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Examining The Manifest American Dream English Literature Essay

In this essay, I will be discussing whether or not the American Dream is manifest in America. This contention clearly needs some clarity, thus I will start with a brief examination of what exactly the American Dream constitutes, and how it may have a bearing and influence on the texts. I will then place the novels in some context, allowing for an exploration of the texts, Revolutionary Road and American Pastoral. I will then come to some conclusions as to whether or not the ultimate manifestation of the American Dream is America itself. In the words of James Truslow Adams, author of The Epic America, the American dream is : […]that dream of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to ability or achievement. It is a difficult dream for the European upper classes to interpret adequately, and too many of us ourselves have grown weary and mistrustful of it. It is not a dream of motor cars and high wages merely, but a dream of social order in which each man and each woman shall be able to attain to the fullest stature of which they are innately capable, and be recognized by others for what they are, regardless of the fortuitous circumstances of birth or position. [1] From this we may ascertain that the idea of the American Dream is something imbued into every generation of the American population. It is almost a spiritual guide as to how an American citizen should live their lives, working hard in order to achieve the goal of a ‘better and richer and fuller’ life. Thus, the American dream is a national ethos, where democratic ideals are seen as a promise of prosperity for the people of America. The ideal of the American Dream could arguably be seen as stemming from the Declaration of Independence. A declaration that gave birth to a new, free and united nation, in which the citizens were entitled to certain rights and expectations it, ‘[…]held certain truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness.’ [2] Historically the American Dream can be seen as an ideal, however, by the 1950’s, the idea of the American Dream and what it actually meant to achieve this ideal had altered. Whilst the ethos that all can succeed remained the same, the emphasis became more about the self. Financial gain replaced spiritual success, financial security and filling ones life with modern amenities became the emphasis of achieving the American Dream. Post World War Two, citizens of America became part of one of the biggest economic booms in history. During the 1950s, businesses expanded rapidly. By the 1956, the majority of Americans did not work in blue collar industrial jobs. Instead, more people worked in, white collar positions – clerical, managerial, or professional occupations. White collar workers performed services such as sales, advertising, insurance, and communications. Of these new workers, many were young men returning from the war, or returning from time in Europe under the GI Bill. They were eager to pursue the new manifestation of the American Dream. This ideal of the American Dream, the proof of its existence, is clearly somewhat limited. However, this ideal highlights what it was to be American, the principle of being a good American citizen during the 1950’s. It is true that during the 1950’s America’s economy boomed, it is also true that many young white collar workers and their families achieved prosperity and material wealth. However, the problems with this ideal, the striving for material wealth, cannot be overlooked. In his novel, Revolutionary Road, Yates, crafts a narrative set in the 1950’s, with the backdrop of ”boom time” America, and systematically destroys the illusion that material wealth and the American Dream brings happiness. He places his characters in a picturesque suburban setting, and this is clearly a criticism of that ‘ideal’ living arrangement. This suburban setting has been described as, ‘Such places, they say, were dens of petite bourgeoisie oppression and festering hypocrisy, places where spirits were crushed and dreams died, where genial housewives smilingly hosted dinner parties while keeping suicidal thoughts at bay with alcohol and pills, where materialism ran rampant and the genteel brutality of patriarchy ruled the day’. [3] His narrative focuses on the Wheeler family. Frank is the epitome of the 1950’s American man, young, strong, intelligent with military service, working in a white collar job supporting a young family and living in the picturesque suburbs of Connecticut. Yet Yates depicts him as a self important suit with ‘the kind of unemphatic good looks that an advertising photographer might use to portray the discerning consumer of well-made but inexpensive merchandise” [4] April, the supposed beautiful, young mother keeping house in the idyllic suburban home, is little of the sort. Her husband sees her as a ”graceless, suffering creature whose existence he tried every day of his to deny” [5] As the narrative unfolds, it becomes obvious that Frank and his wife April do not fit into the traditional mould of the post-war, happy family. Material wealth does not make them happy; instead the condition of their lives tears them apart and leads to a downward spiral in their relationship with a catastrophic finale. What is characteristic of Yates’s Revolutionary Road is not merely the bareness of the suburban America he creates, but how his narrative takes the backdrop of America itself in its supposed time of happiness and advancement and writes in a manner about the Wheeler’s life that conjures the claustrophobia of the horrors of war. Yates makes the aspirations of everyday Americans seem a dangerous and terrible thing, when those dreams are not reached or achieved. The reader is forced to see the limitations of the so called American Dream, see through the facade of happiness through achievement. Yates crafts a plausible drama, without becoming overly moralistic, but still manages to highlight the deficiencies of the American Dream and America itself in its somewhat shameless pursuit of success and riches. The Wheeler’s and the Campbell’s and The Givings families individually and collectively display what Yates sees as the failure of America and the American Dream. Their lives are dull and excitement is to drink too much and smoke too much, Everyone in Revolutionary Road drinks way too much, and everyone smokes. Pregnant women do both with alacrity. Business lunches feature four martinis[…] Frank Wheeler smacks April around when he gets loaded, and April by and large lets it happen. [6] The narrative begins with April performing in an amateur production of “The Petrified Forest.” Her role is Gabrielle. The production is a disaster, and the audience, including Frank, is embarrassed and left to find some good amongst the bad. Yates does not omit any detail of the disastrous production: every mistake, every missed cue and bungled line is written in excruciating detail. April, is cast in no better light, even considering her dramatic fancies and stage presence. She too is humiliated and her beauty does not save her from ridicule: Before the end of the first act the audience could tell as well as the Players that she’d lost her grip, and soon they were all embarrassed for her. She had begun to alternate between false theatrical gestures and a white-knuckled immobility; she was carrying her shoulders high and square, and despite her heavy make-up you could see the warmth of humiliation rising in her face and neck’ [7] . This sequence of the narrative is only the first act and Yates continues to heighten the embarrassment for April and the other players, rather than letting it rest. Any vestige of hope has been replaced by the horror of reality. The play acts as a metaphor for the Wheelers’ marriage as well, and also for the loss of hope they have in finding a happy solution to the misery in which they live. Frank is a dreamer, clinging desperately to an educated past. He punctuates his conversations with literary references and is perceived as an intellect, he thinks of himself as an ‘intense, nicotine-stained, Jean-Paul-Satre sort of man’ [8] the reality is that he is a man who has as he describes it, ‘the dullest job you can possibly imagine’ [9] He imagines himself as a classy, intelligent insightful man, but as the novel highlights, he is nothing more than another Shep Campbell, a dull man just getting by in life. Frank conjures the image of how he saw the play ending, how his life would play out after the production: he had drawn strength from a mental projection of scenes to unfold tonight: himself rushing home to swing his children laughing in the air, to gulp a cocktail and chatter through an early dinner with his wife; himself driving her to the high school, with her thigh tense and warm under his reassuring hand (“If only I weren’t so nervous, Frank!”); himself sitting spellbound in pride and then rising to join a thunderous ovation as the curtain fell; himself glowing and disheveled, pushing his way through jubilant backstage crowds to claim her first tearful kiss (“Was it really good, darling? Was it really good?”); and then the two of them, stopping for a drink in the admiring company of Shep and Milly Campbell, holding hands under the table while they talked it all out. Nowhere in these plans had he foreseen the weight and shock of reality; nothing had warned him that he might be overwhelmed by the swaying, shining vision of a girl he hadn’t seen in years, a girl whose every glance and gesture could make his throat fill up with longing (“Wouldn’t you like to be loved by me?”), and that then before his very eyes she would dissolve and change into the graceless, suffering creature whose existence he tried every day of his life to deny but whom he knew as well and as painfully as he knew himself, a gaunt constricted woman whose red eyes flashed reproach, whose false smile in the curtain call was as homely as his own sore feet, his own damp climbing underwear and his own sour smell. [10] The reality is somewhat different. Frank and April have a fight and Frank ridicules the other cast members the audience and the entire suburban society. Frank attempts to cast himself and the Wheelers above the society in which they live. He attempts to prove to himself that he is the product of a successful American Dream, that he is America: powerful, successful and rich. However he is deluded. Rather than living the so called American dream, he instead embarks on a fantasy where he and his family will escape the confines of suburbia and embark on a romantic journey to Europe, where Frank can discover himself and ultimately become the man he really is – rather than a clone of everybody else that he is in contact with. If he can break free of the confines of American society he can live a happy and fulfilled life in whatever capacity he chooses. The Wheelers are initially drawn together as they believe that each embody the glamour and appeal which they believe (individually) is essential to success in life and in achieving the American Dream. However, after several years of marriage they begin to grow tired of each other and by the mundane relentless aspects of a domestic suburban lifestyle. The ambitions that they harboured, and their supposed intellectual authority over the other characters eventually begin to appear shallow and fragile. Yates immediately depicts the Wheelers craving for a higher life through the failed theatre production. Both have aims of intellectual authority and to be perceived by their community as somewhat better than the rest. Their vanity only exaggerates their failure to truly appreciate the life in which they live. The play emphasises the suspicion that neither of the Wheeler’s will be able to realise their own high standards and dreams. April’s dream to move to Europe is as doomed as the theatre production and is another of the Wheeler’s dreams which will ultimately end in disaster. The desire to move can be seen as a failure of the American Dream, as a failure of America itself, particularly as this couple represents a huge swath of American society. To Frank, the idea of a move is terrifying. Although he finds his job dull and restrictive, he has been in it for so long that he has drawn some comfort from it. He may well be the most vocal character about the benefits of Europe and his longing to be living there, however he is also the character who so reviles the idea of leaving his protective shell. April’s suggestion that they move to Europe unwittingly challenges Frank. Knowing he cannot justifiably refuse a lifestyle that he has always publicly admired, he fears that in attempting to ‘find himself’ nothing will be found. The fear is that he has something now at home, not ideal, but something tangible. To move to Europe would be to risk all that and even show Frank to be a fraud. There may be nothing more to his character and it is this that ultimately causes Frank to begin a campaign against his wife to stay in America. Yates depicts not only how the American Dream of the 1950’s is limited in its scope, and how material wealth does not necessarily promote happiness. He also shows the limitations of America itself. If Revolutionary Road is I would suggest, a microcosm of American society as a whole, then it indeed shows that the American dream is the manifestation of America itself. No other country has a ‘dream’ to strive for; no other country has a population striving for a so called national dream. America is a wealthy powerful country, made so because the citizens, such as the Wheelers pursue power and riches in their own lives. However Yates highlights the painful reality of failed and un-realised dreams. American Pastoral is, like Revolutionary Road, concerned with the lives of a very small group of characters. As with Yates’s novel, there are questions of America and what it is to be American, and there is a tragedy that punctuates the text. The reader is forced to consider what is lost in the pursuit of the American dream juxtaposed to what is gained. The novel concerns a Jew who does not look or behave like a Jew, he is known as ”’The Swede” and referred to by that nickname throughout the novel. He is described as, “Of the few fair-complexioned Jewish students in our preponderantly Jewish public high school, none possessed anything remotely like the steep-jawed, insentient Viking mask of this blue-eyed blond born into our tribe as Seymour Irving Levov.” [11] The almost iconic living legend is gifted with an extraordinary athlete’s body and talent. His achievements on the playing field live with him for many years, and help to forge his iconic status. The story begins with the narrative voice of Zuckerman, a classmate of Swede’s brother Jerry. He like many others was in awe of the Swede. Zuckerman narrates the story as he knows it, and then creates the rest of the story as he imagined it would have been, switching to the perspective of Swede Levov. What we learn from Zuckerman is that the Swede, a charismatic, selfless character, rejects a career in sports to follow in the footsteps of his father and go into the leather-glove making business. He then defies his father by marrying an Irish Catholic and a former Miss New Jersey, Dawn, and further breaks with his upbringing and father’s wishes by leaving his ancestral immigrant home of New Jersey for a house in rural New Jersey. He and his wife have a daughter, Meredith. Unlike her perceived perfect Mother and Father, Merry appears not to have inherited her parent’s good looks and suffers from a severe stutter. Swede Levov is another example of the ideal American man. Like Frank Wheeler, he is intelligent and strong. However, that is far as the comparison succeeds. Swede is a more attractive character than Frank, as he is not dominated by the same vanities and stunted dreams. He is a successful business man, in charge of a financially secure and flourishing glove manufacturing company. He lives in the rural setting of New Jersey. Swede Levov has secured the American dream, through hard work and endeavor; he has given himself and his family a way of life that all Americans strive for. However, much like Revolutionary Road, Roth’s novel is seeped in disaster and destruction. Levov’s daughter transforms from a supposedly happy child to a murdering terrorist, responsible for the death of one innocent and claiming to be responsible for four other deaths. She blows up a post office, a potent symbol of America. She then goes into hiding, leaving the Levov’s lives shattered. The importance of American Pastoral to the idea of the manifestation of the American Dream is the life that Swede Levov leads and how he reflects on that life after Merry’s act of terrorism. While attempting to maintain his business and his life in general, Levov ponders on what it is to be American and what his life of success has actually brought him. The final third of the book throws the Swede into disarray as everything he believed to be “America” is altered because of his daughter. Swede Levov’s ideal of what America is, is turned inside. He believed that by serving in the marines, by becoming a hero on the playing field, by marrying Miss New Jersey was to belong to The United States. However, as his brother Jerry so eloquently puts it, the reality of America is somewhat different, You think you know what a man is? You have no idea what a man is. You think you know what a daughter is? You have no idea what a daughter is. You think you know what this country is? You have no idea what this country is. You have a false image of everything. All you know is what a fucking glove is, this country is frightening. Of course she was raped. What kind of company do you think she was keeping? Of course out there she was going to get raped. This isn’t Old Rimrock, old buddy – she’s out there, old buddy, in the USA. She enters that world, that loopy world out there, with what’s going on out there – what do you expect? A kid from Rimrock, New Jersey, of course she doesn’t know how to behave out there, of course the shit hits the fan. [12] Jerry’s tirade against America and his brother highlights the deficiencies of Swede’s outlook on America. His life and desire to believe he is following the American Dream has left him without the capacity to see evil. Jerry is essentially pulling his brother out of the rosy existence that he has thus far led. He is telling his brother that there is more beyond the realms of living the American Dream and that, although the Swede doesn’t see it because of his better way of life, it doesn’t mean that it isn’t there. Swede is the living manifestation of the American Dream, but he is also proof that there is a darker element to American society. Jerry undermines his brothers almost cocoon like life: You wanted Miss America? Well, you’ve got her, with a vengeance-she’s your daughter? You wanted to be a real American jock, a real American marine, a real American hotshot with a beautiful Gentile babe on your arm? You longed to belong like everybody else to the United States of America? Well, you do now, big boy, thanks to your daughter. The reality of this place is right up your kisser now. With the help of your daughter you’re as deep in the shit as a man can get, the real American crazy shit. America amok! America amuck! [13] Jerry’s systematic speech truly highlights not only to his brother what America is, but also to the reader. He proves that while the American Dream is the ultimate manifestation of America itself, that America is itself rotten to the core and that there are undesirable elements within its citizens. His brothers realisation and exclamation that, ‘This is terrible. Horrible” delights Jerry, ‘Now you’re getting it. Right! My brother is developing the beginning of a point of view. A point of view of his own instead of everybody’ else’s point of view’. [14] Roth uses the Swede as a vehicle to display the growing dissatisfaction which was growing in America. Merry is the voice of a growing number of dissenters who came to loathe America and what it represented. If The American Dream is the pursuit of wealth and stability, then America itself as a nation is in pursuit of wealth and stability. This theory with the backdrop of the Vietnam War creates a powerful case for the deficiencies of what it is to be American. However, as Swede Levov muses, For Merry, being an American was loathing America, but loving America was something he could not let go of any more than he could have let go of loving his father and his mother, any more than he could have let go of his decency. How could she “hate” this country when she had no conception of this country? How could a child of his be so blind as to revile the “rotten system” that had given her own family every opportunity to succeed? To revile her “capitalist” parents as though their wealth were the product of anything other than the unstinting industry of three generations. [15] Both novels focus on the aspects of the lives of families following their version of the American Dream. In Revolutionary Road, ‘Yates writes compellingly about ordinary lives made tragic through the inability to fill the emptiness inside. Frank and April Wheeler never quite get it right as a suburban couple, and fall far short in their inarticulate and unfocused strivings for something better. Frank and April together act as a distorting mirror to reality’. [16] The Wheelers represent members of a new energetic American populace, working in white collar occupations, earning money and living the better life in the suburbs. However, the novel depicts the misfortune behind stunted dreams. As Yate’s says himself, ‘I think I meant it more as an indictment of American life in the 1950s. Because during the Fifties there was a general lust for conformity all over this country, by no means only in the suburbs – a kind of blind, desperate clinging to safety and security at any price, as exemplified politically in the Eisenhower administration and the Joe McCarthy witchhunts. Anyway, a great many Americans were deeply disturbed by all that – felt it to be an outright betrayal of our best and bravest revolutionary spirit’. [17] In the 1950’s the American economy was in a boom, and while America established itself as the economic power of the world, so to did the idea of the American Dream establish itself as the ideal way of life. In American Pastoral, ‘Roth harshly ironizes the suburban middle-class conception of the “American Dream.” The comfortable amenities of bourgeois existence have drained the characters of meaningful “substrata” as well as worthwhile exterior vocations. While Roth successfully dramatizes how American values leave his characters trapped in hollow nether lives, all the reader is left with is an aftertaste of tired irony. None of the characters share any significant connections with other people. “American Pastoral” shows a bitter landscape of spiritual aridity in which Roth’s sardonic probing almost dehumanizes his characters’. [18] Set against the backdrop of the Vietnam War, American Pastoral differs in that the protagonist is settled in his life; Swede Levov has worked hard and has gained the privileged position which the American Dream promises, despite the added disadvantage (in the 1950’s/60’s America) of a Jewish background . But Swede’s dreams are fulfilled, unlike those of the Wheeler’s. His ”American Dream” is shattered by the reality of an over-expanding and possibly overly dominating America being destroyed from within. His daughter’s act of terrorism highlights the deficiencies of what it is to be American and the deficiencies moving away from the traditional values of the American Dream. Modern American Fiction has often shown the pursuit of the American Dream as a pursuit driven by greed and acquisitiveness, rather than the purer, less selfish, perhaps even nobler pursuit of ”life, liberty and happiness”. Further, I would argue that while the American dream is indeed manifested in America itself, neither of these novels entirely prove that. What they do however, is highlight the limitations inherent in the American Dream itself. In both novels the protagonists have achieved various elements of the Dream, they have wealth, children, stability and freedom. Both novels however chart the decline of these protagonists and their families, as the Dream abandons them and everything they have achieved amounts to very little. In the Wheelers, their ideal of the Dream collapses around them, while they strive for their own personal dreams, suburbia and prosperity ultimately destroys them. The Swede comparatively has enjoyed the Dream and lived the American Dream to the full, however even this is not enough to protect him and his family from internal destruction. While the Declaration of Independence grants freedom and liberty to its people, and through hard work and endevour, success, it does not provide stablilty through its manifestation ‘The American Dream’ to the characters of these novels, in fact, it ruins them.
Instructions BACKGROUND Pindar’s epinician poems, sung in praise of victorious athletes and other competitors at the four stephanitic (crown) competitions, are an invaluable source of information about elite Greek athletic culture. Describing the lineag. I’m working on a History question and need guidance to help me study.

BACKGROUNDPindar’s epinician poems, sung in praise of victorious athletes and other competitors at the four stephanitic (crown) competitions, are an invaluable source of information about elite Greek athletic culture. Describing the lineages, achievements, and mythical connections of those who won at Olympia, Delphi, Nemea, and Isthmia, Pindar’s works powerfully demonstrate the ways athletics both fit within and spanned broader aspects of Greek culture. Myth and religion, politics and power, beauty and economics, folk wisdom and philosophy—all blend together in these highly lyrical and at times striking poems.
Although Pindar was widely celebrated and revered in ancient times, his ornate style can seem bizarre, if not entirely opaque, to modern readers. His ideas and imagery quickly oscillate between being dense and free-floating, specific and general, historical and mythical—all within an elevated poetic register that was difficult to construe even to original audiences.
Despite these obvious differences, in some respects Pindar’s poetry is strikingly modern—especially when we recall that in Pindar’s time (the early fifth-century BCE), poetry in Greek was typically performed, not written or read, and was accompanied by music. Despite the high-flown and archaic language, in many ways Pindar stands closer to Kendrick Lamar than he does to Shakespeare. And, much like popular recorded music today, in the oral culture of Pindar’s time, songs could be an athlete’s ticket to enduring, and international fame. Talented poets like Pindar commanded substantial fees for their work, and students in this class, too, have the chance to “earn” more on this assignment through live performance.
ASSIGNMENTInspired by Pindar’s style but praising an individual athlete (sorry, no teams!) from our contemporary world, write your own brief (ideally, 1–2 page, or 30–50 line) praise poem that includes several of the stylistic features discussed in class, including (but not limited to): metaphor, extended similes, mythic paradigms, ascending tricola, topical references, etc. Regardless of the specific techniques used, students should attempt to follow Pindar in being most striking when simple words are arranged in some novel, unexpected, or otherwise compelling way.
Your praise poems may be serious or frivolous – this should be a fun, but also potentially rather awkward, assignment. Regardless of the subject of your poem or the way you praise the honorand, please pursue the chief goal of praise poetry—to make your subject known, memorably and favorably, to others.
In short, do your best to capture the “spirit of Pindar” however you see fit. This may—or may not—include a high poetic register. Play to your own established strengths or strike out in an adventurous new direction.
Instructions BACKGROUND Pindar’s epinician poems, sung in praise of victorious athletes and other competitors at the four stephanitic (crown) competitions, are an invaluable source of information about elite Greek athletic culture. Describing the lineag

LIBIF Global Strategy Competition Decision Making & Strategic Thinking Discussion.

Chapter 10. Global Strategy: Competing Around the WorldReflect on the assigned readings for the week. Identify what you thought was the most important concept(s), method(s), term(s), and/or any other thing that you felt was worthy of your understanding.Also, provide a graduate-level response to each of the following questions:The chapter notes that global strategy can change over time for a firm. YouTube is one example in this chapter. Conduct a Web search of a firm you know to be operating internationally and determine its current global strategy position. How long has the firm stayed with this approach? Can you find evidence it had a different global strategy earlier? Respond to the post of at least two peers, using 100 words minimum each.[Your initial post should be based upon the assigned reading for the week, so the textbook should be a source listed in your reference section and cited within the body of the text. Other sources are not required but feel free to use them if they aid in your discussion]. [Your initial post should be at least 450+ words and in APA format (including Times New Roman with font size 12 and double spaced). Post the actual body of your paper in the discussion thread then attach a Word version of the paper for APA review][Your post must be substantive and demonstrate insight gained from the course material. A peer response such as “I agree with her,” or “I liked what he said about that” is not considered substantive and will not be counted for course credit. A blank post just to review other submissions will not be tolerated]COURSE: Strategic Thinking, Decision Making, and InnovationRequired Text(s): Rothaermel, F. (2016). Strategic Management. 5th McGraw Hill. ISBN13: 9781260261288
LIBIF Global Strategy Competition Decision Making & Strategic Thinking Discussion

HIS 100 Southern New Hampshire University South African Apartheid Presentation

HIS 100 Southern New Hampshire University South African Apartheid Presentation.

I need assistance with the below assignment: HIS-100 Perspectives in History Presenting Historical Research By now you should be able to apply primary and secondary sources. That means you should know what your sources say and how they inform your research. In other words, don’t just say I plan to research this book, that article or another website. Examine the source. Think critically about what it’s saying. Analyze the source accurately and honestly. Then write what you have learned from your source(s). This week we will move on to finding ways to present your historical research. You can use PowerPoint, Prezi. (Please do not upload a zip file.) Please use the Multimedia Presentation Planning Worksheet. I would also strongly suggest you review the Multimedia Presentation Rubric prior to submitting your presentation. While it is helpful to acknowledge biases and how historical lenses influence the study of history, it is also necessary to consider factual evidence. Factual evidence is indisputable. Therein lies the value of studying history. People all-too-often rely on false narratives and narrow constructs. That means we tell ourselves stories to make us feel better or a part of something greater than ourselves. It’s normal. Those narratives and social constructs are also factually inaccurate. You have likely witnessed or experienced a discriminatory claim against a certain person because of their ethnic identity, gender, sexual orientation, etc. You also know that those kinds of discriminatory thoughts, feelings and behaviors are not fair. That’s why it’s imperative that you understand what your sources say and present your research as accurately and honestly as you can. In other words, you will allow the factual evidence or expert testimony to support your argument. There’s just no getting around the facts, despite what many might infer. Complete the Multimedia Presentation Planning Worksheet, in which you will discuss your potential multimedia presentation for Project 3. Instructions: Attached is the Multimedia Presentation Planning Worksheet to help you start Project 3 off on the right foot. Since this course has entailed quite a bit of writing thus far, this assignment provides you with an opportunity to get creative. You have the choice of three tools—Prezi, PowerPoint, or Microsoft Word—to present your opinions and observations on the creation and value of historical inquiry as it relates to the work you have done on your first two projects to wit; South African Apartheid I’m comfortable using PowerPoint, or you want to format your presentation as a newsletter in Word (feel free to get really creative here and have fun with this). No matter your preference, decide which tool would be the most effective method for you. Complete the worksheet to gather your thoughts around what text, visuals, and audio you might include in your multimedia presentation. To complete this assignment, review the Multimedia Presentation Planning Worksheet Guidelines and Rubric document. See attachments for relevant background information: Multimedia Presentation Worksheet and RubricPresenting Historical Research OverviewMNash Project 2 Historical Context and IntroductionMNash Topic Exploration Worksheet (Project 1)
HIS 100 Southern New Hampshire University South African Apartheid Presentation

Applying Piaget’s Theory in Counselling

custom essay Psychotherapists utilise diverse theoretical models within the counselling environment. With each approach, theory or method that is in use today there are a number of key supporting elements which allow the skilled psychotherapist to understand and contextualise the human condition, based on a foundation of knowledge of how human beings learn, grow and develop physically and psychologically. One such fundamental concept of cognitive development was presented by Jean Piaget (1896-1981) which related to child and adolescent development. The history of Jean Piaget and the details of the four main stages of Cognitive Development that Piaget observed are explained below including a critic and discussion of the use of them in relation to child and adolescent counselling. Jean PIAGET (1896-1981) was a Swiss developmental psychologist who came from an educated family in Neuchâtel, Switzerland. Piaget studied biology at The University of Neuchâtel, however also showed interest in Psychology and Psychoanalysis. Piaget moved from Switzerland to Paris, France after his graduation and he taught at the Grange-Aux-Belles school for boys, which was run by Alfred Binet. Binet was the developer of the Binet intelligence test and Piaget assisted in the marking of the intelligence tests. Piaget then became interested in the study of child progress as during this time he noticed that at different age brackets children made similarly wrong assumptions or mistakes. Piaget was married and had three children which he also studied from infancy. In 1929, Jean Piaget accepted the post of Director of the International Bureau of Education where he stayed until 1968. Through the study and experimentation of his own children’s abilities, from babies through to young adults along with children from the Grange-Aux-Belles school he detected a number of milestones and time relative achievements which are common to human development. ‘He concluded that these similarities are the result of a sequence of development that all children follow. Completion of each period, with its corresponding abilities is the prerequisite for entering the next period.” (G Neil Martin, 2007) Piaget categorized these four stages as Sensory Motor, Preoperational, Concrete Operations and Formal Operations; the periods are explained in further detail below. Sensory motor The first stage of Piaget’s theory lasts from birth to approximately age two and is centered on the infant trying to make sense of the world. During the sensory motor stage, an infant’s knowledge of the world is limited to their sensory perceptions and motor activities. Utilizing skills and abilities they were born with, such as looking, sucking, grasping, and listening, to learn more about the environment. During this stage, a child has relatively little competence in representing the environment using images, language, or symbols. An infant has no awareness of objects or people that are not immediately present at a given moment. Piaget called this a lack of object permanence. Object permanence is the awareness that objects and people continue to exist even if they are out of sight. When a person hides, the infant has no knowledge that they are just out of sight. According to Piaget, this person or object that has disappeared is gone forever to the infant. Towards the end of this period the infant then builds an understanding of himself or herself and reality (and how things work) through interactions with the environment. Learning takes place via assimilation (the organization of information and absorbing it into existing schema) and accommodation (when an object cannot be assimilated and the schemata have to be modified to include the object). The sensory motor stage can be divided into six separate sub stages that are characterized by the development of a new skill. Reflexes (0-1 month), Primary Circular Reactions (1-4 months), Secondary Circular Reactions (4-8 months), Coordination of Reactions (8-12 months), Tertiary Circular Reactions (12-18 months) and Early Representational Thought (18-24 months). The Preoperational Period (Two – Seven years) The most important development at this time is language. Children develop an internal representation of the world that allows them to describe people, events, and feelings. The child starts to have an intuitive grasp of logical concepts in some areas. However there is still a tendency to focus attention on one aspect of an object while ignoring others. The thinking is still egocentric and they have difficulty taking the viewpoint of other people. At this stage that can start to group or classify objects: e.g. can group things together such as all the red blocks regardless of shape or all the square blocks regardless of colour. Piaget noted that children in this stage do not yet understand concrete logic, cannot mentally manipulate information, and are unable to take the point of view of other people, which he termed egocentrism. During the preoperational stage, children also become increasingly adept at using symbols, as evidenced by the increase in playing and pretending. For example, a child is able to use an object to represent something else, such as pretending a box is a boat.. A child in the preoperational stage also lacks the principle of conservation; this is the knowledge that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of objects. Children who have not passed this stage do not know that the amount, volume or length of an object does not change length when the shape of the configuration is changed. Period of Concrete Operations (Seven-Twelve years) The concrete operational stage begins around age seven and continues until approximately age eleven. During this time, children gain a better understanding of mental operations. There is evidence that they show organized, logical thought and have the ability to perform multiple classification tasks, order objects in a logical sequence, and comprehend the principle of conservation. The child’s thinking becomes less egocentric and they become capable of concrete problem-solving. On the other hand, children at this age have difficulty using deductive logic, which involves using a general principle to determine the outcome of a specific event. One of the most important developments in this stage is an understanding of reversibility, or awareness that actions can be reversed. An example of this is being able to reverse the order of relationships between mental categories. For example, a child might be able to recognize that a Sheep is white, that white is a colour, and that the sheep is an animal. Children in the concrete operational stage have a better understanding of time and space. Period of Formal Operations (Twelve years and onwards) This period lends itself to the ability to generate abstract propositions, multiple hypotheses and deductive reasoning, with systematic planning including possible outcomes. Piaget believed that deductive logic becomes important during the formal operational stage such as working out proportions and mathematical calculations. Instead of relying solely on previous experiences, children begin to consider possible outcomes and consequences of actions. This type of thinking is important in long-term planning. The child’s ability for abstract thinking is very similar to an adult and children at the formal operational stage of cognitive development are often able to quickly plan an organized approach to solving a problem. Piaget’s extensive work has been widely published and is taught in Psychology and educational settings worldwide, inviting research and dispute. There are subsequently many reviews of the work both supportive and critical. “One criticism of Piaget is that he did not always define his terms operationally” (G Neil Martin, 2007). Further criticisms of Piaget’s work may include that Piaget creates a somewhat unrealistic paradigm with which to normalise and view childhood progression. The sample groups were from the same social structure and educational background which adds’s weight to the lack of a comprehensive and robust experimental sample. Limiting the background or social and environmental factors such as varying level of attention to the child by caregivers or the inclusion of aspects such as poverty, deprivation or even the lack of essential nurturing has allowed the more critical seasoned psychologist the opportunity to rebuff Piaget’s findings. An additional area of criticism of these experiments is the actual level of active participation of the children studied, Piaget states that object permanence is developed as the child develops an understanding of the permanence of objects and that uncovering a hidden toy is a demonstration of this, however has motivation in order for a child to search for the object been taken into account, why would the infant look for the object in the experiments? Whilst reviewing Piaget’s work from the most supportive and positive outlook, it is important for counselling professionals to ensure a grasp of the basic theory and concepts of the growth periods in Human Development. The understanding of Human development is important for the client and counsellor, the counsellor must self examine and be cognisant of any significant developmental issues that may have occurred in their past that would benefit from a review of the theories. Many of the methods and approaches of psychotherapy draw reference to incidents or issues from a client’s past. It would be prudent for the counsellor to mentally reference the developmental stages to ascertain how a specific trauma may have been influenced by the level of development of the client at that time. As the age range of clients is varied as noted by (Colin Feltham, 2006) “knowledge of common age-specific characteristics can assist in assessment and therapeutic planning and referral”. With emphasis on young adult counselling for example, when adolescents or young adults enter the period of Formal Operations (Eleven to Fifteen) it can be a distressing period, when the focus is on them to appear to be fitting in and conforming. They are also processing huge change physically, emotionally and morally so the better informed and empathic the counsellor is to a client who may be experiencing these changes, the better able the counsellor will be to support and guide. An example with younger children could be the concepts of death and loss, which according to Piaget, are not processed at the age of three to seven in the same way as that of an adult. It would then be possible to incorrectly transpose adult loss, grief or anger to a younger child and potentially confuse the young client. Piaget shows that there is a lack of maturity of understanding is in this area until the child is over seven years of age and into the Operational Period. Piaget’s human development work has provided the backbone of understanding to both psychology and education enabling in both settings additional complex skills to be weaved into the respective processes. It does not seem to propose that the four stages are the only aspects to a child’s development; further elements of moral and humanistic study should be used in conjunction with this material in order to round the counsellor’s views and knowledge of development. Whilst the focus on physical and scientific developmental tests Piaget placed significant limitations on the depth and scope of the studies, nevertheless Piaget’s focus on development has made available to the field of psychology a valuable insight into a way to approach a child or adolescent with respect to there ability to understand concepts and process information.

Grand Canyon University Epidemiology Importance and Purpose Discussion

Grand Canyon University Epidemiology Importance and Purpose Discussion.

I’m working on a science question and need a sample draft to help me understand better.

History, Principles, and Application of Epidemiology Epidemiologists are public health professionals who collect and analyze data to address local and global health issues. Key individuals and historical events have helped shape the field of epidemiology. Research the following individuals and their roles in shaping contemporary epidemiology:John GrauntJames LindEdward JennerIgnaz SemmelweisJohn SnowExamine the history, principles, and application of epidemiology and write a 1,000-1,250 paper to explain your findings. Choose one of the individuals from your research and include the following:Define epidemiology and discuss its purpose and importance to public health.Describe the disease and the event. Using descriptive epidemiology, discuss how common the disease was at the time, who was infected, when it occurred (time of year or season), and the mode of transmission. If the individual is not associated with a specific disease, discuss a significant disease happening during that period.Explain how the individual influenced epidemiology and discuss the advanced epidemiological methods and process the individual used to describe and control disease. Discuss how the individual’s contributions helped to inform the application definition of epidemiology in public health.Identify and describe three subspecialties within epidemiology.You are required to cite to a minimum of three sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and public health content.Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.
Grand Canyon University Epidemiology Importance and Purpose Discussion

Kant’s Prolegomena Concerning Any Future Metaphysics Response Essay

Table of Contents Introduction The Philosopher Immanuel Kant Prolegomena Concerning any Future Metaphysics Judgments of Perception versus Judgments of Experience Work Cited Introduction This paper is a discussion on the topic of Kant’s prolegomena concerning any future metaphysics. It explores the prolegomena in general and pays special attention to part two of the prolegomena, which deals with Kant’s views on judgments of perception versus judgments of experience. The paper starts with an overview of Kant’s views on metaphysics then goes on to prolegomena in general. This is followed by a discussion on the judgements of perception as compared to judgements of experience. The paper is based on an online academic resource. The Philosopher Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher. He is considered by many philosophy commentators as a controversial and complicated philosopher of his time. It is good to mention that both ancient and modern philosophers can be classified into two categories, namely rationalists and empiricists. Rationalists are those philosophers who argued that pure reason was capable of explaining nature. They were of the view that the human intellect alone was capable of discovering metaphysically objective truth regarding the nature of the universe and life in general. Examples of rationalists include Leibniz, Spinoza and Descartes. Empiricists on the other hand had the view that the best knowledge was that which was obtained through experience. They confined human intellect to the peripheral role of making sense of the experience. Examples of empiricists include David Hume, Berkeley and John Locke. Due to his controversial nature, Kant seems to take a neutral position regarding the nature of life and the universe. He is not an empiricist nor is he a rationalist. Instead, he is a critic of both camps and sees their stand as flawed. He is critical of the rationalists for their content that intellect alone can provide some insights into the nature or essence of ‘things in themselves’. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He attacks the empiricists on grounds that experience does not consist only of sensations but it’s wider in scope to include impressions received by neutral observers on daily basis (Kant and Carus 13). These two categories of philosophers (empiricists and rationalists) appear to shape the debate on the nature of universe thereby raising the very pertinent question of which of the two (the body and the mind) has a greater influence over the other. The debate is further characterized by other approaches which are based on whether reality exists or it is our minds which construct reality through perceptions. These two approaches include idealism and materialism. Idealism can be attributed to Immanuel Kant, who argued that what comprises knowledge is nothing else other than ideas. The ideas about the world constitute reality and therefore according to realists like Immanuel Kant, everything we see and experience is based on mental activities or processes. Kant does believe that the mind, which is partly independent and partly part of the body (brain), has a greater influence on the physiological processes or functions of the body. Psychologists bring another dimension in the relationship between the mind and the body, that of consciousness, which works together with the partly independent mind to influence the physiological processes of the body. The point here according to Kant is that the mind, through consciousness, may affect physiological processes or functioning of the body as a whole. We will write a custom Essay on Kant’s Prolegomena Concerning Any Future Metaphysics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Kant is also associated with the formalist theory, an ethical model of reasoning which is based on rules or duties of a person. He argues that it is not possible to quantify good and thus, the only moral and ethical acts or deeds are those which are both good and right. Right in this sense taken to mean one’s duty. He emphasizes on the motive of an action rather than the consequences of the action. In this regard therefore, a good act may be done with the wrong motive either by omission or commission. Similarly, an act may be done with a bad motive and produce good or desirable results. The theory is the opposite of utilitarianism in the sense that it considers both the means and the end, as opposed to utilitarianism which focuses only on the end. The theory can therefore be said to reinforce the argument that the means must justify the end, meaning that the end should only be considered as good; only of it is arrived at using morally correct actions or deeds. The theory has been explained as an absolutist perspective in the sense that it considers something to be either good or bad and does not allow for conditions under which a good thing may be considered as bad or a bad thing to be considered as good. For example, if killing one person is morally wrong, the saving of hundred lives does not have any intrinsic value because it would result to the violation of the moral code of not to kill. Prolegomena Concerning any Future Metaphysics This is the second edition of Immanuel Kant‘s book, published in the 1973 as a follow up to his first edition titled ‘Critique of Pure Reason’. Basically, the book is a summary of the first edition, with the introduction of new arguments not found in the first edition. In this book, Kant claims to examine faculties of the human mind in an analytic manner, as opposed to the synthetic approach applied in the first edition. Not sure if you can write a paper on Kant’s Prolegomena Concerning Any Future Metaphysics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The book is arguably one of the shortest works by Immanuel Kant. In writing the book, Kant seemed a bit embarrassed by the poor fairing of the first edition, especially with regard to its inability to convince people about the existence of metaphysics as a science by itself (Kant and Carus 16). Kant describes the prolegomena as a special way of discovering the science of metaphysics and recommends it to both teachers ad learners. According to him, metaphysics does not have permanent and universally accepted knowledge like the other sciences because the standards of distinguishing error from truth do not exist, and he therefore wonders how metaphysics can be a possibility (Kant and Carus 17). Kant appears to differ significantly with empiricists like David Hume, especially with regard to the concept of causality, which Hume had attempted to investigate in some detail to establish whether causality is learned from experience or it’s completely independent of experience. In his investigations, Hume attempted to derive causality from experience, which was later found to be a mistake because he actually though that the concept of causality was founded on two objects found together in past experience. On his part, Kant was of the view that concepts such as causality originated from understanding and not from experience. In order to explain this fact, he attempted to analytically handle the question of the possibility of metaphysics by dividing the question into three parts which follow each other in a logical manner. The parts include pure mathematics as a possibility, pure natural science as a possibility and the possibility of metaphysics as a science. In the second part which explains the possibility of natural science, he attempted to handle the question of the judgments of perception versus judgments of experience as explained in the following section (Kant and Carus 23). Judgments of Perception versus Judgments of Experience According to Kant, what we call natural science is nothing more than contemporary science, which deals with the explanation of nature. He puts the argument that when we talk about nature, we are referring to objects as they appear to us through experience but not things in themselves. He observes that there is interplay of perceptions and experience, with a very thin line existing between perception and experience (Kant and Carus 25). Just like David Hume, Kant puts forth the argument that the self is nothing but a bundle of perceptions, which succeed each other with an inconceivable rapidity. He goes ahead to argue that despite the fact that the self is composed of different perceptions which succeed each other, we always ascribe our identity to those perceptions. These perceptions are distinct and actually form separate identities. But since we keep on perceiving, the collection of the perceptions which succeed each other can be used to define the “self”. To put it another way, when we do not perceive, we are either asleep or dead and the self is not present. Although the perceptions are different, they are united by their qualities which give us our identity (Kant and Carus 30). The fact that we are dominated by perceptions, which alternate and replace each other depending on time and space and also the fact that the mind is like a theatre for different perceptions makes Kant’s argument not only valid and logical but also philosophical. Kant argues that judgements of perception comprise more than one empirical intuition and they are only subjectively valid. He gives the example of two intuitions of a shining sun and a warm rock, which are joined together by applying the concept of understanding to make an empirical intuition. However, he cautions that the two separate intuitions are only valid for the individual making the observations but they become objectively valid when the concepts of understanding and causality are applied, that is, the understanding enables us to attribute the warmness of the rock to the heat of the sun, thus, the heat of the sun causes an effect of warming the rock (Kant and Carus 37). Kant argues and demonstrates that judgements of perception and judgements of experience do not exist in isolation to each other but they rather occur in a continuum, that is, one is transformed into the other either by the application or lack of application of a concept. Since the judgements of perception are subjectively valid, they can be transformed into judgements of experience by applying the relevant concept(s). In the above example of a shining sun and a warm rock, it can be argued that the application of the concept of causality to the two empirical intuitions can transform a subjectively valid law into an objectively valid law of nature. The objectivity is based on the application of the concept of causality, that is, it is a well known fact that the heat of the sun can cause a rock to be warm (Kant and Carus 40). But what constitutes pure concepts? Kant argues that pure concepts such as understandings are not found in experience but rather, they are concepts which we use to organize our understanding of our experiences. Pure concepts are described as a priori in the sense that we use them to understand and make sense of various judgements of perception. On the other hand, Kant notes that judgements of experience are in a sense synthetic a priori and they make natural science a possibility (Kant and Carus 42). Perception is about our senses. Judgments of perception therefore have to do with what we intuit or sense with our senses. On the other hand, judgments of experience have to do with what we conclude or deduce from our perceptions. Therefore, judgments of perception cannot be disputed for the mere fact that they are subjective while judgments of experience can be disputed for the mere fact that they are supposed to be objective in nature (Kant and Carus 44). Kant is of the view that it is not possible for us to perceive things in themselves, that is, our mind is not capable of perceiving things which are external to it. However, our mind is capable of perceiving the impressions which things in themselves make to our senses. After perceiving these sensations in form of impressions of things in themselves, our mind has to apply a kind of form to make sense of these sensations and make them intelligible. He argues that the best sorts of form to be applied to these sensations are space and time, which form part of our intuitions. When sensations are subjected to our intuitions of space and time, we arrive at empirical intuitions, which are otherwise referred to as ‘sense data’ in the sense that they are based on the senses of sight, hearing, feelings and touch (Kant and Carus 45). In our minds, the faculty of understanding has to do with our thoughts and formation of concepts. In order to transform our judgments of perception to objectively valid judgments, we have to subject the judgments of perception to the faculty of understanding. Kant argues that empirical intuitions, which are purely subjective in nature, cannot be generalized and therefore in order to transform judgments of perception into judgments of experience, we have to apply the concept of pure understanding (Kant and Carus 45). To some extent, I agree with Kant’s explanations of the nature of being and how human beings make sense of the world. Indeed, he is able to demonstrate that intellect alone cannot constitute knowledge because it has to be based on some intuitions, which form part of experience. He also managed to demonstrate that experience alone cannot constitute knowledge because someone has to make sense of an experience to qualify it as knowledge. His decision not to be a rationalist or an empiricist therefore shows his independent kind of thinking. The prolegomena, though a bit complex in a way has managed to demonstrate that perception alone cannot constitute understanding of nature and also experience alone is incapacitated to explain how human beings make sense of the world. A blend of human perception and experience does the trick in an attempt to explain how we make sense of the world. By applying pure concepts such as causality and understanding, we are able to turn judgments of perception into judgments of experience, which are objective and conform to laws of natural science. Work Cited Kant, Immanuel and Carus, Paul. Kant’s Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics, Whitefish, MT: Kessinger, 2005.13-45.Print.

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