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Examining The Hospitality Industry Six Stigma Information Technology Essay

The hospitality industry consists of broad category of fields within the service industry that includes lodging, restaurants, event planning, theme parks, cruise line, and additional fields within the tourism industry is a several billion dollar industry that mostly depends on the availability of leisure time and disposable income. A hospitality unit such as restaurant, hotels or even an amusement park, kitchen workers, bartenders, management, and human resources. The hospitality industry covers a wide range of organizations offering food service and accommodation. The hospitality industry is divided into sectors according to the skill- sets required for the work the work involved. Sectors include accommodation, food and beverage, meeting and events, gaming, entertainment and recreation, tourism services, and visitor information. Competition and usage rate is an important viable for the hospitality industry. Just as a factory owner would wish to have his or her productive asset in use as much as possible, so do restaurants, hotels and theme parks seek to maximize the number of customers they process in all sectors. This led to formation of services with the aim to increase usage rate provided by hotel consolidators. Information about required or offered products is brokered on business networks used by vendors as well as purchase. Very important is also the characteristics of the personnel working in direct contact with the customers. The authenticity, professionalism, which is communicated by successful organizations, is a clear competitive advantage. Six Sigma The concept “Six Sigma” at many organizations simply means a measure of quality that strives for near perfection. Six Sigma is disciplined, data – driven approach and methodology for eliminating defects from any manufacturing to transactional and from product to service. The statistical definition representation of Six Sigma describes quantitatively how the process is performing. To achieve “Six Sigma”, a process must not produce more than 3.4 defects per million opportunities. A Six Sigma defect is defined as anything outside of customer specifications. A Six Sigma opportunity is then the total quantity chances for a defect. Process sigma can easily be calculated using a Six Sigma calculator. The fundamental objective of the Six Sigma methodology is the implementation of a measurement – based strategy that focuses on process sigma improvement projects. This is accomplished through the use of two Six Sigma methodologies: DMADV and DMAIC. The DMAIC process is an improvement system for existing processes falling below specification and looking for incremental improvement. The DMADV process is an improvement system used to also be employed if a current process requires more than just incremental improvement. Both Six Sigma processes are executed by Six Sigma GREEN BELTS and Six Sigma BLACK BELTS, and are supervised by Six Sigma MASTER BLACK BELTS. The Six Sigma is a total management commitment and philosophy of excellence, customer focus, process improvement, and the rule of measurement rather than a wrong feeling. It believes in making every area of the organization which is better able to meet the changing needs of the customer, markets and technologies. It also includes benefits for employees, customer, and shareholders. In other words Six Sigma means the process or product will perform will almost zero defects. According to “Six Sigma” the word belt refers to the level or the position, of a person in an organization at the time of execution of a work or at the time of implementation of a project. There are 3 major levels of belts. Six Sigma Green Belt The Six Sigma green belt operator works under the supervision of a Six Sigma black belt operator. He/she analyzes and solves quality problems. This in turn helps in improvement of the quality of projects. The green belt should be the person who has at least three years of work experience and who wants to show his or her knowledge of Six Sigma tools and processes. Six Sigma Black Belt The black belt program helps in explaining the details of Six Sigma tools like Minitab and Specialized Statistical Software. It provides descriptive knowledge of Six Sigma philosophies and principles which also includes the supporting systems and the Six Sigma tools also. The black belt certified professional excels team leadership, understands team responsibilities. The person should have a complete understanding of the DMAIC model in relation with the Six Sigma principles. This program combines concepts, assignments, tips case studies and exams. The person clearing these exams is issued a certificate of a Six Sigma black belt holder or expert. Six Sigma Master Black Belt The professional who successfully complete master black belt certifications are the true quality experts of Six Sigma. This certification is given after two week of black belt certification. It focuses on advanced Six Sigma statistical methods which are used in Six Sigma projects. The master black belt professionals assist both belts in prioritizing, selecting and charting high impact projects. In addition to typical black belt, some other methods used in Six Sigma are the complete study of multi-experiments, nonparametric analysis, destructive testing, handling attribute responses, practical experimentation, optimization experiments, handling multi-response experiments, distributional analysis, advanced regression methods and advanced SPC methods. Methodologies Of The Six Sigma Many frameworks exist for implementing the Six Sigma methodology. Six Sigma consultants all over the world have developed proprietary methodologies for implementing Six Sigma qualities, based on the similar change management philosophies and applications of tools. Six Sigma is accomplished through the use of two Six Sigma methodologies: DMADV and DMAIC. DMADV DMADV is one of the most important methodologies of the Six Sigma system. The Six Sigma system is a tool to improve processes in work and manufacturing and its main goal to exclude defects. Six Sigma has been used by many big corporations with very good results and also can be used in small organizations to achieve their goals. In other words Six Sigma means that it is a set of practices that improve efficiency and helps to remove defects. The steps followed by DMADV are as follows: Define: in this first step the person must define the design goals which is consistent with the customer’s demands and the company goals Measure: in this step four things should be measured carefully that is critical to qualities, production process capability, risk assessments and product capabilities. Analyze: the process of analysis helps to develop and design better scope to reduce the defects. These designs should be analyzed for its best capabilities to determine whether the design is the best available or whether an alternative can be created which may be better. Design details: in this step a design must be created in such a way that it should functions at its peak. The design must usually be verified. During the verification the design plan should be readied for the next step. Verification: once a design has been analyzed, it should be sent for verification. Verification usually occurs through pilot runs. As the verification is done the file is ready for full production. DMAIC It is a basic component of the Six Sigma methodology which is used to improve efficiency and eliminate defects. It is normally said as a set of practices that improve efficiency and eliminate defects. The steps followed by DMAIC are as follows: Define: this is the first step in the process. In this step, it is important to define specific goals in achieving that are consistent with both the customer’s demands and business’s strategy. In other words to say that this step is laying down a road map for accomplishment. Measure: this step is used to make the accurate measurements and relevant data should be collected so that the future comparisons can be measured to determine whether or no defects have been reduced. Analyze: this is an important step as it is used to determine relationships and the factors of causality. Improve: this helps in making improvements or optimize the processes based on measurements and an analysis that tell about the defects that are lowered and processes are streamlined. Control: this is the last step for the DMAIC methodology. Controls ensure that any deviations from target are corrected before they result in defects. They can be in the form of pilot-runs to determine if the processes in the production are capable. Control mechanisms are put in place to continuously monitor the process. When the data is collected, a process can transition into standard production. There should be a continued measurement and analysis must ensure to keep processes on track and the problem is free of defects below the Six Sigma limit. Six Sigma And Hospitality Industry In a the hospitality industry which deals with non stop customers this kind of methodology can create increased productivity and satisfaction in the ways of an increase in customer loyalty, reduction in the turnover of an employee, costs reduction, reduction in losses due to billing error, increase in the total revenue, balance between the employee’s work life. In the hospitality the Six Sigma is calculated by two methods that is DMADV and DMAIC. The hotel industry is the biggest arena for the hospitality industry. The success of the Six Sigma depends completely upon the satisfaction of the customers which may consists upon some of the major aspects relates to the increase in the information accuracy, reduction in the check inns/check outs during the peak times, reducing the billing errors, reduction in the amount of the no shows, standardized cleaning procedures and policies. (CHAPTER 2): REVIEW OF LITERATURE “Six Sigma is a methodology, or strategy, to improve processes” (Alison Hall). The “Six Sigma” is used by hotels for example ITC, Starwood, Marriott etc. Six Sigma was created to measure and improve quality so that it should reduce the number of “defects” per million “opportunities”. “By measuring, the quality gets fuzzy with things such as meetings. It’s not something that goes in the machine and comes out from the other end.” (Alison Hall). The sigma project is very process oriented. Six Sigma helps the companies choose some interesting paths. In hospitality many important projects never get the requisite investment because of the capital budget challenges in the industry. “Everyone has projects they know need to get done to achieve forecasted growth, but can’t seem to get corporate approval. Six Sigma specialists are trained to qualify benefits and long- term effects on revenues and profitability – they can get those vital projects off the ground.” (Wolfgang Ebenbichler). There is a conflict between operations teams who want project requisition investment and Six Sigma teams. The conflicts get more stressed when black belt stay focused for months and sometimes even they stay for year’s dash boarding the results. The seriousness of conflict is based on the underlying intuitive business management character of people in hospitality. Six Sigma is a methodology that seeks to understand the causes and effects of quality breakdowns. The team participating in Six Sigma is taught how to use techniques and tools to judge and determine change value and this is measured against cost change. In others words it’s a suggestion box program. Six Sigma Implementation Roles The methodology of Six Sigma is equipped with many roles. When the topic comes for implementation of Six Sigma, the lean experts would agree to the following roles which should be included in the implementation team: Executive Leadership: Those assuming the role of executive leadership are typically the top level executives who hold the primary responsibility for supervising the implementation of Six Sigma from start to finish (finishing referring to when a goal is met). Champions: Those who are assuming the Champion role are typically members of upper management. Champions are responsible for the implementation of Six Sigma in the organization. Master Black belts: These people are chosen by the Champions to coach others within the group of those working in the implementation of the Six Sigma methodologies. Black belts: These people are typically members of middle management who are primarily responsible for executing the six sigma plan of action. Green belts: These people are responsible for helping the Black Belts to execute projects while simultaneously attending to their own specific job responsibilities. Yellow belts: Yellow belts represent everyone else on the six sigma implementation team (and in some cases throughout the whole organization). There are no universal rules which govern the Six Sigma implementation structure. Making changes to theses prescribed roles is up to the discretion of the individual organizations and their unique methods. Six Sigma is regarded as the esteem of the company i.e. an idea dedicated in enhancing quality and encouraging improvement. However, what is of crucial importance is that the concept of Six Sigma is appreciated and judged by each member in the organization. It is applicable for all the people without any exception ranging from the senior management through all stakeholders to all employees in the organization. Greatest commitments are determined for the execution of quality into an organization. Each individual who is working in the organization, irrespective of his/her position, should bear the obligations for its quality and weaknesses either. As a result the whole team of co workers ought to develop a complete awareness of Six Sigma and its quality approach as well. The selection can easily be defined as the top down process, still the chances has to determine further improvement can be found everywhere and as a consequence they require bottoms up manner so that they may rise the potential with the view in obtaining benefits offered by Six Sigma. Six Sigma along with quality management, provides employee with an individual perusing of a successful path and generate a lot of extra motivation in co- workers. Barely, there is a great range of the roles and the assignment which is included in the levels in the Six Sigma which has to be taken on. These levels are named as “belts” and as regards its color,” e.g. for Asian martial arts it defines the degree. Belts are divided in three categories: black belt, green belt and yellow belt. The first level consists of managers who are capable of excellent comprehension of Six Sigma culture and managing Six Sigma project. the type consist of the junior quality managers who are capable of understanding the Six Sigma concept and its tools well and serve projects in raising quality at the workplace. The last type refers to each and every employee who can understand the fundamental concept of quality defects and variations. They have a very broad minded that they are ready to make any changes in daily process. It is also feasible noticing the specifics which can differ from company to company due to that fact that those companies depend on the company culture as well. In addition to the technical skills many people with soft skills in communication and people managements are also demanded with the aim of handling Six Sigma projects with the long term success. Not only have the experts in the Six Sigma but also the champions are needed to be engaged in the projects. They should show responsibility for carrying out assessment of risks and doing the reward evaluation for each and every project. In addition to the tasks being given to the champions they also have too fulfill the needs of accomplished resources in order to achieve the projects. Champions are of the utmost importance due to the reason that they are liable for selecting the best projects. Further more these people have the fundamental significance in imposing implementation of Six Sigma within the company. Benefits Of Six Sigma To A Company The Six Sigma is a set of tools that a company can use to operate in an angled way, with less of wastage and higher proficiency. Following the Six Sigma methodology can have many benefits including decreased costs, increased revenues, increased morale and better workflow. The benefits of Six Sigma are as follow: Decreased costs: One of the benefits of Six Sigma is that it leads to decreased costs. The business which follows the Six Sigma approach is focused on quality. This is a result that the business improves its processes to prove every product or service that is delivered to a customer is of the best possible quality. This mindset erases defective products, incomplete products and other waste. It also includes the replacement of products. There is an involvement of improved processes which can create better products, the expenses of production also decreases. Increased revenues: Six Sigma allows a company to increase its revenues there are several key drivers for the increased revenues. Since a Six Sigma company produces products which are higher in quality, customer satisfaction increases. In addition, the companies keep a loyal customer base and its positions itself as a competitor in its industry, drawing in new customers. With decreased costs and increased revenues a company can realize higher profit margins, which is good for both external stakeholders. Improved morale: Incorporating Six Sigma also benefits employees in that it increases their morale and makes the employees empowered. Since Six Sigma is a philosophy adopted by the whole organization as it allows the employees to take a leadership role in identifying the discarded products and develops it better, more efficient processes. Employees are to be held responsible for their work and strive to improve continuously. Employees get an opportunity to develop new skills when the Six Sigma philosophy is used. Employees apply these skills in other functions when there is a need by the organization, which helps the business to be efficient as well. Better workflow: The other benefit Six Sigma has on the company is that it creates a better workflow. It eliminated the steps in the production or service providing process that are unnecessary and improves those who are lazy or do not any work. As a result employees are able to do their work efficiently and successfully every time. There is time saving in the completion of work. Once Six Sigma has been incorporated any non value added activities no longer exist and workloads are also manageable. Reasons Of Implementation Of Lean Six Sigma In The Organization The term “lean Six Sigma” provides a strong combination of lean manufacturing approach and Six Sigma. There is not of much difference in the two concepts in their outlook and methods, or their application and goals. The term lean Six Sigma works on the philosophy of increasing speed by focusing on waste reduction. As a result of the lean applications is shown in the improvement of quality and on reduced processing time and costs. The combination of Six Sigma with lean manufacturing augments short term results with power of comprehensive changes. The end result is lean Six Sigma. The reasons for implementing Lean Six Sigma in an organization are as follows: Lean Six Sigma only works across industry sectors: The lean manufacturing was earlier developed as a quality control as a quality management tool with a manufacture centric approach, of late industries across the globe has widely accepted and successfully implemented the seamless lean sigma tool. The statement saying that lean sigma cannot be applied to non manufacturing sectors does not hold true anymore. Lean Six Sigma results in immediate functional improvements: Implementation of Six Sigma results in faster-than-expected reduction of production and costs. The main reason of the expected reduction of production and costs is because of the application of tools like KAIZEN (it is method of constantly analyzing process flow and its application), KANBAN (it helps in pulling up production), and POKA-YOKE (proofing of mistake). Helps create value for customers: The combined application of lean manufacturing and Six Sigma results in tangible and true value creation for consumers. Consumers involved in product and services enjoy better experiences in terms of utility increase and reduction in prices. Mostly of the organizations are showing an inclination to implement lean Six Sigma for the required reasons as it helps in improving the bottom lines. Practicality of execution of Six Sigma: Lean Six Sigma helps in the transformation of the organization by creating the important linkage between strategic priorities and the improvement in the organizations. The goals set up by the top management team for higher returns on investment and improved customer experiences are the main clue for strategic priorities. Focus on sustainable management capability: The approach on lean Six Sigma is highly sustainable which is being woven into every aspects of business, and this leads to the creation of the sustainability from top down. Sustainability results from the fast realization of tangible benefits of the implementation of the program. By the implementation of the lean Six Sigma approach, the organizations have realized time and again that is possible to streamline their operations and to create value for both management and the customers alike. Even the bottom lines of companies have scoured with the successful of lean Six Sigma. Due to the implementation of the lean sigma into many companies it has created an enormous value for its champions. Organizations are accepting the lean Six Sigma approach due to it implementation and results, it also provides additional value for the customer at no extra price. Phases Of Six Sigma Implementation There are three phase of Lean/Sig Sigma implementation which can be integrated throughout an organization’s core business operations to achieve early benefits. They are: Phase One:-Initialization Phase Two:-Execution Phase Three:-Assessment Initialization The initialization phase states that the chief executive of the business should understand the nature of Six Sigma and how its implementation will influence the business. A series of policies, guidelines and rules must next be developed with the involvement of the deployment leader, one or more steering committees and selected corporate functions which include finance, human resources, communications and other departments. Execution When the initialization process is completed, the organization is ready to select the full deserving full time people, initial projects and training. Each and very project should specifically address one or more business goals which contributes to one or more core enterprise measures. Each project must be done within three to four months, so careful scoping of the topic is essential. Projects must be continually tracked and updated for line management during existing business reviews. Assessment When the execution process is completed, the organization goes to the assessment phase. It ensures that the key elements of the organization’s Six Sigma implementation plan are occurring in a timely fashion. It addresses any gaps in performance to guarantee timely benefit realization. to promote knowledge, discipline, accountability and alignment of management. It also helps in promoting self sustainability. Follow- on assessments is advocated and should be performed twice per year until full self sustainability is accomplished. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Six Sigma In Hospitality Industry Advantages Basic concepts: The business- management strategy of Six Sigma improves quality and consistency by reducing defects in good produced. Errors are something which cannot be sold as that would dissatisfy consumers and this might lead to an increase in company’s operating costs. Six Sigma reduces the errors through the use of its statistical methods and financial targets. Most statistical methods of vary, depending on the nature of the business process , for a company to accomplish the blink of Six Sigma, the business process must limit defects to 3.4 million outputs. Financial advantages: Six Sigma reduces the process-output variation, which increases process efficiency and reduces operating costs. Six Sigma concentrates on process improvement which helps in saving money by removing the cause of errors caused. This will to an increase in the company’s profit margin. For example – Motorola says that it has “documented over 17 billion in savings” in over 20 years of using Six Sigma. Quality advantages: While focusing or removing all causes of errors, the Six Sigma approach improves the overall quality of the final product sold. The essential goal of Six Sigma is to extinguish the waste of resources, but customers also purchase products that work better and last longer. Companies that that implement Six Sigma successfully increase customer satisfaction and retention by providing higher- quality consumers products without raising prices, because the cost of saving aspect of this quality- control strategy. Employee’s commitment: Implementing Six Sigma affects the organizational culture of the company and requires employee buy- in from the entire organization. Six Sigma relies more heavily on this on this commitment than most other methods, the complex statistical methods and implementation process force many companies to hire outside Six Sigma experts, which can be costly but immediately shows commitment from the organization’s upper management. The lower- level employees also need to buy into the strategy, because the Six Sigma experts will be working closely with them on a daily basis to better understand the process and possible source of errors. Disadvantages It leads to the lack of the outsourcing of improvements projects which leads to a lack of accountability. Many people argue that the quality standards should be set according to the specific task or process they are related to and that setting 3.4 defects per million as a standard yardstick could actually lead to more time spent in less profitable areas. The standardization of Six Sigma may inhibit new and creative processes and may actually stifle company growth if six sigma enthusiasts are free reign. (CHAPTER 3): RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Problem Statement There has been a lot of study conducted in the field. So the main aim is to study the proper processing of six sigma in order to achieve maximum output and to reduce maximum defects; to collect information regarding the processes of the six sigma in hotel industry and conduct an overall analysis. Area Of Study The best practices include: – Set stretch goals Target touchable results Determine proper outcomes Proper action plan Reduction of variation Align projects with key goals Involvement of the owner Research Tool The research is based completely on the secondary data which is been given in books and journals. The research is done completely on the processes of six sigma approach and how this process leads to the consumer satisfaction. It also focuses on reducing the defects which occurs because of lack of the fulfillment of complete sops which is laid down by a particular hotel. The method of six sigma approach is classified under two types:- DMADV: It basically an effective way to create new products and reduce defects. It basically includes the following steps: – Define, Measure, Analyze, Design Details and Verification. DMAIC: It is a metric measurement of defects caused while the hotels function. It is used widely by the most of the hotels across the globe. It includes the following steps: – Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control DMAIC will be used in this text. It will help to reduce the defects in the hotel industry regarding customer satisfaction. (CHAPTER 4): CONCLUSION The term ‘sigma’ is used to denominate the distribution-spread about the mean of any process. It measures the capability of the process to perform a defect – free work. A defect is anything is anything that results in customer dissatisfaction. For an organization process the Six Sigma value the metric that tell about the how well the process is performing. Higher sigma level indicates the less chances of producing errors and that leads to a better performance. This is known as the ground for the performance standards to achieve operational experience. In Six Sigma the common measurement list is called the defects per unit list where a unit can be practically a component; a piece of material, administrative form, book, distance, time frame work should be listed. Eventually, six sigma can be termed as a staying within half the expected range around the target. The six sigma approach aims at a nonstop improvement in all processes within the organization. The advantages of six sigma include reduction in defects, time cycle, work in progress etc. leading utility in excellent outcomes. Acknowledgement It is my pleasure to thank those who made this thesis possible. First and foremost, I would like to thank my professor, Dr. V. Balaji Venkatachalam, without whose guidance and direction this project would have been impossible. I would also like to express my gratitude towards my parents and my brother for their patience and moral support. I thank the Principal, Vice-Principal, faculty and non-teaching staff for their valued support. Special thanks to my advisor Mrs. Vidya Pathwardhan for her valuable time and informative inputs. Finally, I thank my institution Welcome Group Graduate School of Hotel Administration for allowing me to undertake this project. Suggestion “Tools and methodology will only get a person so far. Experience gained from the practical implementation of six sigma is priceless. A list of tips, tools and suggestions for six sigma practioners can help avoid many pitfalls of project management.” (Simon Bodie) Some fundamental points for six sigma approach are as follows:- Tools and methodology will only get a person so far. Experience gained from the practical implementation of Six Sigma solutions is priceless. A list of tips, tools and suggestions for Six Sigma practitioners can help avoid many pitfalls of project management. Some fundamental points for project success are: 1. Planning project work well. 2. Determining the exact scope of the work and the required/desired outcomes. 3. Developing a proper fact-based understanding of the problem. 4. Leveraging creative tools to develop the highest quality imaginative ideas. 5. Leveraging selection tools and decision making tools to identify the most appropriate solutions. 6. Managing stakeholders well, involving them and planning their involvement. 7. Planning and executing implementation with great care. 8. Ensuring that benefits are calculated and extracted. 9. Handing over a complete sustainable finished product to the business. These issues can be better managed when using a proven methodology like Six Sigma. Point 1 Planning project
CALUMS International Business Organizational Strategy Analysis.

Question 1Describe the main factors that determine a venture’s sustainable growth rate. What are the key assumptions in the sustainable growth model? Use two in-text citation that matches peer reviewed references. Minimum 450 words Question 2 What is the difference between accounting breakeven and cash flow breakeven analysis? Which is more important for a new venture and why? Use two Intext citation that matches peer reviewed references. Minimum 450 words Question 3 Identify and justify your product-market, financial, potential investor market, and organizational strategy. Describe risk, as it pertains to your product and organization. use seven peer reviewed publications and write an APA formatted paper of minimum five pages
CALUMS International Business Organizational Strategy Analysis

The Reasons for Rapid Population Growth in Nineteenth Century Britain Number of people walking the face of earth has always been at constant change and the growth in population has always been a great issue of concern and attention by governments and leaders throughout time, especially if occurred in a short period of time. Reasons for rapid expansion in population can be accredited to several factors such as fertility, mortality, migration, and marriage. This natural cause sometimes beneficial and sometimes disastrous depending on the conditions and locations, could be controlled in very difficult ways. In the 19th century Britain, the rapid growth in population was one of great economic, social, political, and environmental changes that laid the basis of the society, as we know it today. Of these changes none has proved to be more significant than that of the redistribution and restructuring of Britain’s population. Furthermore an interpretation of the causes of demographic change in that critical period following the demise of the old pre-industrial population regime which led to the modern twentieth-century pattern in which both fertility and mortality are particularly low. After a period of unusual stagnation from 1700 to 1740, the population resumed its normal upward trend and afterwards between 1740 and 1780, the growth rate averaged 4 percent to 7 percent per decade, then accelerated to over 10 per cent per decade until 1911. The years between 1811 and 1821 had the most rapid population growth where it reached 17 per cent per decade. The second greatest growth was the decade 1871-1881, where it reached 14 per cent. However the greatest increase which was over 4 million, did not occur till 1901-1911. Subsequently the rate of increase declined dramatically and the population, having doubled between 1780 and 1840, and doubled again at the end of century, rose by only about 50 per cent in the next sixty years to come. The distribution and composition of the British population in the nineteenth century was radically altered due to increased population emigration, especially the migration to more urban areas in search of a better life. There was also a major shift in paradigm in regards to social attitudes, particularly during the latter half of Queen Victoria’s rule over Britain. As a result, during this time a shift towards small family size or “family limitation” occurred because changes in prospects of marriage were becoming a noticeable trend. Also substantial advancement in healthcare helped to improve the quality of a healthier life for the people of Britain, drastically changing the chances of one living or dying prematurely. Not only did the population changed in composition, but also in distribution. Great Britain’s population in 1801 was an estimated eleven million, and in 1901 that number rapidly grew to 37 million, with London’s population share increasing from 9 per cent to 12 per cent. By 1901, London’s population was more than twice that of Wales and slightly more than of Scotland. Among the many epithets applied to the nineteenth century, the ‘age of statistics’ would seem one of the most appropriate. The first British population census was conducted in 1801 and was subsequently repeated every ten years. While civil registration did not replace the recording of ecclesiastical events, particularly baptism and burials, it did mean that parish registers lost their position as the principal source for demographic enquiry. At mid century, agriculture was in steep relative decline, representing about 20 per cent of those employed. Manufacturing was holding steady at about 33 percent, domestic service contributed 14 to 15 percent and the remaining 32 percent was made up from professions such as: mining, transport, building, dealing and public service. Moreover. By the end of nineteenth century, agriculture’s contribution to employment was no more than 10 per cent. Unlike the increase in fertility in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century, the experience of the late Victorian period was dominated by the secular decline of marital fertility and perhaps a movement towards nuptiality was started. (Woods, 1987; Wilson and Woods, 1992). Furthermore, we may now assume in a way it was not open to contemporaries that marital fertility was reduced as the direct consequence of changed behaviour rather than some general decline in fecundity. Patterns of thought and action were changing rather than physiology (Teitelbaum, 1984). Likewise, it is unlikely that the phenomenon was merely a result of the invention, marketing, adoption, and effective use of new methods of birth control. The rubber condom, Dutch cap, and douche all became available during the last decades of the nineteenth century. They were however rather too expensive for the general use until the 1920s and 1930s when the results of retrospective surveys reveal a far more widespread adoption (Peel, 1963). Since it was known that marital fertility was significantly reduced, it must be assumed that some combination of sexual abstinence, coitus interruptus, accurate us of the safe period and induced abortion were the most likely means by which family limitation was brought about. None of these methods was new to Victorians, however the desire and confidence to use them were innovatory (shorter, 1973; McLaren, 1978; Sauer, 1978; Soloway, 1982). Economists have provided one of the most important theoretical contributions to the study of fertility, their focus has tended towards the costs and returns of having children, the costs and availability of contraceptive methods, inter-generational wealth flow, and the conflict between investing in children or consumer durables. Children, especially in traditional peasant societies, represent a source of labour, income and security for their parents. But in the nineteenth century Britain, the economic value of children to their parents was far less obvious and presumably far less likely to enter any accounting framework for reproductive planning. In general if parents were not attempting to maximize their fertility in order to reap financial gains for the family wage economy, they were also not attempting, until after the 1870s, to restrict their fertility in order to avoid the liability of childrearing (Haines, 1979; Crafts, 1984a, 1984b). In addition, it was also unusual at this time for married women to be employed outside of the home, for reasons of tradition and lack of opportunity thus childbearing and rearing did not represent an alternative to wage earning as they do today. There is a persistent line of argument in demographic theory which holds that high levels of fertility are necessary to match high levels of mortality, and therefore that when infant or childhood mortality begin to decline, marital fertility will also be reduced without adversely affecting the effective level of fertility. That is, the supply of new adults capable of reproducing (Brass and Kabir, 1980; Teitelbaum, 1984; Woods, 1987). Therefore, mortality decline not only facilitates the reduction of fertility, it also acts as a strong inducement. Setting aside for the time being any consideration of what causes mortality patterns to vary, it is still obvious that for this particular demographic mechanism to work there must be a distinct time lag between the decline of mortality and fertility during which average family size will increase. Married couples would be impelled to limit their fertility thereby avoiding accompanying financial burdens which the survival of larger numbers of children would bring. This interpretation assumes that there is a distinct chronology to demographic change that a sophisticated adjustment mechanism is created requiring considerable foresight on the part of married couple and a degree of reproductive planning. In Britain, childhood mortality certainly did not decline at the same time as marital fertility, but infant mortality did not begin its secular decline until 1899-1900 (Woods, Watterson and Woodward, 1988). It seems likely that the reduction of infant and childhood mortality did eventually help to sustain marital fertility decline, but that mortality decline was not an initiating factor (Reves, 1985; Coale and Watkins, 1986, 201-33). The origins of the decline of marital fertility in Britain, as in much of Western Europe with the exception of France, are to be found particularly in last quarter of the nineteenth century. This much at least is clear from available statistics, but there are many aspects of this fundamental change in demographic structure that remains obscure. We know that until the 1870s British marital fertility was consistent with ‘natural fertility’, that was largely biologically determined with little sign of parity-specific control. Generally speaking, the births were neither deliberately spaced nor were there attempts to prevent conception or live birth once a particular number of children had already been born. A women’s fertility was influenced by her physiological ability to conceive, her proneness to spontaneous abortion, and the frequency of coitus. The first mentioned declined with age, the second increase, while the last mentioned declined with the duration of marriage (Bongaarts and Potter, 1983; Wilson, 1984, 1986). During the nineteenth century, life expectation at birth in Britain improved from the mid-thirties to the upper forties and the low fifties by 1911. Of the change, most occurred in the latter part of the nineteenth century and was particularly obvious among those aged from 5 to 25. There was little or no decline either in national infant mortality levels or in mortality rates for those aged 35 plus before 1900 (Woods and Woodward, 1984, 39). However, there were important local and social variations in mortality. The local differences were closely tied to environmental conditions, but especially urban/rural differences. The lowest levels of life expectation were invariably in urban places, and especially in what would now be called the inner cities inhabited by the poorest families in the worst housing with the most inadequate sanitation. Even in 1841 when life expectation at birth was 26 in Liverpool and 37 in London, it was 45 in Surrey and probably 50 years in the most salubrious rural areas (Woods and Hinde, 1987). By 1911 the national average had increased and the urban-rural differential had narrowed substantially. Moreover, it remains a matter of speculation whether the wealthy urban middle classes or the poor agricultural labourers experienced the lower level of mortality. Mortality rate began its secular decline, as well as a rapid decline of infant mortality towards the turn of the century. General fertility rates were in decline throughout the century, but from the 1870s marital fertility also began its secular decline. Fertility and mortality rate have declined since the late eighteenth century but the time paths for the three countries traces vary, quite markedly. In France, fertility and mortality declined together from an early date and natural growth remained at a low level throughout the nineteenth century. In Sweden, Mortality declined before fertility in a way that has come to be regarded as normal and coincidental with the predictions of the classic demographic transition model. On the other hand, in England, the modern rise of population was initiated by the increase of fertility in the late eighteenth century and was only supported by the secular decline of mortality. These differences of form, pattern and the timing of change suggest the diversity of demographic structures in Europe in the nineteenth century, but they also illustrate aspects of a broader picture of conformity. In any consideration of the nineteenth century population history pride of place should go to mobility and migration, both internal and international. Not only did Britain’s population experience radical redistribution, but the age, sex, and skill selective nature of migration also changed society, economy, and environment in several very important respects. Over 90 per cent of the late nineteenth century mortality decline in England and Wales was due to conditions attributable to micro organisms, with 33 percent associated with respirator tuberculosis; 17 per cent with typhoid and typhus; 12 per cent from cholera, diarrhoea, and dysentery; 5 per cent from smallpox and 4 per cent from non-respiratory tuberculosis. It is believed, and as McKeown argued ‘that the specific changes introduced by the sanitary reformers were responsible for about a quarter of the total decline of mortality in the second half of the nineteenth century’. The remainder of the improvement, mainly associated with tuberculosis, must be attributed to the rise of living standards brought about by the industrial revolution, that is, ‘ perhaps half of the total reduction of mortality’ (McKeown and Record, 1962, 129). This last quarter could be attributed to changes in the character of diseases especially scarlet fever (Eyler, 1987). The argument for the attribution of the first quarter is relatively easy to follow, how else could the water borne diseases have declined but what of tuberculosis? The direct effects of specific therapeutic measure can be ruled out conditions of exposure to the diseases, diet, physical, and mental stresses remain. McKeown excluded the last mentioned and claimed that exposure via crowding at home and at work were not reduced before 1900. Therefore, diet remained the most likely influenced on the downward trend of tuberculosis mortality. There are four major aspects of migration and emigration that are of particular significance. First, the outer rural periphery- especially the west of Ireland and the Scottish Highlands- experienced massive emigration which caused general depopulation (Flinn, 1977; Anderson and Morse, 1990; Withers and Watson 1991). Although the Irish case is often linked to famine migration in the 1840s, the history of Irish emigration to North American and Great Britain is very complex which famine probably only exacerbated. Secondly, the countryside in general suffered net loss to the towns (Saville, 1957; Lawton, 1967). From Cornwall to Norfolk, Dorset to Anglesey and Aberdeen agricultural labourers, servants, and small tenants left and were not replaced, except by machines. In a few rural counties, such as Kent, this did not lead to absolute population decline because natural growth exceeded net out migration. Thirdly, the great industrial and commercial centres of central Scotland, the English North and Midlands, and South Wales, not only increased their citizenry but also expanded physically until they coalesced into the amorphous conurbations so well known in the twentieth century. These Victorian cities grew particularly rapidly both by net migration and natural growth, despite high mortality. Intra-urban migration also fuelled suburban expansion which eventually affected whole cities, primarily through the depopulation of their inner areas. In the cases of certain Scottish and Northern industrial towns this process was obvious even in the late nineteenth century (Lawton, 1983; Morris, 1990). Lastly, London should probably be treated as a special case since it not only maintained its British primacy but also its share of the total population. The new problems associated with managing and servicing such a massive concentration of people (nearly five million by 1901) imposed many strains, not least in terms of transport, social inequalities, which were made more obvious by their juxtaposition, and sanitation. The broad picture of European migration shows that from 1821 to 1915, 44 million people left, of which Great Britain accounted for 10 million and Ireland for 6 million. More detailed estimates suggest that between 1853 and 1900, 4,675,100 people left England and Wales for a non- European destination and 896,000 left Scotland. In both cases more than half went to the United States with a further firth to Australia (Carrier and Jeffrey, 1953; Easterlin, 1961; Baines, 1985). There is little reason to doubt that economic pressures, whether relative or absolute, played an important part in influencing the decision of many couples to limit their fertility in the late nineteenth century, but what still remains in doubt is why that pressure only took tangible effect in the last quarter of the century and why the secular decline of marital fertility occurred so rapidly that different occupations, status groups and social classes all appeared to be reducing their family sizes. All of about the same rate and time, but from rather different levels (Stevenson, 1920l Innes, 1938; Woods, 1987; Haines, 1989). Of those occupational groups that are relatively easy to identify, coalminers provide interesting illustrations of the difficulties encountered in developing purely economic explanations of fertility decline (Friedlander, 1973; Haines, 1979). Coalmining districts and families are known to have had higher fertility longer and have been among the last areas and social groups to attempt family limitation. A commonly held account argues that the income curve for coalminer peaked in the early to mid-twenties. There were few employment opportunities for women in such areas constrained a surplus of men and marriage for women was early and general. The demand for male labour was usually abundant, but the work was dangerous, accidents and injuries were common and often fatal. Therefore there was little economic incentive, as there was in the lower middle classes, to restrict fertility. But it is also likely that these rather closely knit communities perpetuated an ethos which was strongly oriented towards men’s values and women’s obligations and therefore less compatible with that degree of foresight and co-operation between the sexes. Something that was necessary for successful family limitation before the development of effective intra-uterine devices and oral contraceptive. It should be stressed that the British experience of the secular decline of marital fertility was merely part of a Europe-wide movement in which Britain was later than most of France, but in step with much of Germany and Italy (Coale and Watkins, 1986; Watkins, 1991). The most important structural barriers to change appear to have been the major linguistic and cultural divisions, as well as the strength of pro-natalist religious feeling. Just as in Britain, it is not possible to say in detail how or why family limitation became a common practice, but the most plausible interpretations also stress the importance of changes in attitude and the removal of constraints on behaviour emphasised in the sociological approach rather than the after effects of industrialization and urbanization or the prior decline of infant and child mortality. The electoral swing was Europe wide, relatively rapid, and has not been reversed. Farr’s work on the demographic statistics of England and Wales have made it possible to describe in some detail the pattern of mortality variation in the nineteenth century, but we are still far from providing a full explanation of the origins of the decline of mortality during the nineteenth century. We know that medical science have had only a minor influence on the decline of mortality before the 1930s and that the cleansing of great cities was a special problem in a country like Great Britain which had a particularly high level of urbanization, but once the sanitation and public health problem had been solved then the positive effects would have been immediate and lasting. We also know that poverty brings poor diet and thus low nutritional status, and inadequate housing persisted and were then, as now, closely related to variations in mortality rates. The significance of and reasons for the decline of mortality from tuberculosis continues to be an area for enquiry, but few now follow McKeown’s lead and argue from mortality via tuberculosis to improved living standards, especially diet. Many would now regard the nineteenth century as a period on which the foundations of modern medical science were laid (Pickstone, 1985). The rapid growth which began around 1740 was sustained in the nineteenth century. Death rates, which had fallen in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, stabilised at around 22 per 1,000 between 1820 and 1870, a development chiefly attributable to the appalling living conditions in industrial towns at the time. By the 1870s the public health campaign, which had been initiated in the 1840s to provide towns with drainage and pure water supplies, began to pay off and the general death rate fell from 22.3 per thousand in 1871 to 13.8 per thousand in 1911, which is a drop of about 40 per cent. Other contributory factors were the rising living standards (more food and clean clothes) and improved urban environment (better housing, public baths, and wash houses). On the other hand, the birth rate that had remained fairly high throughout the century began to decline during the 1880s. There were several main causes that lead to this decline. Children were becoming an economic burden rather than an asset, as the Factory Acts limited employment opportunities and the Elementary Education Act (1870) required their attendance at school. Real incomes were rising and, for the first time, people were faced with the possibility of sustained improvement in their life. Increasingly they saw a clear choice between more children and a better life, and tended to favour the latter. Also large numbers of young men were emigrating and this lowered the marriage rate in many places. Resulting a decrease in family size, from 5 to 6 children in the 1860s to 2 to 3 in the 1920s. This tendency started among the middle classes and permeated slowly downwards through the social pyramid. One important statistic changed scarcely at all, the infant mortality rate. Though fluctuating year by year from 100 to180 per thousand, it averaged about 135 per thousand in the 1890s as it had in the worst decade, the 1840s. The explanation lies in the vulnerability of infants to infectious diseases in towns. Between 1901 and 1921 the rate fell dramatically by about 50 percent. The expansion of population and the progress of industrialisation were inextricably intertwined: 1. A rising labour force was provided to facilitate the introduction of intensive agriculture, as well as to mine coal and work in factories. Infant industries were able to draw on young, mobile labour with no vested interest in obsolete skills and without having to offer high wages to lute it from other employments. 2. A growing market for the necessities of life (food, clothes, shelter, and household goods) was provided, encouraging entrepreneurs to experiment with new techniques to enable them to produce more, faster, and cheaper. This steadily expanding domestic market exerted a valuable cushioning effect whenever volatile export markets underwent a temporary recession. It must be emphasised that population growth did not, of itself, lead to industrial progress. It had this effect because it took place in the context of an economy that was already dynamic with abundant resources, a new technology of steam-power and machinery and a vigorous class of businessmen to exploit them. In Ireland this foundation was lacking, and therefore population growth simply led to mass poverty on an unprecedented scale. In conclusion, the rapid population growth in Britain in the nineteenth century was caused by several different reasons such as: fertility rate, mortality rate, healthcare, emigration, migration, occupation, and other economical aspects. Furthermore, a number of informed observers believe that this fate would overwhelm England in the nineteenth century. The most influential of these was the Reverend T.R. Malthus, whose Essay on the Principle of Population as it Affects the Future Improvement of Society was published in1798. He argued that population always tended to increase in geometrical progression whereas food supply only increased in an arithmetical progression. The former would, therefore, tend always to outrun the latter, producing wide-spread misery and eventually mass famines. Malthus did not foresee the amazing rise in the productivity of British agriculture during the nineteenth century, nor the ability of the country to import food from the virgin soils of the new World, but his gloomy predictions carried great weight with his contemporaries, and he must take a great share of the responsibility for the harshness of Victorian attitudes towards the poor. Since any easing of their condition would have encourage them to breed and multiply both the course of their poverty and the numbers who must endure, it was necessary to control them harshly for their own, and also society’s benefit. Bibliography 1. Szreter, Simon. Fertility, Class, and gender in Britain, 1860-1940. Cambrdige University Press. 1996. 2. Brown, Richard. Society and Modern Britain 1700-1850. Routledge. 1991. 3. Mingay, G.E. The Transformation of Britain 1830-1939. Routhledge

Liberty University Mental Health Disorders Discussion

Liberty University Mental Health Disorders Discussion.

You must respond to at least 2 classmates’ threads with 200–250-word replies each.In your replies, expand on the discussion by analyzing and building upon the thread and incorporating at least 1 scholarly reference in each reply. Integration of Scripture is encouraged, but is not required. Assertions must be supported by in-text references in current APA format. Use first person and single-spaced formatting and indent new paragraphs. Your threads and replies must be well written, well organized, and focused. 7TH EDITION APAPost 1S P Posted There are many types of groups described in our readings this week. The group that I would lead is an education group. Education groups discuss information about different topics (Jacobs et al., 2016). The group size would range from 10-15 people and include a diverse population of people wanting to learn about the information being presented. Because this is a fairly large group it will allow for very different personalities. The two types of personality traits that are most common are introverts and extraverts. According to Forsyth (2019), “introverts tend to be withdrawn, quiet, and reclusive”, whereas, “extraverts like working with other people rather than alone, and they talk spontaneously to strangers” (Forsyth, 2019, p. 97). This will help bring the group together and have more conversation. This is because the extraverts are more outgoing and will help with engaging the introverts in the conversation. This will be a closed group. Due to the topic being discussed, I would like for the group to form a relationship so they will feel more comfortable sharing with their group members. They will also have the opportunity to practice what they have learned. This works better when the group is closed. The group’s purpose is to help members become more knowledgeable about liturgical dance so that they can eventually start their own or add more to their already established dance ministry. The topics that will be covered in this session are the meaning of liturgical dance in the church and what the bible says about it, technical aspects of dance, types of dances, the importance of having a relationship with God, how do you know if you are called to dance, and how to start a dance ministry at your church. This group will meet once a week for 2 hours. Jacobs et al. (2016), states that the leader doesn’t always get to choose where the group will meet, however if the leader does get to choose, they should make sure the location is suitable (Jacobs et al., 2016). Considering that we will have opportunities to practice skills learned, we will need a lot of space. This group will meet in the conference room of my church because it is closed off from potential distractions. I will also make sure there are no other meetings happening during our session. ReferencesForsyth, D. R. (2019). Group dynamics (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth, Cengage LearningJacobs, E. E., Schimmel, C. J., Masson R. L., & Harvill, R. L. (2016). Group counseling: strategies and skills (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage LearningPost 2S C PostedSupport groups and self-help groups are common within the therapeutic and mental health community. Support groups can provide a safe space for individuals to express their thoughts and feelings amongst others who have walked in their shoes. Also, support groups have shown to promote encouragement, reduce feelings of isolation, and promote positive lifestyle change through fostering acceptance, hope, empowerment, and self-awareness in members (Behler, Daniels, Scott, & Mehl-Madrona, 2017). If I could create a group, it would be a support group for individuals who have loved ones with mental illness and/or substance use disorders. This would be a support group specifically for individuals with any loved one(s) in their life (family, spouse, significant other, friend, etc.) who exhibit the characteristics and symptoms of a mental disorder and/or substance abuse disorder, or who have a diagnosed disorder. The purpose of the group would be to provide support and encouragement to individuals who have a family member or friend in their life who struggles with the day to day realities and ramifications of mental illness and/or substance abuse. A goal of the group would be to facilitate a social support network for members so that they can establish relationships with others who share their same experiences and can offer personal insight and wisdom into the circumstances that they are enduring Additionally, it would be a goal of the group to offer crisis intervention resources and community support resources to assist individuals during emergencies and hardships. The group would be open to any individuals who have a loved one with mental illness and/or substance abuse problems. Initially, the group would accommodate as many individuals as necessary to avoid turning anyone away. However, with increasing numbers the goal would be to establish multiple groups and meeting times to accommodate around 10 members per group, in hopes of facilitating increased and genuine dialogue. The group would meet weekly in the evenings for approximately 1-1.5 hours. Various topics would be covered from week to week within the group, but each session would begin with the facilitator/ leader introduction and explanation of the group’s purpose. Next would be a reading of group expectations, ethics, and confidentialities. This would be followed by a time of member introductions/sharing/check-in to see how everyone is currently functioning and disclosure of recent relevant events. The end of the group would include wrap up and summarization of important points/closing. A mental illness/substance abuse family support group would require a knowledgeable leader/facilitator with good people skills. In many instances, group leaders have shared the same experiences as the members of the group, which can be very helpful in building trust and finding common ground. Likewise, the group would require a leader who is comfortable in their role, clear about their role, and able to keep the group moving in a productive direction (Jacobs, Schimmel, Masson, & Harvill, 2016). The leader should have a positive demeanor, be energetic, and be flexible in their planning and ability to switch gears depending on the direction of the group (Jacobs et al., 2016). The facilitator should possess a good sense of humor and be able to utilize appropriate humor within the group dynamic as humor can be used as a tool to divert attention to other topics, serve as a successful coping mechanism, and reduce tension between individuals (Bond, Wright, & Bacon, 2017). In addition, the group leader must be able to facilitate cohesion within the group as cohesion relates to trust, commonality, and relatability between group members (Liberty University, 2017). Support groups are unique in that they create a sense of unity between members, allow individuals to relate to each other’s experiences, help others through the sharing of personal stories, and reiterate the premise that we are not alone in our struggles (Jacobs et al., 2016). The Bible reminds us to share each other’s burdens, and in this manner we obey the law of Christ (Galatians 6:2, NLT). ReferencesBehler, J., Daniels, A., Scott, J., & Mehl-Madrona, L. (2017). Depression/bipolar peer support groups: Perceptions of group members about effectiveness and differences from other mental health services. The Qualitative Report, 22(1), 213–236.Bond, B., Wright, J., & Bacon, A. (2017). What helps in self-help? A qualitative exploration of interactions within a borderline personality disorder self-help group. Journal of Mental Health, 28(6), 640–646. doi:10.1080/09638237.2017.1370634Jacobs, E. E., Schimmel, C. J., Masson, R. L., & Harvill, R. L. (2016). Group counseling: Strategies and skills (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage.Liberty University (Producer). (2017). Benefits of Group Counseling [Video file]. Retrieved from https://learn.liberty.edu/webapps/blackboard/conte…
Liberty University Mental Health Disorders Discussion

The Lincoln Memorial

custom essay The Lincoln Memorial. THE LINCOLN MEMORIAL The Lincoln Memorial is a ceremonious monument located in Washington, D.C., which was built in honor of the 16th president of the United States, Abraham Lincoln, and of “the virtues of tolerance, honesty, and constancy in the human spirit.” The memorial, which was erected along the banks of River Potomac, was designed by Henry Bacon, and was inspired by the Athenian Parthenon. The Lincoln Memorial is comprised of thirty six columns made of Colorado marble. Each column, which is 13.4 metres or 44 feet high, represents a state in the Union in 1865 (the time of the death of Lincoln). Listed above the colonnade are the names of the forty eight neighboring states and the dates of their Union admission, which are carved in Roman numerals. The names of Hawaii and Alaska have been engraved on a plaque on the front steps, as they received statehood a few decades after the completion of the Lincoln Memorial. In the interior of the monument is a seated statue of Abraham Lincoln built out of Georgia white marble, which is 5.8 metres or 19 feet tall. This statue is laid on a pedestal constructed out of Tennessee marble, and its twenty eight parts were put together at the site itself. The design of the statue was by Daniel Chester French and the carving was done by the Piccirilli brothers from New York. Lincoln’s Gettysburg address is engraved on the southern wall of the monument, while Lincoln’s second inaugural address is engraved on the northern wall. There are two pieces of painted artwork by Jules Guerin on the ceiling- Emanicipation of a Race and Reunion and Progress. The Lincoln Memorial is also the terminal to the western border of the National Mall. It is located on the Reflecting Pool close to the Korean War Veterans Memorial as well as the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. The Lincoln Memorial is a significant symbol of the civil rights movement of America. On the 100th anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation (1963), Martin Luther King, Jr., a civil rights leader, stood at the steps of the Lincoln Memorial and delivered his famous “I Have a Dream” speech in the presence of over 200,000 people. The message of the Lincoln Memorial “In this temple, as in the hearts of the people for whom he saved the Union, the memory of Abraham Lincoln is enshrined forever.” VISITOR ORIGINS: Tourists from all around the world hope to capture a piece of history by taking photographs at the Lincoln Memorial due to its importance in obtaining democracy and liberty in America. Lincoln Memorial Hours: The Lincoln Memorial is open to the public at every hour of the day and every day of the year. The early evening and morning hours are the most alluring and peaceful times to visit. Accessibility: This memorial is free of charge and completely accessible by wheelchair. Bathrooms and water fountains are also available. Bike stands are located northeast of the Lincoln Memorial Foggy Bottom is the nearest Metro station and is around a 15 to 20 minute walk. The Lincoln Memorial Location The address of the Lincoln Memorial is 2 Lincoln Circle, NW, Washington, DC 20037 THE ECONOMIC IMPACT THE ON GDP: Approximately six million people visited the Lincoln Memorial in 2011, which is greater than every other local site. $204 million was brought in to the local economy and 2,075 jobs were created by those visitors. Visitors since 1936 to 2016 Year Recreation Visitors 1936 857,441 2010 6,042,315 2011 5,971,220 2012 6,191,361 2013 6,546,518 2014 7,139,072 2015 7,941,771 2016 7,915,934 Total 238,620,382 The Integrated Resource Management Applications (IRMA) Monthly Breakdown of visitation 2015 2016 January 301,952 January 280,683 February 226,005 February 273,749 March 577,003 March 693,760 April 951,157 April 859,445 May 1,076,971 May 847,936 June 820,416 June 766,101 July 880,160 July 1,020,341 August 824,768 August 832,800 September 676,651 September 660,501 October 721,995 October 663,637 November 505,653 November 558,400 December 379,040 December 458,581 Total 7,941,771 Total 7,915,934 The Integrated Resource Management Applications (IRMA) ACCOMMODATION OPTIONS: Numerous options of accomodation are available within close proximity to the memorial, including a variety of star rated hotel chains and amenities. TOURS: Special Lincoln Memorial tour packages are available, starting at $25, which also include visits to surrounding monuments, a few of which are given below. TOURIST ATTRACTIONS: Washington Monument The White House The National Mall The Vietnam Memorial The World War II Memorial Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial FUN FACTS: The image of the Lincoln Memorial is on one side of the U.S. penny and at the back of the US$5 bill. The memorial has been influenced by the Greeks as Greece is known as the birthplace of democracy. The 19th century design was very much more intricate than the completed monument. On October 15, 1966, the Memorial has been added to the National Register of Historic Places. The statue of Lincoln was initially designed to be only 10 feet tall, but the statue nearly doubled in size as the construction began. To support the weight of the marble structure, its foundation was built around 66 feet deep. Thus, approximately 40 percent of the monument is actually buried underground. REFERENCES Ermengem, K. (n.d.). Lincoln Memorial, Washington. A View On Cities. http://www.aviewoncities.com/washington/lincolnmemorial.htm. (viewed 30 Mar. 2017). Irma.nps.gov. (n.d.). U.S. Department of Interior – National Park Services. https://www.nps.gov/resources/story.htm?id=201. (viewed 30 Mar. 2017) Mentalfloss.com. (2015). 15 Monumental Facts about the Lincoln Memorial. http://mentalfloss.com/article/66932/15-monumental-facts-about-lincoln-memorial. (viewed 30 Mar. 2017). The Lincoln Memorial

Properly Format An Apa Style Paper English Language Essay

In this paper we will explore how to properly format an APA style paper. This example will be of use to introductory psychology students who have never had any exposure to APA format. For senior students, this paper may serve as a useful reminder of the key elements of APA style. Learning APA Format for Psychology Students Frequently, students are required to write psychology papers. However, in doing so, there are two broad skills that need to be learned. The first skill is related to the content of the paper. For example, a student writing a paper about dreaming is likely to incorporate the ideas of Freud (1953) or even Hobson and McCarley (1977). The second skill is tied to properly formatting the paper. In psychology, we make use of the format developed by the American Psychological Association (APA: 2001). Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the various aspects of APA format for psychology students. In psychology, there are two types of APA style papers. One format, which I call the quantitative paper, includes a method, results and discussion section. In statistics and research methods courses, you will tend to adopt the quantitative approach. I have published a number of articles in this format (e.g., Dyce

Literary Analysis of ‘The Things They Carried’ by Tim O’Brien

The Things They Carried, by Tim O’Brien, is a story that reflects on not only the emotional, but the physical weight of combat, and the devastating effects of the Vietnam War. The book tells the story of O’Brien and his platoon soldiers’ experiences before, during, and after the war. The soldiers of Alpha Platoon carry with them the necessary and non-necessary materials for war and non-tangible emotions. The main themes discussed in this book include love and war; terror and fear; shame and guilt; mortality and death fantasy and fiction; burdens and responsibilities, and morality and humanity (French 4-6). Investing too much time in emotional or physical burdens can be an invaluable asset as well as a dangerous commodity. Emotional and materialistic burdens (things they carried) are said to be figurative as well as literal. Both physical and emotional loads that they carry overwhelm every soldier in the story. Tim O’Brien expressed, “They carried all they could bear, and then some, including a silent awe for the terrible power of the things they carried (7).” These loads include materials required for the war as well as the emotions of love and terror they have in their minds. The physical burdens symbolize the hardships these soldiers undergo and the kind of pain they feel. Some of the loads they carried physically symbolize whatever the soldier is emotionally going through; for example, the pebble Lieutenant Jimmy Cross carried always reminded him of Martha “It was a smooth pebble, an ounce at most. Smooth to the touch, it was the milky white color with flecks of orange and violet, oval-shaped like a miniature egg (O’Brien 7).” Henry Dobbins carried the protection of the pantyhose given to him by his girlfriend, “Dobbins carried his girlfriend’s pantyhose wrapped around his neck as a comforter” (O’Brien 9). Tranquilizers that were carried by Ted Lavender represent the false remedy for fear that would not even save him from dying. Kiowa carried his grandfather’s hunting hatchet as an emotional attachment to his culture. He also carried the New Testament as a symbol of hope and faith, but his religion didn’t protect him from death by mortar fire. Norman Bowker carried the thumb of a dead Viet Cong boy; the thumb, according to Dobbins had no moral or value. The statement symbolizes that in war there is only death and destruction; therefore, there is no moral to war. The author uses allegory when discussing “The Man I Killed”. The young, armed man killed by Tim O’Brien while he was on the trail is a great symbol occurring in The Things They Carried. To demonstrate the mental part of this, the author battles with the fact that he is responsible for the death of another human being. From a religious point of view, the matters of life and death are only left in God’s hand. Bearing this in mind, O’Brien feels obligated to punishment and the fate of killing someone. The killed man is perceived as the symbol of meaninglessness. This is pointed out in the story where it is suggested that an ally or enemy after death has struck-acts as a symbol of a dead soldier. Constantly, O’Brien draws parallel ideologies between the dead man and himself even though they are all conjecture. It could be speculated that O’Brien was a scholar who objected the Vietnam War. He only fought to make his town and family proud. This is a fair description that is highlighted by the author. Additionally, even though O’Brien does not understand if he threw a grenade that killed the young man, the memory of the corpse strongly re-occurs to him. The carried and retained memory symbolizes the guilt and humanity after terrible acts of war. In regard to the killed man, O’Brien isolated himself from these disturbing imageries by speaking in the third person. O’Brien also creates fantasies as he marvels to nail the above-mentioned fact that he was challenging the Vietnam War as he gazed at the wreckage of the man’s body (O’Brien 129). Such descriptions symbolize how the author was distancing himself from the reality of his actions. The guilt is evident in his imaginations of the life that was led by the man he killed, which encompass some fundamental elements which liken to his own life. The imagery of the old and young Kathleen is used as a way to draw the reader into the story; the reader gains the ability to empathize and respond to O’Brien. “The thing about a story is that you dream it as you tell it, hoping that others might then dream along with you…..memory and imagination and language combine to make spirits in the head….. There is the illusion of aliveness…,” (O’Brien 230). In comparison to the reader, Kathleen is the recipient of the narrated stories. Differing from the reader, Kathleen and O’Brien influenced each other. For example, O’Brien gains new conceptualization which directly connects to his experiences in Vietnam. This is clearly revealed when he recounts and narrates the story of the young man he killed to the “older” Kathleen. In regard to the literary techniques, Kathleen fills the gap of communication between O’Brien and the readers. When the author takes Kathleen, to Vietnam it gives her the full scope of the tragedies which occurred during the war. The thing the reader can resonate on is the perception of the 10-year girl; the stink of the strangeness and filth of the country. Kathleen is young and naïve to what war really is, her innocence doesn’t allow her to fully understand the emotional significance of the Vietnam War and the memories that remain in O’Brien’s life. “The Field Trip” featuring the old farmer uses figurative language and idioms. The old farmer is burying the hatchet between the Americans and the Vietnamese people. With that said, Tim O’Brien guarantees Kathleen, his daughter, that the man is not upset at him. Such demonstrations connote that the grudge has been terminated. O’Brien and the old farmer stare at each other for a long time, where the author expects the farmer to stir a conversation regarding the Vietnam War. Additionally, when the old farmer resumes his farming routine, his attempts to improve the land’s productivity symbolizing the need as well as the desire to get rid of and heal from the traumatic effects of the Vietnam War, despite the adverse effects faced by the old farmer’s nation. The dancing girl in the story “Style”,reflects the poignant symbol of chaos, conflict and meaningless war (Wesley 5). In this regard, Azar is repelled by the fact that the girl keeps dancing despite the death of her village mates and family members when all was burnt to the ground. The book reveals that the girl cannot find the meaning of such devastating effects of the Vietnam War. This agrees with the conceptualization that O’Brien avows there is no one moral when it comes to a war story; that is, there is no right or wrong, and neither is there a core point. The dancing girl also symbolizes the lack of sense, and the amorality that pervades the emotional and physical ideology of the things carried in war. Arguably, soldiers who experienced hurdles while trying to reevaluate the true meaning and purpose of life after the end of the Vietnam War symbolize the mental perception. O’Brien used fallacy to demonstrate how the soldiers’ fear of death, and their inability to protect themselves from dying may have driven them to carry their tokens of luck. Although in reality, no amount of luck, love, faith, or drugs can save a person from the destructions of war. Ted Lavender was the primary casualty of the company, the author describes him as a “recognized and frightened soldier” (O’Brien 16). Ted carried heavy materials and tranquilizers he thought could have subdued his un-weighed fear; however, they were the exposing factors. “ …and he went down under an exceptional burden, more than 20 pounds of ammunition, plus the flak jacket and helmet and rations and water and toilet paper and tranquilizers….” (O’Brien 6). Jimmy Cross carried letters, pictures, and a pebble from his love, Martha. The character has been used to symbolize the emotional aspect of war. He is fantasizing about Martha more than often, something which led to the death of his fellow soldier. In this regard, Jimmy Cross mentally escapes from the war when he slips away, and daydreams of Martha; his inability to face reality led to the demise of Lavender. As the author asserts, “his mind wandered, accompanied with difficulties to focus on the war” (O’Brien 6). After the death of Ted Lavender, he burned the letters and pictures he had previously carried. Jimmy Cross was then determined to perform and fulfill his military obligations without any element of negligence. As much as the passion he has for Martha still clouds his mind, he ignores the feelings he carries in his heart and completely plays his role. He promises himself never to allow such mistakes to happen again under his watch and restores his dignity. “No more fantasies, he told himself” (O’Brien 23). The aftermath of the Vietnam War reminds Jimmy Cross about Lavender’s untimely death, these memories support why Jimmy Cross never forgave himself for his emotional shortcomings (Chen 77). Each character in the story carried the burdens that come with war: Death, fear of the unknown, the weight of a fallen comrade, and the gruesome killing of people, some of which are innocents. The characters, although boys on the cusp of young adulthood, focused on honing their military skills which would transform them into men. In this regard, everyone has his own external problems or inbuilt flaws. Notably, the things the soldiers carried symbolized inner conflict and battles, thus supporting the indifferences between love and war ideologies. Tim O’Brien summed it up best, stating “War is hell, but that’s not the half of it, because war is also mystery and terror and adventure and courage and discovery and holiness and pity and despair and longing and love. War is nasty; war is fun. War is thrilling; war is drudgery. War makes you a man; War makes you dead” (French 8). Works Cited Chen, Tina. “Unraveling the Deeper Meaning”: Exile and the Embodied Poetics of Displacement in Tim O’Brien’s” The Things They Carried.” Contemporary Literature 39.1 (1998): 77-98. French, Kathleen. “The Things They Carried.” LitCharts. LitCharts LLC, 17 Sep 2013. Web. 26 Oct 2016. O’Brien, Tim. The Things They Carried. New York: Broadway Publisher, 1998. Wesley, Marilyn. “Truth and Fiction in Tim O’Brien’s” If I Die in a Combat Zone” and” The Things They Carried.”” College Literature 29.2 (2002): 1-18.