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Evolution of Attitudes Toward Sports and Physical Education in the Philippine Setting history essay help a+ essay writing

Abstract Pre-Colonial Period The early Filipinos engaged in certain forms of physical activity incidental to their living, such as planting, fishing, hunting, tree climbing, making tools and weapons, and building shelter and boats. Skill in the use of weapon; agility in running, jumping and climbing; strength and endurance in throwing and carrying heavy burdens were the physical attributes necessary for survival. Music, associated with dance of primitive pantomime occupied the life of the ancient Filipinos.

They sang while planting and rowing, and they sang and danced during the sacrifice offered to their gods, in their festivities, and in their funerals. Colonial Period and War Years Spanish Period. The church greatly influenced the life of the Filipinos. The early schools started by the friars did not include physical education. The religious holidays offered opportunities for recreation. Games and contests often took place at the fiestas or religious festivals. There were also folk dances, songs and religious processions. Girls were taught to be modest and not to participate in various strenuous physical activities.

Women were confined to become efficient housewives or for a religious life. Some of the extracurricular activities of students were debates, dramatic performance, and programs in honor of high dignitaries. Some of the children were the members of the church choirs or orchestras which furnished the music for religious ceremonies. Cockfighting, card games and other ethnic games were popular among the people. American Period. The American period became known as the “Golden Age” of sports in the Philippines. Public schools made education possible for more students, girls as well as boys.

Physical activities were included in the school programs. Filipino games as well as games from abroad were introduced such as basketball and softball. Sports facilities and equipment were provided. Outstanding programs later won honors for themselves and their country in international competitions. Japanese Occupation. During this period, Japanese military administration popularized the regimented exercise on the air called “Radio Taiso” (daily calisthenics on the air). This regimented exercise was made obligatory in public schools.

Filipinos did not participate in sports activities because it was not allowed by the military government. The Filipinos then were busy fighting the war. The Period of the Philippine Republic During this period, physical education occupied a prominent place in school curriculum. There was a definite increased interest and positive attitudes toward physical training with greater number of students participating in various activities. This was the period when the Philippine dancers won awards abroad. Filipino athletes participated in international competitions.

It was during this time that the Philippine Amateur Athletic Association was granted a charter and enjoyed tremendous popularity. In the later part of this period, sports in the Philippines suffered a setback when it was plagued with conflicts among the sports leaders in addition to the existing problems of inadequate facilities and lack of financial support. Despite these problems, the attitude of the Filipino towards sports was still favorable. Period Under Martial Law During this period, sports in the Philippines suffered from the intrusion of too much politics.

The central governing sports body was abolished and replaced by a government controlled sports body. Philippine sports suffered several setbacks in international competitions despite massive financial support given to few elite athletes by the dictatorial government. Despite these gamut of problems, students still have a strong positive and favorable attitudes toward physical education and sports. The Post-EDSA People Power Revolution After the people regained freedom through non-violence, some sports leaders seem to backslide to the old society.

Personality conflicts and squabbling increased to the point that some leaders uncontrollable proportions to the point that some leaders proposed to congress to create a Philippine Sports Commission which shall be the sole governing sports body of the country. The same sports leaders believed that with the creation of the Philippine Sports Commission everything will be put to order. On the contrary, the faculty of the Institute of Sports, Physical Education and Recreation of the University of the Philippines strongly opposed it and submitted a position paper to the Philippine Congress.

Despite all these troubles, several studies show that students still maintain a favorable attitude towards physical education and sports. Finally, as advocated by the Faculty of the Institute of Sports, Physical Education and Recreation, “Programs and Organizational Structures are only as adult directly responsible for them. The success or failure of organizations and programs depends on the leadership. In the final analysis, it is the person in charge that makes the difference. ” EVOLUTION OF ATTITUDES TOWARD SPORTS AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN THE PHILIPPINE SETTING by:Roberto M. Ramas and Ronualdo U. Dizer

Pua3 Yu Chen Pua Jennifer Caseldine-bracht Introduction to Ethic April 4 Ethics


Yu Chen Pua

Jennifer Caseldine-bracht

Introduction to Ethic

April 4

Ethics and Moral Dilemmas


Moral dilemmas are a common occurrence in our day to day lives. A moral dilemma is a conflict in which one has to make a choice between several actions and have some moral reasons behind choosing each of the actions because all of them cannot be implemented (Hoffman et al. 25). For every particular field of study, there is a list of common ethical dilemmas that stakeholders encounter in their line of work. The moral dilemma can be solved through the application of several theories such as the consequentialist ethical theory. Understanding the various approaches to ethical dilemmas is essential to conduct an adequate moral analysis when faced with moral dilemmas. The paper involves a moral analysis and covers the application of consequentialism moral theory is resolving a moral dilemma.

Moral Dilemma

During my internship training session at a non-profit international think tank, whose primary objective is to assist members of various corporations to resolve their ethical dilemmas, I obtained vast knowledge on how to handle different ethical dilemmas effectively. The senior advising ethicist who was my instructor advises the clients on ways of resolving their moral dilemma. One of the common cases of ethical dilemmas reported by most of the clients was the issue of bribery and corruption. In this case, there are two parties where one is asked to perform a specific action in favour of another, and in reward or return, they will get a token (Yazdani et al. 403). When such cases occur in most clients, explain how they are torn between doing the right thing and accepting the offer because in most cases they are requested to perform negative, illegal or unfair in some way.

Resolution of Dilemma by a utilitarian and an Ethical Egoist

Resolution of moral dilemmas can take various approaches depending on the view of the individual resolving the issue. A Utilitarian, for instance, will make decisions that focus on the overall good resulting from the action as their desired outcome. In this case, in the application of utilitarianism, the effect of the final decision on the organization and all other stakeholders including the employees, customers, the government, suppliers, taxpayers, and shareholders will be considered. Consequently, the best decision is the one that will favour the interest and goodness of all the other parties involved. Utilitarianism is a consequentialist moral theory that focuses on maximum good or pleasure for all other parties, the highest number of persons and the good of oneself (Kahane et al. 199). Therefore, with the utilitarian, the best decision is the one that will yield maximum benefit to a more significant number of individuals.

An ethical egoist would use an entirely different approach to resolving such a dilemma. The difference here comes in because an egoist will make decisions that are driven towards maximums good for one’s self. Therefore, in the case of bribery and corruption, an egoist will choose to accept the bribe and do whatever they are asked to do In return because this will benefit them regardless of the harm it causes to other people or other stakeholders in a corporation. Egoism is the most selfish way of making decisions on ethical dilemmas, and its primary focus is maximum self-benefit and fulfilment of self-interests (Overall 121). Although, to some degree, everyone happens to favour their interests with egoism this selfish interest is extreme and exceeds what would be considered reasonable or human nature. My recommendation to the clients was the utilitarian approach, and the instructor seconded on the choice.

Consequentialism Moral Theory

The consequentialism theory is the best choice for such an ethical dilemma. The theory deals with ethical action and is used in deciding on the best action to take when it comes to making s choice on the right ethical act (Yazdani et al. 408). Consequentialism can take different forms or approaches, such as utilitarianism and egoism, depending on its application as well as the desired outcome. In the case of the client’s incidents, the desired result is justice and the overall good of all stakeholders, and that’s why the utilitarianism approach is the most suitable for resolving the moral dilemma. A consequentialist examines the cost and benefits of the actions and matches the results to the desired outcome. Moreover, the theory examines each act on an individual basis and determines what the right act is that will yield the most significant number of consequences that are in line with the desired outcome.


Most of the times individuals encounter ethical dilemmas, but they fail to notice them. As a result, they tend to make rush decisions without examining the situation at hand in depth to make the most appropriate choice. Further, it is essential to understand that the suitability of an approach to an ethical dilemma is contingent to the situation or context of an issue; this is why there is no general rule on how to resolve ethical dilemmas. Therefore, when an ethical issue arises such as the ones reported by clients in the non-profit international think tank the most suitable theory should be applied in decision making and again it is advisable to avoid selfish decisions or making decisions based on self-interests. The internship had a great positive impact on my career.

Work Cited

Hoffman, W. Michael, Robert E. Frederick, and Mark S. Schwartz, eds. Business ethics: Readings and cases in corporate morality. John Wiley & Sons, 2014: 22-45.

Kahane, Guy, et al. “‘Utilitarian’judgments in sacrificial moral dilemmas do not reflect impartial concern for the greater good.” Cognition 134 (2015): 193-209.

Overall, Jeffrey. “Unethical behavior in organizations: empirical findings that challenge CSR and egoism theory.” Business Ethics: A European Review 25.2 (2016): 113-127.

Yazdani, Naveed, and Hasan S. Murad. “Toward an ethical theory of organizing.” Journal of Business Ethics 127.2 (2015): 399-417.

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