Get help from the best in academic writing.

Examining The Concept Of Motion Capture Film Studies Essay

MoCap technology has revolutionary technology quickly, especially technologies that use in movie and games industries, MoCap has come a critical role in the creation of animation as smooth as real. The report will begin mentioned about MoCap technology such as what it is , How it useful , and Who will use this type of technology to bring more understanding to the readers. After that the report will focus on the Weta digital, a world s leading film studios which has continued to develop MoCap technology until it is highly successful. Nowadays, MoCap is use in many famous movies such as many characters in Beowulf, alien characters in District 9, character Gollum in Lord of the Rings trilogy, a giant gorilla named Kong in King Kong, and etc. And for more knowing about MoCap, so that Avatar , an epic movie which had the most gorgeous computer graphic (CG) details, was chosen for being an example of the latest evolution of MoCap. Besides, this movie was greatly well-known and also influences the revolution of film industry explicitly as well. WHAT IS MOCAP? MoCap is an abbreviation of Motion Capture; this technology is a process by which movement is digitally recorded. The technique was originally used for military tracking purposes and in sports as a tool for biomechanics research which focused on the mechanical functioning of the body, like how the heart and muscles work and move. In the last twenty-five years, motion capture has become an essential tool in the entertainment business, giving computer animators the ability to make non-human characters more life-like. It’s a technology used in animated films and television as well as video games. Historically, MoCap in animated movies was created using an extension of the rotoscoping technique. In this technique, an actor is filmed making certain movements or gestures while wearing markers on specific points of his or her body. Each marker in each frame of film is then manually encoded into the computer. As animation software improved, it became possible to apply an algorithm to the markers that attach them to a 3D object, creating what is now called motion capture. MoCap can be categorized by their four primary input methods which are Prosthetic, Acoustic, Magnetic, and Optical method. 1. Prosthetic (or mechanical) method: This is one of the early methods for capturing the motion from various parts of human anatomy. These methods include simple “on/off” type of motion detection systems as well as complex motion tracking systems. The latter type of prosthetic motion capture could be an ideal approach if it wasn t for the complex mechanical requirements and the performance-inhibiting qualities generally associated with such designs. However, the type of data provided could be clean rotational data collected in real time without any occlusion problems. This method is based on a set of armatures which must be attached all over the performer s body. The armatures are then connected to each other by using a series of rotational and linear encoders. These encoders are then connected to an interface that can simultaneously read all the encoders in order to prevent data skewing. Finally, through a set of trigonometry functions, the performer s motion can be analyzed. These design restrictions seem to be quite difficult to overcome, and will probably limit the use of these type of devices for character animation. 2. Acoustic method: Acoustic capture is another method currently used for performance capture. This method involves the use of a triad of audio receivers. An array of audio transmitters is strapped to various parts of the performers body. The transmitters are sequentially triggered to output a “click” and each receiver measures the time it takes for the sound to travel from each transmitter. The calculated distance of the three receivers is triangulated to provide a point in 3D space. An inherent issue with this approach is the sequential nature of the position data it creates. In general, we would like to see a “snap shot” of the performer s skeletal position rather than a time skewed data stream. This position data is typically applied to an inverse kinematics system(1) which in turn drives an animated skeleton. One of the big advantages of this method is the lack of occlusion problems normally associated with optical systems. However, there seems to be several negative factors associated with this method that may or may not impede its use. First, there is the fact that the cables can be a hindrance to various types of performances. Second, the current systems do not support enough transmitters to accurately capture the personality of the performance. Third is the size of the capture area, which is limited by the speed of sound in air and the number of transmitters. In addition, the accuracy of this approach can sometimes be affected by spurious sound reflections. 3. Magnetic method: This is a popular method used for performance capture. Magnetic capture involves the use of a centrally located transmitter, and a set of receivers which are strapped on to various parts of the performer s body. These receivers are capable of measuring their spatial relationship to the transmitter. Each receiver is connected to an interface that can be synchronized so as to prevent data skew. The resulting data stream consists of 3D positions and orientations for each receiver. This data is typically applied to an inverse kinematics system to drive an animated skeleton. This magnetic approach shares the same lack of occlusion problems with the audio method. But it also shares the same negative factors such as the hindrance of cables, lack of sufficient receivers and the limited capture area. In addition, being magnetic the system is affected by any sizable areas of metal in the vicinity of the capture area, such as girders, posts, etc. 4. Optical method: Optical systems have become quite popular over the last couple of years. These systems can offer the performer the most freedom of movement since they do not require any cabling. Optical systems incorporate directionally-reflective balls referred to as markers which attach to the performer. Optical systems require at least three video cameras, each of which is equipped with a light source that is aligned to illuminate the field of view for that camera. Each camera is in turn connected to a synchronized frame buffer(2). The computer is presented with each camera view in order to calculate a 3D position of each marker; the resulting data stream therefore consists of 3D position data for each marker. This data is typically applied to an inverse kinematics system, to animate a skeleton. One typical problem with optical systems is the fact that it is quite easy for the performer to occlude, or hide, one or more markers thus creating “holes” in the data stream. Adding more cameras and/or more markers can minimize this occlusion problem. However, adding more cameras makes tracking each marker more complex, resulting in increased CPU time. Increasing the number of markers can result in exponentially increasing the “confusion factor”, i.e. keeping track of which marker is which. Optical systems are also limited by the resolution of the cameras and the sophistication of their tracking software. >> http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-motion-capture-technology.htm >> http://vizproto.prism.asu.edu/classes/sp03/motioncapture.htm WHO USES MOCAP? Films: MoCap is being used more and more in films nowadays. MoCap based animation is essential for creating characters that move realistically, in situations that would be impractical or too dangerous for real actors (such as characters falling off the ship in Titanic. MoCap was also used extensively in Titanic for ‘filler’ characters (fit in between real actors) or in situations with virtual camera fly-bys over a virtual ship. Many of these shots would have been difficult or impossible to do with real cameras and a real ship, or real models, so virtual models, actors, and cameras were used. Some film characters require the use of MoCap, otherwise their animation seems unreality. More and more independent companies are starting to put together desktop studios – The idea of two or three people creating an entire movie isn’t that far off, if MoCap is used correctly. The Gypsy(3) is ideal for small and large shops. MoCap animation can be done very quickly and inexpensively, without scheduling expensive motion capture sessions in a studio. Games: Game development is the largest market for MoCap. With games drawing as much revenue as movies, it is easy to see why game development often calls for enormous quantities of MoCap. The immense competition to produce the ‘coolest game possible’ (thus becoming a top-seller – hopefully) means that greater production capabilities mean higher quality. More time is left for aesthetic finishing touches and fine-tuning of game play. Generally there are two main types of 3D character animation used in games: Real-time playback vs. cinematics. Real-time allows the game player to choose from pre-created moves, thus controlling the character’s moves in real-time. Cinematics are the fully rendered ‘movies’ used for intros and ‘cut-scenes’. Often the last part of game production, or a process that is sub-contracted to a separate studio, cinematics are generally not essential to game-play, but do add a lot of appeal to the game, and help immensely with story development and mood generation. Video and TV Performance Animation: Real-time motion is becoming popular for live television broadcasts. MoCap can be used to place a virtual character within a real scene, or to place live actors within a virtual scene with virtual actors, or virtual characters within a virtual scene. MoCap for real-time broadcast requires mock-ups of any non-standard physiology (big stomachs, tails, etc.) to keep the performer’s motions from causing the character’s limbs to interpenetrate its body. Joint moving limits on the shoulders and knees. A real-time adaptation feature such as Film BOX Animation’s real-time motion mapping (from the performer’s skeleton to a different proportioned character’s skeleton) is essential when the character’s body is very different from the actor’s body. When combining a live elements with virtual elements the real and virtual cameras must share the same properties (perspective, focal length, depth of field, etc.) otherwise the illusion looks strange. Post-Production for Ongoing Series: MoCap for ongoing series is becoming very popular. Creating a weekly show without MoCap invariably causes shows to be late or production studios to go bankrupt. Having an efficient MoCap pipeline is essential to the success of an ongoing character animation based series. Web: MoCap is ideal for the web, whether used to create virtual hosts or greeting cards. As the web becomes more sophisticated and bandwidth(4) increases, MoCap will help bring a ‘human element’ to the web, in the form of characters that viewers can relate to and interact with. Live Events: MoCap generated Performance Animation can be thought of as Improvisation meets Computer Graphics (CG) . At trade shows, meetings or press conferences, a good improviser acting through a CG character in real-time can create a very intriguing lasting experience for the viewer. Integration with live actors further helps create a fascinating experience. Scientific Research: MoCap is useful for perceptual research. By presenting test subjects with abstract movements, distilled from motion capture data, repeatable experiments can be developed that provide insights into human perception. Biomechanical Analysis: Biomechanical analysis for rehabilitation purposes relies extensively on MoCap, for its ability to produce repeatable results. MoCap can be used to measure the extent of a client’s disability as well as a client’s progress with rehabilitation. MoCap can also help in effective design of prosthetic devices. Engineering: MoCap is essential for producing product designs that are ergonomically practical, as well as designs for physical products that are comfortable and appealing. Even though there are restrictions of these systems. Optical systems are easily occluded and require a large distance between the subject and the cameras. Magnetic systems have major problems with metal in the capture space. Education: MoCap training can make a huge difference in an animators training. While access to MoCap is not a substitute for developing good art skills and good traditional character animation abilities, it can go a long way towards making someone more employable. Virtual Reality (VR): MoCap is indispensable for VR training applications. It makes for much better immersion than using a joystick or a positional handle. >> http://vizproto.prism.asu.edu/classes/sp03/motioncapture.htm TECHNOLOGIES IN FILM BEFORE BECOMING MOCAP 1971: Metadata An experimental 2D animated short by Peter Foldes drawn on a data tablet, who used the world’s first key frame animation software, invented by Nestor Burtnyk and Marceli Wein. 1973: Westworld First use of 2D computer animation in a significant entertainment feature film. The point of view of Yul Brynner’s gunslinger was achieved with raster graphics. 1976: Futureworld First use of 3D computer graphics for animated hand and face. Used 2D digital compositing to materialize characters over a background. 1977: Star Wars First use of an animated 3D wire-frame graphic for the trench run briefing sequence. 1981: Looker First CGI human character, Cindy. First use of shaded 3D CGI as we think of it today. 1981: Wolfen First use of in-camera effect for thermal vision sequence (see Predator). 1982: Tron Extensive use (15 min. fully computer generated) of 3D CGI including the famous Light Cycle sequence. Also includes very early facial animation (for the Master Control Program). 1983: Rock
Responsible tourism is – is that creates better places to live in, and better places to visit. For communities living in popular tourist destinations, such as the Pacific, tourism can offer much needed opportunities for social and economic growth. There are, however, a growing number of concerns about the possible and actual negative impact on local people and environment from tourism. Responsible tourism is that : minimises negative economic, environmental and social impacts generates economic benefits for local people and enhances the well being of host communities improves working conditions and access to the industry involves local people in decisions that affect their lives and life chances makes positive contributions to the conservation of natural and cultural heritage embracing diversity provides more enjoyable experiences for tourists through more meaningful connections with local people, and a greater understanding of local cultural, social and environmental issues provides access for physically challenged people is culturally sensitive, encourages respect between tourists and hosts, and builds local pride and confidence. Responsible tourism is fast becoming a global trend. Operators, destinations and industry organisations in South Africa, the United Kingdom, United States, the Gambia, India, Sri Lanka, are already practicing Responsible Tourism, and this list is growing. Recognising the global significance of Responsible Tourism World Travel Market, one of the world’s largest travel exhibitions, has created World Responsible Tourism Day, to be celebrated annually during November. World Responsible Tourism Day is endorsed by the World Tourism Organisation and World Travel and Tourism. THINGS THAT IS NOT RESPONSIBLE TOURISM: Responsible Tourism is not another form of “niche tourism” – Responsible Tourism is about the legacy and the consequences of tourism – for the environment, local people and local economies. Responsible Tourism does not only take place in protected natural environments – Any tourism business, whether located in a thriving metropolis, a desert, rural village, sub-tropical island, medieval town – can be a Responsible Tourism operation. A significant, and growing, number of tourists are looking for a better experience, a better product. They are looking for experiences which makes them able to get closer to the “real” living culture of countries and to experience natural and cultural heritage. This is a global trend in the established markets as consumer expectations of their holidays change, people are taking more, shorter trips, and they expect to get more from them. In commercial market resea rch UK holidaymakers were asked whether or not they would be more likely to book a holiday with a company if they had a written code to guarantee good working conditions, protect the environment and support charities in the tourist destination. In 1999 45% said yes, when the question was asked again in 2001 52% said yes. That means the percent of people is growing. Now responsible tourism is a market trend that any tourism business can’t ignore. Responsible tourism makes business sense because the proportion of people who looks for better product is growing.This trend implies that Responsible Tourism will have a powerful competitive advantage over other tourism products. WHAT IS ECOTOURISM? To simply describe what is ecotourism, we can say that everywhere we go, it`s “green” and :green” that. But according to the Center of Ecotourism, Hector Ceballos-Lascurain created the term ecotourism in 1983. However original term means nature-based travel to relatively undisturbed areas with an emphasis on education”, where E goes for- Environment, C goes for-Culture and O goes for-Orientated travel. In general ecotourism means an insightful, mindful and participatory travel experience to natural and cultural and environments for future generations. Also ecotourism makes viable more economic opportunities for the host areas. From the beginning,ecotourism was nature based, without impact tourism had on the villages and local culture.However,it became apparent to try create a new kind of tourism,wich should be focused only on wildlife and the environment. Moreover we can find some ecotourism attractions in Malaysia,such as Cameron Highlands, Genting Highlands and Mangrove Forest. For example : Mangrove Forest. Matang mangrove is located in the Larut Matang District in Perak, Malaysia. A large expanse of mangrove forest located in huge bay stated from Matang Mangrove forest in the north to Pengkalan Baharu in the south. The reserve includes 34,769 hectares of productive forest 5,942 hectares of unproductive forest. The water is salty and brackish in color and at the low tide is less than 6m deep. There are some small patches of forested dry ground inside the mangroves. Five fishing villages within the forest makes the mangrove become less uninhabited. Economical dependencies of the community on this site The economical of Matang Mangrove Forest depence on the fishing activities and the charcoal industries. The area is a major supplier of sea-foods to the local and international markets. It provides employment in forestry, fishery and linked industries for a workforce. The current management objective of the Forest Reserve is to produce maximum sustained yield of raw materials that is mainly conjugaza and mucronata for fuel, mainly for charcoal and poles. Management consists of a 30 year crop rotation and harvested by clear felling with retention of standards for natural regeneration.Total annual yield of around 990 hectares and 890-900 hectares for charcoal and around 100 hectares for firewood. Management objectives are: To produce a sustained yield of quality greenwood for charcoal processing to meet local demand as well for export. To produce quality poles for local consumption and export. To conserve and protect the coastal zones from erosion by the strong waves and wind. To produce and preserve the breeding and nursery grounds for high protein sea foods. The area is of great economic importance, providing an annual revenue of 6-9US$ million from forestry products and at least 30US$ million are from fisheries and the area is a major supplier of sea foods to local and international markets. It provides employment in forestry and fishery and linked to industries for a workforce of about 12,500 people. Matang Mangrove forest and its adjacent coastline are of major importance as a staging Are for migratory shorebirds and the major remaining area of suitable habitat in Malaysia for the Milky Stork Mycetia cineria and lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus. The most species are Tringa tetanus, Limosa limosa and calidris ferruginea. The other common species includes Charadrius, Monglus, Numenius phaeopus, Tringa stagnatilis and Xerus cinereus. The special floral values are the largest intact of mangrove forest in Peninsular Malaysia and one of the last areas. Malaysian population endangered the ecosystems and decreased about 100 birds. Almost 1400 herons and egrets has 12 species that are Egretta garzetta, Egretta intermedia, and Egretta alba, Butorides striatus are very common. Another bird that is called Mycteria cineria that is classified in the family Ciconiidae and in the order of Ciconiiformers. In Matang Mangrove Forest tourists can find red leaf monkeys who are living there. There is very common to see monkeys climbing on the tree. Although they can look extremely cute on the other hand they can be quite aggressive. Tourists should take care approaching these animals. DIP International Hotel

MPA 620 Unit 6 Performance Appraisal Techniques Used in The Banking Industry Discussion

MPA 620 Unit 6 Performance Appraisal Techniques Used in The Banking Industry Discussion.

I’m working on a business question and need an explanation to help me understand better.

Prompt: Introductory statements providing informed consent is a critical component of any survey or interview.  Informed consent implies an understanding, or inferred contract, between the study and participants informing participants of their role in the study.  Using the criteria outlined in the Research Approval Form (Appendix C), develop the informed consent statement for your survey or interview.  Share with other students.  Compare and contrast your work with at least one other student. 
***Students should begin work on the survey instrument for their study.  Consider what demographic questions (gender, ethnicity, income, age, etc.) will be needed; and, more importantly, what questions will be needed to measure the primary variables

MPA 620 Unit 6 Performance Appraisal Techniques Used in The Banking Industry Discussion

Cognitive Behavioral and Social Learning Approaches George Kelly Theory Paper

custom essay Cognitive Behavioral and Social Learning Approaches George Kelly Theory Paper.

Cognitive, Behavioral, and Social Learning Approaches This week we are looking at more learning- based models of personality theory. Review the theories of George Kelly (Schultz & Schultz, 2017, pp. 297-303), B. F. Skinner (Schultz & Schultz, 2017, pp. 321-332), and Albert Bandura (Schultz & Schultz, 2017, pp. 343-353). Discuss how these theories differ from previously discussed theories and what they bring to our understanding of personality. 2. Your initial post (your response to the topic) must contain a citation. It is your ideas supported by research. Please refer to the APA Power Point in the Start Here section of the classroom for information on proper formatting. There will be a deduction of 20 points for failure to cite a source within your initial post and to provide a reference at the end of your initial post. 3. Your initial post must be a minimum of 300 words
Cognitive Behavioral and Social Learning Approaches George Kelly Theory Paper

Watch a short video and answer the discussion

Watch a short video and answer the discussion. I need help with a Business question. All explanations and answers will be used to help me learn.

Please watch the film in the link below
Lana’s Story
or(it may take several minutes to load – be patient!)Accessible technology is a hot topic today. In many of your classes you are required to create power point presentations. Should all presentations be an accessible format. Please tell me how this makes you feel and is it important? Why / why not. How might this topic apply to you in your future careers?Please respond to two of your class mates postings.All main postings must be a minimum of 300 words and all response postings must be a minimum of 150 word.The purpose of the discussion board is to exchange ideas and provoke additional thought on the topics covered in each module. Quality is paramount when making postings. One line responses or “cool posting” “great response” etc. do not contribute to the class.Take your time and post thoughtful responses that demonstrate your understanding of the material.Grading for this debate will be:10 points for quality & depth of initial posting.7 points for quality & depth of response posting.3 points for use of language, spelling & grammar.******Response posts are provided from the attachment below.*********Please write in Simple Language***
Watch a short video and answer the discussion

​The hero is an example of a mythic:

​The hero is an example of a mythic:.

The hero is an example of a mythic:aprototypebprotagonistcarchetypedcharacter
​The hero is an example of a mythic: