ongoing legal cases amounted to €2.4 billion plus interest(Vodafone annual report 2018). This is supported by Abbas, (2018) that, Vodafone revenue dropped by 29% in the last quarter of 2017/18 as a result of ongoing legal cases India and foreign exchange impact. Similarly, BT cash and cash equivalent from operating activities fell from £6,174 million to £4,927 million between 2016/17 to 2017/18. Due to deferred tax liability of £92 and £1.8 billion in respect to the agreement with shareholders in Kabel Deutchland AG(BT annual report 2018). Vodafone operating activates look set to remain low, as the new CEO announces future growth cuts (CNBC 2018). However, BT operating activates look set to increase as results of half-year shows operating activities decreased, because of £2bn contribution BTPS ( 2018). Vodafone net cash and cash equivalents, from investing activates between 2016/17 to 2017/18 up from €8423 to € 9,841, driven by current securities up from £6,120 million to £8,795 million held for trading, to meet the regulatory requirements (Vodafone plc annual report 2018). Whereas, BT net cash from investing activates also improved from £1,658 to £4,833 between 2016/17 to 2017/18. Vodafone investing activates look to slow down, because of 7.8 billion euro loss in the first half of 2018, despite heavy investments in the last 5 year of £81b (Telecom, 2018). while, BT Plc cash investing activities look set to increase to achieve BBB credit rating and launching of 5G, even though operating activities fell last year(BT Annual report, 2018). Vodafone plc, net cash and cash equivalents from financing activities between 2016/17 to 2017/18 fall from €9,096 to €7,234. Mainly, driven by drop in long-term borrowings from €7,326 to €4,440 and increase in tax liability from €1,264 to €991(Vodafone annual report 2018). However, BT net cash and equivalents from financing activities changed significantly, from £4,502 million to £75 million because of issuing bonds totalling £3,753 million. Vodafone financing activities look set to remain low will rise in 2020 as they prepare to launch 5G (BBC News 2018). on the other hand, BT also set for a quite year, due to 14 billion pension deficit and decline in revenue by 2% in half- year results in 2018 (Kaveh, 2018). Investor’s information Gearing Vodafone gearing between 2016/17 to 2017/18 increased from 52.27% to 57.04%.This level is higher than the satisfactory level. This shows the majority of capital employed is debt finance (long-term borrowings) of £34,523 million. During, 2016/17 debt finance (long-term borrowings) dropped slightly, to £32,908 but gearing still grew (Vodafone annual report 2018). Similarly, BT gearing ratio between 2016/2017 to 2017/18 fell slightly from 76.45% to 74.67%, but remain very high. This is due to take over of EE of £12.5bn and increase in long-term borrowings £from £10,081 to £11,994(BT annual report 2018). Once Vodafone buys part of liberty global, debts are set to increase, but Vodafone will sell 50,000 masts to reduce debt (Simon Duke, T 2018). BT gearing also set to remain high, as half-year results reflects issue of £2bn bonds offset by free cash flows and expenditure up by 2%, mainly driven by non-network infrastructure ( 2018). VODAFONE BT ( 2018) P/E Ratio Vodafpne P/E Ratio between 2016/17 to 2017/18 declined by 15.82 to 13.95. This reflects lower financing costs between 2016/17 to 2017/18 falling from £1,406 milliion to £1,074 million (Vodafone, 2018).This means, investors are lossing confidence and willing to pay less to buy £1 of current earnings. P/E ratio between 30 march 2018 to 30 Novemeber 2018 improved from 13.95 to 19.42, with £18 billion investment in germany in improving networks (The Motley Fool UK, 2018). BT P/E ratio between 2016/17 to 2017/2018 jumped from 12.99 to 14.54, primlarly driven by 1.2 bn TV rights investment, and as a result share price went up (Gill, 2018). Vodafone growth in organic revenues and ROCE is a result of investments made over the last five years and sooner the the compnay will also deliver a higher P/E ratio. Where as, BT slashing 9% in investment on restrcuting plans, job cuts and frezzing dividends, thus share price fell to 12.39 , will see a decline in P/E ratio (BBC News, 2018). Dividend yield (returns) Vodafone dividend yield between 2016/17 to 2017/18 moved from 14.77 to to 15.07 repersenting 2% increase. This is largely driven, by positive organic revneue and operating profits. Vodafone dividend yeild increasing year-on-year, this reflects high demands of shareholders in a very competitive market (Investomania, 2018). On the other hand, at half-year results in 2018, shows organic revenues grew by 0.8% and cash flows laso went up 3%. This inidcates dividiend yield will continue to rise ( , 2018). Equally, BT dividend yeild between 2016/17 to 2017/18 remain steady at 10.55. This is due to ‘transformation programme‘ to try to impove overall performance in a competitive market and the Dividend yield will also remain unchanged with the launching of 5G partnered with Huawei over the next two years (BT Plc, 2018).This will result in a furthure decline in revenues offset by higher costs, as half-year results evidenced that revenue decline by 2%. In addition, inflation currentley at 3% could cause the demand for the stock to increase. (Dividend data, 2018) Share prices Vodafone share prices between 2016/17 to 2017/18 dropped dramatically from 2.90 to 1.94. This decrease resulted by the takeover of Liberty Global’s for £18 billion and new appointment of new CEO, meaning new strategies for the company. Both investors and shareholders reaction towards these two major events saw share prices fell (Magazine, 2018). Share prices look set to fall next year, due to negative fall in Vodafone investment value by 30% reported on 30 October 2018(The Motley Fool UK, 2018). On November 2018, Vodafone share prices fell further by 15.5%, making Vodafone shares ‘one of the cheapest’ in the market, and experts forecasted a decline in P/E ratio of 4.5% by 2020(The Motley Fool UK, 2018). However, BT decided to hold dividends prices in the next two years, which saw shares between 2016/17 to 2017/18 fall from 3.18 to 2.56 and investors panicked. This decision was driven by pension deficit of £14 billion and financial fraud of £530 million saw shares fall 20 %(, 2018). BT plan to cut down on 13,000 jobs to save costs and push up share prices by investing activities (BBC News, 2018). (Financial times, 2018) Sustainability United nations are on a mission to build a sustainability future, which they have categorised into three areas, environmental, social and economic ((WCED, 1987). All business can choose in what they believe is the most important and this will provide information on how company is making the effort to sustainability (Azapagic and Perdan, 2000). Vodafone sustainability driven by three key areas: Women empowerment Energy innovation Young people and jobs Vodafone aim to connect; additional 50 million women’s with mobile to promote gender equality by 2025(Vodafone annual report 2018).Vodafone contribution towards development goals will help sustainable strategy and will lead to increase in customers base. This is evidenced as the female customers rise between 2016/17 to 2017/18 from 109.7m to 113.7m (Vodafone annual report 2018). Secondly, Vodafone targeting a 40% reduction in greenhouse gases to protect the environment (Vodafone annual report 2018). This indicates Vodafone ethically mind towards the environment, despite the greens house emission increased by 1%, the company will look to invest in 100% electrical resources to bring down the greenhouse gases emissions (Vodafone annual report 2018). Thirdly youth skills and providing jobs also remain in the heart of Vodafone strategy. Survey clarifies that 42% of the workforce now wants to work for ethically minded business that has a greater positive impact on people and environment (Jenkin 2018). Vodafone evidenced, thorough supporting 10 million people access future employments opportunities through technology. On the other hand, BT who is also ethically minded business focuses on: Society Environment Behaving responsibly BT focused on connecting society through technology just like Vodafone. BT goal is driven by superfast broadband, making services available to 98% of UK population. This goal plays a big role in shaping the future, where BT reached to 57,000 teachers and through them, BT extended learning to 1.6 million school students ( 2018). Secondly, environment are also on track like Vodafone to use 100% electrical resources and reduce CO2 emissions by 87%, with both companies aiming to achieve 2*C global warming target. BT also supported charities with £100m donation and continues the efforts to updates their code of ethics, to contribute towards the principles of behaving responsibly. Conclusion This year has been tough for Vodafone Plc, and BT Plc. Vodafone Plc suffered a loss of 6.1 billion and fall in revenue, a very negative outcome, despite investing billions in over the last few years. On the hand BT plc financial struggles led to cutting down of 13,000 jobs. However, it does not mean that Vodafone and BT plc failed meet expectations; in fact, they have made some progress. For instance, Vodafone Plc organic revenue grew by 1.4%.Also current borrowings went down from £154,684 to 145,611 between 2016/17 to 2017/18 to improve gearing. Similarly, stated in BT plc annual report, investment increased between 2016/17 to 2017/18 from £1,520 to £3,022 to improve company’s overall performance and continue to invest heavily in innovations. Vodafone has gone through a transformation period; therefore, the company will see benefits of investments in the next few years Looking at Vodafone Plc gross profit margin decline, by 2.2%, while operating profits increased this shows on-going price competition. Vodafone plc suffering mainly in India, as a result impairments and price competition losses amounted to £7.8 billion; this indicates the vision of the company is not a key issue. In such difficult circumstances, shareholders and potential investors will remain uncertain over the future of Vodafone plc and BT Plc. This could force a change in their investment strategy and change business model to achieve stability. Overall, Vodafone plc and BT Plc may have not achieved all their goals, but they have achieved some. List of references – cover image of Vodafone Market watch, (2018). Vodafone revenue slides in third quarter.[online] available at (2018). [online] Available at: [Accessed 23 Nov. 2018]. Investomania. (2018). 4 shares with dividend appeal? BP plc, Vodafone Group plc, National Grid plc and HSBC Holdings plc – Investomania. [online] Available at: [Accessed 23 Nov. 2018]. Vodafone plc annual report, (2018). Vodafone group plc. [online] available at King.I, (2018). 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Why the Vodafone share price and 7.6% dividend yield may make it the bargain of the FTSE 100. [online] Available at: [Accessed 22 Nov. 2018]. Gill, O. (2018). BT pays £1.2bn to win Champions League football battle. [online] Available at: [Accessed 12 Nov. 2018]. (2018). Vodafone (VOD) Dividend Yield – 8.78%. [online] Available at: [Accessed 23 Nov. 2018]. (2018). BT and Huawei announce 5G mobile technology partnership. [online] Available at: [Accessed 23 Nov. 2018]. Magazine, S., News, S. and record, V. (2018). Vodafone’s new CEO facing big decisions on how to reverse UK’s ‘sick man’ record, 15 May 2018 10:23 | Shares Magazine. [online] Available at: [Accessed 21 Nov. 2018]. The Motley Fool UK. (2018). The Vodafone share price slumps 30%, but is it time to load up?. [online] Available at: [Accessed 23 Nov. 2018]. The Motley Fool UK. (2018). Why Vodafone Group plc shares could be the buy of the decade. [online] Available at: [Accessed 23 Nov. 2018]. (2018). BT shares fall as Italy scandal hits profits | Financial Times. [online] Available at: [Accessed 26Nov. 2018]. BBC News. (2018). BT cuts costs for landline-only homes. [online] Available at: [Accessed 24 Nov. 2018]. WCED (World Commission on Environment and Development), B.C., 1987. Our common future. Report of the world commission on environment and development. Azapagic, A. and Perdan, S., (2000). Indicators of sustainable development for industry: a general framework. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 78(4), pp.243-261. Proactiveinvestors UK. (2018). UBS cuts target prices for BT and Vodafone but remains bullish. [online] Available at: [Accessed 24 Nov. 2018]. The Independent. (2018). Vodafone revenues up despite decline in UK sales. [online] Available at: [Accessed 24 Nov. 2018]. CNBC. (2018). Vodafone’s new CEO to cut costs, review tower assets. [online] Available at: [Accessed 25 Nov. 2018]. (2018). Vodafone Group Debt to Equity Ratio 2006-2018 | VOD. [online] Available at: [Accessed 25 Nov. 2018]. Simon Duke, T. (2018). Vodafone seeks investors for 50,000 masts. [online] Available at: [Accessed 25 Nov. 2018]. Jenkin, M. (2018). Millennials want to work for employers committed to values and ethics. [online] the Guardian. Available at: [Accessed 25 Nov. 2018].